Browsing by Subject "rain forest"

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  • Lehtonen, J.T.; Mustonen, O.; Ramiarinjanahary, H.; Niemelä, J.; Rita, H. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001)
    We used logistic and Poisson regression models to determine factors of forest and landscape structure that influence the presence and abundance of rodent species in the rain forest of Ranomafana National Park in southeastern Madagascar. Rodents were collected using live-traps along a gradient of human disturbance. All five endemic rodent species (Nesomys rufus, N. audeberti, Eliurus tanala, E. minor and E. webbi) and the introduced rat Rattus rattus were captured in both secondary and primary forests, but the introduced Mus musculus was only trapped in secondary forest. The abundance of R. rattus increased with the level of habitat disturbance, and it was most common in the heavily logged secondary forest. Furthermore, the probability of the presence of R. rattus increased with decreasing distance from forest edge and decreasing canopy cover, while the probability of presence increased with increasing herbaceous cover, altitude and overstory tree height. The species was never observed farther than 500 m away from human habitation or camp-site. N. rufus prefered selectively-logged forest at altitudes above 900 m a.s.l. Its probability of presence increased with increasing canopy cover, herbaceous cover and distance from forest edge, and with decreasing density of fallen logs, overstory tree height and distance from human habitation. N. audeberti prefered heavily-logged areas, while E. tanala was the only species occurring along the entire range of forest disturbance. We suggest that in the Ranomafana National Park the spread of R. rattus is associated with deforestation.
  • Knuutila, Nina (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    This thesis studies the tree species’ juvenile diversity in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) based agroforestry and in primary forest in a natural conservation forest environment of Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Species’ adult composition in Lore Lindu National Park is relatively well studied, less is known about tree species’ diversity in seedling communities particularly in frequently disturbed cacao agroforestry field environment. Cacao production forms a potentially serious thread for maintaining the conservation areas pristine and forested in Sulawesi. The impacts of cacao production on natural environment are directly linked to the diversity and abundance of shade tree usage. The study aims at comparing differences between cacao agroforestry and natural forest in the surrounding area in their species composition in seedling and sapling size categories. The study was carried out in two parts. Biodiversity inventory of seedlings and saplings was combined with social survey with farmer interviews. Aim of the survey was to gain knowledge of the cacao fields, and farmers’ observations and choices regarding tree species associated with cacao. Data was collected in summer 2008. The assessment of the impact of environmental factors of solar radiation, weeding frequency, cacao tree planting density, distance to forest and distance to main park road, and type of habitat on seedling and sapling compositions was done with Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS). Outlier analysis was used to assess distorting variables for NMS, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) analysis to differentiate the impact of categorical variables. Sampling success was estimated with rarefaction curves and jackknife estimate of species richness. In the inventory 135 species of trees and shrubs were found. Only some agroforestry related species were dominating. The most species rich were sapling communities in forest habitat. NMS was showing generally low linear correlation between variation of species composition and environmental variables. Solar radiation was having most significance as explaining variable. The most clearly separated in ordination were cacao and forest habitats. The results of seedling and sapling inventory were only partly coinciding with farmers’ knowledge of the tree species occurring on their fields. More research with frequent assessment of seedling cohorts is needed due to natural variability of cohorts and high mortality rate of seedlings.