Browsing by Subject "rannikot"

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  • Herbert-Read, James E.; Thornton, Ann; Amon, Diva J.; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Côté, Isabelle M.; Dias, Maria P.; Godley, Brendan J.; Keith, Sally A.; McKinley, Emma; Peck, Lloyd S.; Calado, Ricardo; Defeo, Omar; Degraer, Steven; Johnston, Emma L.; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Macreadie, Peter I.; Metaxas, Anna; Muthumbi, Agnes W. N.; Obura, David O.; Paterson, David M.; Piola, Alberto R.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Schloss, Irene R.; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Stewart, Bryce D.; Thompson, Paul M.; Watson, Gordon J.; Worthington, Thomas A.; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Sutherland, William J. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Nature Ecology & Evolution
    The biodiversity of marine and coastal habitats is experiencing unprecedented change. While there are well-known drivers of these changes, such as overexploitation, climate change and pollution, there are also relatively unknown emerging issues that are poorly understood or recognized that have potentially positive or negative impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems. In this inaugural Marine and Coastal Horizon Scan, we brought together 30 scientists, policymakers and practitioners with transdisciplinary expertise in marine and coastal systems to identify new issues that are likely to have a significant impact on the functioning and conservation of marine and coastal biodiversity over the next 5–10 years. Based on a modified Delphi voting process, the final 15 issues presented were distilled from a list of 75 submitted by participants at the start of the process. These issues are grouped into three categories: ecosystem impacts, for example the impact of wildfires and the effect of poleward migration on equatorial biodiversity; resource exploitation, including an increase in the trade of fish swim bladders and increased exploitation of marine collagens; and new technologies, such as soft robotics and new biodegradable products. Our early identification of these issues and their potential impacts on marine and coastal biodiversity will support scientists, conservationists, resource managers and policymakers to address the challenges facing marine ecosystems.
  • Belinskij, A.; Gamarena Gómez, T.; Kostamo, K.; Lähteenmäki-Uutela, A.; Piiparinen, A.; Spilling, K. (Finnish Environment Institute, GRASS-hanke, 2021)
    GRASS Policy Brief 2
  • Virtanen, E.A.; Lappalainen, J.; Nurmi, M.; Viitasalo, M.; Tikanmäki, M.; Heinonen, J.; Atlaskin, E.; Kallasvuo, M.; Tikkanen, H.; Moilanen, A. (Elsevier Science, 2022)
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
    The global demand for renewable energy is on the rise. Expansion of onshore wind energy is in many parts of the world limited by societal acceptance, and also ecological impacts are a concern. Here, pragmatic methods are developed for the integration of high-dimensional spatial data in offshore wind energy planning. Over 150 spatial data layers are created, which either oppose or support offshore wind energy development, and represent ecological, societal, and economic factors. The method is tested in Finland, where interest in developing offshore wind energy is growing. Analyses were done using a spatial prioritization approach, originally developed for the prioritization of high-dimensional ecological data, and rarely used in planning offshore wind energy. When all criteria are integrated, it is possible to find a balanced solution where offshore wind farms cause little disturbance to biodiversity and society, while at the same time yielding high profitability for wind energy production. Earlier proposed areas for offshore wind farms were also evaluated. They were generally well suited for wind power, with the exception of a couple of areas with comparatively high environmental impacts. As an outcome, new areas well suited for large scale wind power deployment were recognized, where construction costs would be moderate and disturbance to biodiversity, marine industries and people limited. A novel tradeoff visualization method was also developed for the conflicts and synergies of offshore energy deployment, which could ease the dialogue between different stakeholders in a spatial planning context. Overall, this study provides a generic and transparent approach for well-informed analysis of offshore wind energy development potential when conflict resolution between biodiversity, societal factors and economic profits is needed. The proposed approach is replicable elsewhere in the world. It is also structurally suitable for the planning of impact avoidance and conflict resolution in the context of other forms of construction or resource extraction.
  • Laurila, Leena; Kalliola, Risto (Miljöministeriet, 2008)
    Miljöministeriets rapporter 3sv/2008
    Av hela strandlinjen längs havskusten och kring öarna är i genomsnitt 41 % sluten. Det vill säga att de byggnader med gårdsplaner, som finns i närheten av stranden sluter stranden från övrig användning. Om man utesluter från kalkylerna öar som utgör mindre än 1 ha och därmed i praktiken inte lämpar sig för byggande, blir slutenhetsgraden för strandlinjen på fastlandet och på öar som är större än 1 ha 48 %. Därmed är slutenhetsgraden i 22 kommuner 60 % eller högre och i 6 av dessa kommuner 70 % eller högre. Den här rapporten behandlar mängden slutna stränder och fria stränder och deras läge, samt kvaliteten, tillgängligheten och sammanhängandet hos fria stränder.
  • Coppock, Rachel L.; Lindeque, Penelope K.; Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S.; Nakki, Pinja; Birgani, Hannah; Richards, Saskiya; Queirós, Ana M. (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 415: 125583
    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the marine environment, however, the mechanisms governing their uptake by, and burial within, seabed habitats are poorly understood. In this study, microplastic burial and its impact on fauna-mediated sedimentary processes was quantified at three coastal sites, and the potential contribution of burrowing faunal communities to this process assessed via functional trait diversity analysis of field data. In addition, laboratory exposures were used to assess whether sediment-processing undertaken by the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, a key species in the sampled area, could explain the burial of microplastic fibres. Field observations confirmed broad-scale burial of microplastics across the coastal seabed, consistent across sites and seasons, with microplastic sequestration linked to benthic-pelagic exchange pathways, driven by burrowing fauna. Brittlestars were observed to bury and line their burrow walls with microfibres during experiments, and their burial activity was also modified following exposure to nylon fibres, relative to controls. Collectively, these results indicate that biodiverse and functionally important seabed habitats act as microplastic sinks, with burrowing fauna contributing to this process via well-known benthic-pelagic pathways, the rates of which are modified by plastic exposure.
  • Korpinen, Samuli; Laamanen, Leena; Bergström, Lena; Nurmi, Marco; Andersen, Jesper H.; Haapaniemi, Juuso; Harvey, E. Therese; Murray, Ciaran J.; Peterlin, Monika; Kallenbach, Emilie; Klančnik, Katja; Stein, Ulf; Tunesi, Leonardo; Vaughan, David; Reker, Johnny (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Ambio 50 (2021), 1325–1336
    Marine ecosystems are under high demand for human use, giving concerns about how pressures from human activities may affect their structure, function, and status. In Europe, recent developments in mapping of marine habitats and human activities now enable a coherent spatial evaluation of potential combined effects of human activities. Results indicate that combined effects from multiple human pressures are spread to 96% of the European marine area, and more specifically that combined effects from physical disturbance are spread to 86% of the coastal area and 46% of the shelf area. We compare our approach with corresponding assessments at other spatial scales and validate our results with European-scale status assessments for coastal waters. Uncertainties and development points are identified. Still, the results suggest that Europe’s seas are widely disturbed, indicating potential discrepancy between ambitions for Blue Growth and the objective of achieving good environmental status within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
  • Hietala, Reija; Ijäs, Asko; Pikner, Tarmo; Kull, Anne; Printsmann, Anu; Kuusik, Maila; Fagerholm, Nora; Vihervaara, Petteri; Nordström, Paulina; Kostamo, Kirsi (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 25 (2021), 47
    The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea interface. There is a need to develop the ICZM approach throughout Europe to realise the potential for both socio-economic and environmental targets set by the EU and national legislations. In this study, we co-developed different approaches for land-sea interactions in four case areas in Estonia and Finland based on the defined characteristics and key interests derived from local or regional challenges by integrating spatial data on human activities and ecology. Furthermore, four ICZM drafts were co-evaluated by stakeholders and the public using online map-based assessment tools (public participatory GIS). The ICZM approaches of the Estonian cases ranged from the diversification of land use to the enhancement of community-based entrepreneurship. The Finnish cases aimed to define the trends for sustainable marine and coastal tourism and introduce the ecosystem service concept in land use planning. During the project activities, we found that increased communication and exchange of local and regional views and values on the prevailing land-sea interactions were important for the entire process. Thereafter, the ICZM plans were applied to the MSP processes nationally, and they support the sustainable development of coastal areas in Estonia and Finland.
  • Kostamo, Kirsi; Pekkonen, Minna; Ahlroth, Petri; Heikkinen, Risto; Kallasvuo, Meri; Kuningas, Sanna; Laamanen, Leena; Lappalainen, Antti; Veneranta, Lari (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2018)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 24/2018
    Tarve turvata biologista monimuotoisuutta eli biodiversiteettiä on maailmanlaajuisesti suuri. Itämeren luonnon tilan heikentyminen johtuu ihmisen toiminnasta merellä, rannikolla ja Itämeren valuma-alueella. Mereiset luonnonsuojelualueet ovat keskeinen keino meriluonnon taantumisen pysäyttämisessä. Suojelualueilla turvataan sekä erilaisia vedenalaisia elinympäristöjä muodostavia avainlajeja että näitä elinympäristöjä elinkierrossaan hyödyntäviä muita lajeja. Luonnon monimuotoisuuden nopeaa heikkenemistä ei kuitenkaan voida pysäyttää yksinomaan perinteisten luonnonsuojelumenetelmien, kuten luonnonsuojelualueverkoston kehittämisen ja lajien tai luontotyyppien suojelun, avulla. Ekologinen kompensaatio on yksi niistä keinoista, joka voisi tuoda lisäkeinoja luonnon monimuotoisuuden turvaamiseen perinteisten suojelukeinojen rinnalle. Ekologisella kompensaatiolla tarkoitetaan menettelyä, jossa ihmistoiminnasta aiheutuva haitta luonnon monimuotoisuudelle hyvitetään turvaamalla vähintään yhtä paljon monimuotoisuutta toisaalla. Menettelyn tavoite on tuottaa hyötyä ekosysteemeille ja ylläpitää niiden tarjoamia keskeisiä ekosysteemipalveluita tilanteissa, joissa ihmistoiminta aiheuttaa luonnonympäristön heikentymistä. Hyvityksien tuottamien ekologisten hyötyjen tulisi olla selkeästi mitattavissa ja luonteeltaan pysyviä. Aiheutetun heikennyksen ja kompensaationa tuotettavan hyvityksen suuruusluokkaa ja vaikutusta tulisi arvioida nimenomaan ekologisilla mittareilla, mikä erottaa ekologiset kompensaatiot esimerkiksi hiili- ja ravinnekompensaatioista. Meriekosysteemien toimintaan ja lajistoon kohdistuvat kompensaatiot ovat haasteellisempia toteuttaa kuin kompensaatiot maaympäristössä. Tämä johtuu siitä, että meriekosysteemit ovat dynaamisesti ja kolmiulotteisesti kytkeytyneitä ekologisia kokonaisuuksia, joita luonnehtii voimakas paikkaan ja aikaan liittyvä biologisten komponenttien ja meriympäristön välinen vuorovaikutus. Tässä raportissa esitellään sekä valuma-alueella että rannikolla ja merellä mahdollisesti käyttökelpoisia periaatteita ja toimenpiteitä kompensaatioiden suunnitteluun ja toteutukseen. Valuma-alueella suoritettavia toimenpiteitä esitellään siksi, että ne voivat muodostaa yhdessä merialueella toteutettavien toimenpiteiden kanssa kokonaisuuden, jonka vaikutukset ylittävät yksinomaan merellä toteutettavien toimenpiteiden vaikutukset pureutuessaan tärkeimmän vedenalaisen luonnon monimuotoisuuden uhkatekijän, rehevöitymisen, paikallisiin vaikutuksiin erityisesti rannikon matalissa ja suojaisissa sisälahdissa. Tämän jälkeen esitellään rannikolla ja merenlahdissa, avoimemmilla hiekkapohjilla, sekä kalliorannoilla mahdollisesti käyttökelpoisia toimenpiteitä, jotka voisivat soveltua osaksi ekologiseen kompensaatiosuunnitteluun. Lopuksi kuvataan lyhyesti esimerkkejä yksittäisiin lajeihin kohdistuvista kompensaatiomahdollisuuksia. Useimpia raportissa kuvattuja toimenpiteitä voidaan tapauksesta riippuen hyödyntää myös ihmistoiminnan aiheuttamien ekologisten haittojen tai heikennysten vähentämiseksi tai lieventämiseksi. Suunnittelussa on suositeltavaa noudattaa lievennyshierarkiaa ja erottaa selkeästi mitkä toimenpiteet ovat lieventämistä ja mitkä jäljelle jäävien vaikutusten kompensaatio. Olennaista on, että mikäli päädytään esimerkiksi ennallistamaan elinympäristöjä poistamalla kasvillisuutta tai ruoppaamalla merenpohjaa, toimenpiteiden suunnitteluun, toteutukseen ja niiden vaikutusten seurantaan nimenomaan kompensaatioina on kiinnitetty huomiota.
  • Ikonen, Iiro; Hagelberg, Eija (Lounais-Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristö 9/2008
    Lounais-Suomen ympäristökeskuksen vetämän Interreg IIIA ”Ruovikkostrategia Suomessa ja Virossa” –projektin tavoitteena oli löytää tasapainostrategia ruovikoiden hyödyntämisen, säilyttämisen ja merenrantaniityiksi peruskunnostamisen välillä pilottialueilla. Etelä-Suomen yleissuunnittelun pilottialueet olivat Halikonlahti (Salon ja Halikon alueella) ja Turun kaupunki. Rannikkoalueidemme ruovikot ovat lisääntynyt voimakkaasti viime vuosikymmeninä. Etelä-Suomen rannikko-alueen noin 30 000 hehtaarista (ei sisävesiä) arviolta 12 500 hehtaaria soveltuisi hyödynnettäväksi bioenergiaksi ja rakennuskäyttöön ja 7500 hehtaaria tulisi peruskunnostaa merenrantaniityiksi. Ruovikoiden hyödyntäminen hyvin suunniteltuna edistää luonnon monimuotoisuutta, vesiensuojelua, ilmansuojelua ja alueiden virkistyskäyttömahdollisuuksia. Tämän tilanteen saavuttaminen on ruovikkostrategian keskeinen päämäärä. Pilottialueilla käytettyä yleissuunnittelumallia tulisi kopioida laajemmin Etelä-Suomen rannikkoalueille samalla käynnistäen ruovikoiden korjuuketjuja. Lisäksi korjuumenetelmiä tulee samanaikaisesti vielä kehittää ja verkostoitumista lisätä. Onnistuneiden korjuuketjujen ja hyödyntämisen tuloksena voitaisiin soveltuvilla korjuuketjualueilla ottaa käyttöön uusi kansallinen rahoituskeino: ruovikon korjuutuki. Arvokkaimpien alueiden hoidon vaikutusten seurantaa tulee kehittää. Julkaisussa on esitetty Etelä-Suomen osalta toimenpideohjelma, joka toteutuessaan voisi vaikuttaa merkittävästi rantojemme ja merenlahtiemme tilaan.
  • Pitkänen, Heikki (National Board of Waters and the Environment, 1994)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 18
    Suomen rannikkovesien rehevöityminen: jokivesien tuomien ravinteiden alkuperä, käyttäytyminen ja vaikutukset.
  • Hanhijärvi, Johanna; Yliskylä-Peuralahti, Johanna (Miljöministeriet, 2006)
    Miljön i Finland 10sv/2006
    Bedömningsdelen i Finlands kuststrategi har utarbetats i enlighet med EU:s rekommendation om kustområden som en bakgrundsutredning till strategin. Bedömningsdelen behandlar de finländska kustområdenas tillstånd och deras viktigaste aktörer samt styrmedel för förvaltning av kustområden i ljuset av de i rekommendationen presenterade principerna och det strategiska betraktelsesättet. Utmaningar för en hållbar användning av kustområden är bland annat den ökade användningen av kustområdet, försämringen i miljöns tillstånd, de minskande möjligheterna till näringsutövande, olycksriskerna från den ökande trafiken samt förebyggandet av klimatförändringens effekter. En hållbar kustområdesförvaltning försvåras av motstridiga administrativa mål, aktörernas olika intressen, många olika tillvägagångssätt och bristen på information. Även om det finns bra enstaka styrmedel, måste man utveckla instrument som gör det möjligt att betrakta kustområdet som en enhetlig helhet. Det behövs en integrerande och övergripande synvinkel för att utveckla kustområdets livskraft och bevara dess mångfald.
  • Laine, Anna M.; Lindholm, Tapio; Nilsson, Mats; Kutznetsov, Oleg; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2021)
    Journal of Ecology 109, 4 (2021), 1774–1789
    1. Most of the carbon accumulated into peatlands is derived from Sphagnum mosses. During peatland development, the relative share of vascular plants and Sphagnum mosses in the plant community changes, which impacts ecosystem functions. Little is known on the successional development of functional plant traits or functional diversity in peatlands, although this could be a key for understanding the mechanisms behind peatland resistance to climate change. Here we aim to assess how functionality of successive plant communities change along the autogenic peatland development and the associated environmental gradients, namely peat thickness and pH, and to determine whether trait trade-offs during peatland succession are analogous between vascular plant and moss communities. 2. We collected plant community and trait data on successional peatland gradients from post-glacial rebound areas in coastal Finland, Sweden and Russia, altogether from 47 peatlands. This allowed us to analyse the changes in community-weighted mean trait values and functional diversity (diversity of traits) during peatland development. 3. Our results show comparative trait trade-offs from acquisitive species to conservative species in both vascular plant and Sphagnum moss communities during peatland development. However, mosses had higher resistance to environmental change than vascular plant communities. This was seen in the larger proportion of intraspecific trait variation than species turnover in moss traits, while the proportions were opposite for vascular plants. Similarly, the functional diversity of Sphagnum communities increased during the peatland development, while the opposite occurred for vascular plants. Most of the measured traits showed a phylogenetic signal. More so, the species common to old successional stages, namely Ericacae and Sphagna from subgroup Acutifolia were detected as most similar to their phylogenetic neighbours. 4. Synthesis. During peatland development, vegetation succession leads to the dominance of conservative plant species accustomed to high stress. At the same time, the autogenic succession and ecological engineering of Sphagna leads to higher functional diversity and intraspecific variability, which together indicate higher resistance towards environmental perturbations.
  • Karlson, Bengt; Andersen, Per; Arneborg, Lars; Cembella, Allan; Eikrem, Wenche; John, Uwe; West, Jennifer Joy; Klemm, Kerstin; Kobos, Justyna; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Lundholm, Nina; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Naustvoll, Lars; Poelman, Marnix; Provoost, Pieter; De Rijcke, Maarten; Suikkanen, Sanna (Elsevier, 2021)
    Harmful Algae 102 (2021), 101989
    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are recurrent phenomena in northern Europe along the coasts of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat-Skagerrak, eastern North Sea, Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. These HABs have caused occasional massive losses for the aquaculture industry and have chronically affected socioeconomic interests in several ways. This status review gives an overview of historical HAB events and summarises reports to the Harmful Algae Event Database from 1986 to the end of year 2019 and observations made in long term monitoring programmes of potentially harmful phytoplankton and of phycotoxins in bivalve shellfish. Major HAB taxa causing fish mortalities in the region include blooms of the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina leadbeateri in northern Norway in 1991 and 2019, resulting in huge economic losses for fish farmers. A bloom of the prymesiophyte Prymnesium polylepis (syn. Chrysochromulina polylepis) in the Kattegat-Skagerrak in 1988 was ecosystem disruptive. Blooms of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis spp. have caused accumulations of foam on beaches in the southwestern North Sea and Wadden Sea coasts and shellfish mortality has been linked to their occurrence. Mortality of shellfish linked to HAB events has been observed in estuarine waters associated with influx of water from the southern North Sea. The first bloom of the dictyochophyte genus Pseudochattonella was observed in 1998, and since then such blooms have been observed in high cell densities in spring causing fish mortalities some years. Dinoflagellates, primarily Dinophysis spp., intermittently yield concentrations of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DST) in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, above regulatory limits along the coasts of Norway, Denmark and the Swedish west coast. On average, DST levels in shellfish have decreased along the Swedish and Norwegian Skagerrak coasts since approximately 2006, coinciding with a decrease in the cell abundance of D. acuta. Among dinoflagellates, Alexandrium species are the major source of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) in the region. PST concentrations above regulatory levels were rare in the Skagerrak-Kattegat during the three decadal review period, but frequent and often abundant findings of Alexandrium resting cysts in surface sediments indicate a high potential risk for blooms. PST levels often above regulatory limits along the west coast of Norway are associated with A. catenella (ribotype Group 1) as the main toxin producer. Other Alexandrium species, such as A. ostenfeldii and A. minutum, are capable of producing PST among some populations but are usually not associated with PSP events in the region. The cell abundance of A. pseudogonyaulax, a producer of the ichthyotoxin goniodomin (GD), has increased in the Skagerrak-Kattegat since 2010, and may constitute an emerging threat. The dinoflagellate Azadinium spp. have been unequivocally linked to the presence of azaspiracid toxins (AZT) responsible for Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) in northern Europe. These toxins were detected in bivalve shellfish at concentrations above regulatory limits for the first time in Norway in blue mussels in 2005 and in Sweden in blue mussels and oysters (Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas) in 2018. Certain members of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce the neurotoxin domoic acid and analogs known as Amnesic Shellfish Toxins (AST). Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia were common in the North Sea and the Skagerrak-Kattegat, but levels of AST in bivalve shellfish were rarely above regulatory limits during the review period. Summer cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea are a concern mainly for tourism by causing massive fouling of bathing water and beaches. Some of the cyanobacteria produce toxins, e.g. Nodularia spumigena, producer of nodularin, which may be a human health problem and cause occasional dog mortalities. Coastal and shelf sea regions in northern Europe provide a key supply of seafood, socioeconomic well-being and ecosystem services. Increasing anthropogenic influence and climate change create environmental stressors causing shifts in the biogeography and intensity of HABs. Continued monitoring of HAB and phycotoxins and the operation of historical databases such as HAEDAT provide not only an ongoing status report but also provide a way to interpret causes and mechanisms of HABs.
  • Goncalves-Araujo, Rafael; Roettgers, Ruediger; Haraguchi, Lumi; Brandini, Frederico Pereira (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019)
    Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 716
    The South Brazilian Bight (SBB) is a hydrographically dynamic environment with strong seasonality that sustains a diverse planktonic community involved in diverse biogeochemical processes. The inherent optical properties (IOPs; e.g., absorption and scattering coefficients) of optically actives constituents of water (OACs; phytoplankton, non-algal particles–NAP, and colored dissolved organic matter–CDOM) have been widely employed to retrieve information on biogeochemical parameters in the water. In this study conducted in the SBB, a cross-shelf transect was performed for biogeochemistry and hydrographic sampling during a summer expedition. Our research aimed to determine the distribution and amount of the OACs based on their spectral signature, in relation to the distribution of water masses in the region. That allows us to get insights into the biogeochemical processes within each water mass and in the boundaries between them. We observed a strong intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) over the shelf, mainly driven by the wind action. With that, phytoplankton development was fueled by the input of nutrients, and increased chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations were observed within the shallowest stations. Colored dissolved organic matter did not follow the distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Both CDOM and DOC presented high values at the low salinity Coastal Water (CW), as an indication of the continental influence over the shelf. However, CDOM was inversely correlated with salinity and lowest values were observed within Tropical Water (TW), whereas DOC values within TW were as high as within CW, indicating an autochthonous DOM source. Additionally, a deep Chl-a maximum (DCM) was noticed in the boundary between the TW and SACW. Along with the DCM, we observed the production of fresh, non-colored DOM attributed to the microbial community. Finally, our results suggest that CDOM is photodegraded at the surface of CW. This is mainly due to the Ekman transport effect over the region that traps CW at the surface, making it longer exposed to solar radiation.
  • Hanhijärvi, Johanna (Miljöministeriet, 2006)
    Miljön i Finland 15sv/2006
    Med den ökade användningen av kustområdena ökar också behovet av att sköta om kustmiljöns tillstånd och bevara naturens mångfald. Utmaningar ställs också av förberedningen för klimatförändringens effekter och de risker som den ökade sjötrafiken medför. Med den nationella kuststrategin strävar man efter att stärka kustområdets livskraft, motarbeta försämring av dess tillstånd och förbereda sig för de värsta hoten och olyckorna. Kuststrategin lyfter fram kustområdet som en särpräglad och mångformig helhet som består av vatten- och landområden och vars hållbara förvaltning förutsätter följdriktighet och koordinering av åtgärder.
  • Raateoja, Mika; Kauppila, Pirkko (Springer Nature, 2019)
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
    A long-term trophic development of three geographical transects—including a river mouth, an estuary, and an archipelago—were studied in the southern Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Each transect was studied to clarify how far off the coast the land-based nutrient sources (catchment factor, CF) had a decisive role in shaping the wintertime regimes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved inorganic phosphorus and where the marine processes (marine factor, MF) start to play a major role. Generally, CF controlled the nutrient regime from the coast to the outer brink of the inner coastal area, after which MF started to dominate. The estuaries exhibited steep vertical nutrient gradients, above which the riverine input dominated the nutrient regime. The extent of the area where CF dominated the nutrient regime was therefore decisively dependent on estuarine stratification, i.e., whether the conclusions were drawn based on the surface layer data, including the riverine impact, or on the data beneath that layer, including the marine impact. This result deviates from the current consensus that the trophic regime of the sea is most directly assessed by the surface layer nutrient content. The estuarine nutrient regime is unrepresentative to that of a typical coastal water body due to the strong land-based impact on the estuary. Therefore, any generalization of the trophic condition of an estuary to represent areas farther off the coast should be done cautiously. The estuaries should also be defined as belonging to transitional waters according to the typology related to European Marine Legislation.
  • Ryttäri, Terhi; Heiskala, Katri; Kekäläinen, Hannele; Koskela, Kasper; von Numers, Mikael; Rinkineva-Kantola, Leena; Syrjänen, Kimmo (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2014)
    Hiekkarannat ja dyynit ovat lajirikkaita elinympäristöjä. Niillä elää lukuisia joukko kovakuoriaisia, luteita, perhosia, hämähäkkieläimiä, kasveja ja lintuja. Monet lajeista ovat nykyisin uhanalaisia. Hiekkarantoja, dyynejä ja niillä eläviä eliöitä uhkaavat muiden muassa Itämeren rehevöityminen, joka näkyy rannoilla levän kertymisenä ja umpeenkasvuna. Myös rakentaminen ja virkistyskäytöstä johtuva kuluminen heikentävät hiekkarantojen lajien elinmahdollisuuksia. Vieraslaji kurtturuusu leviää myös kovaa vauhtia etenkin Suomenlahden rannikolla. Tässä oppaassa kerrotaan hiekkarantojen ja dyynien monimuotoisesta elämästä. Itämeren tilan parantaminen on ensisijaista rantojen eliölajiston hyvinvoinnin kannalta. Meren elpyminen on kuitenkin hidasta ja sitä odotellessa meistä jokainen voi auttaa rantojen erikoistunutta eliölajistoa pienilläkin teoilla.
  • Hanhijärvi, Johanna (Ympäristöministeriö, 2006)
    Suomen ympäristö 15/2006
    Rannikkoalueiden käytön lisääntyessä kasvaa myös tarve huolehtia rannikkoympäristön tilasta ja luonnon monimuotoisuuden säilyttämisestä. Haasteena ovat myös varautuminen ilmastomuutoksen vaikutuksiin sekä lisääntyvän meriliikenteen aiheuttamiin riskeihin. Kansallisen rannikkostrategian avulla tavoitellaan rannikkoalueen elinvoimaisuutta, torjutaan sen tilan heikkenemistä ja varaudutaan pahimpiin uhkiin ja onnettomuuksiin. Rannikko-strategia nostaa esiin rannikkoalueen erityislaatuisena vesi- ja maa-alueiden muodostamana kokonaisuutena, jonka kestävä käyttö ja hoito edellyttävät johdonmukaisuutta ja toimien yhteensovittamista.
  • Sainio, Erika; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Setälä, Outi (Macmillan, 2021)
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 172 (2021), 112814
    Microplastic (MP) ingestion by four species of small coastal fish from the northern Baltic Sea was investigated. The digestive tract contents of 424 specimens, caught across eight sampling sites along the Finnish coastline were analysed for the occurrence of MP ingestion. MP were found in 38 fish individuals (9% of sampled fish). Specimens from the urban area of Helsinki displayed the highest prevalence of ingested plastics (27.5%). No relationship was found between the size or species of the fish and the presence of ingested MP particles nor the amount of MP in seawater. The comparison to a previous study conducted using the same research methods indicates that the ingestion of MP is more common in coastal fish than in offshore fish in the northern Baltic Sea.
  • Campbell, Karley; Matero, Ilkka; Bellas, Christopher; Turpin-Jelfs, Thomas; Anhaus, Philipp; Graeve, Martin; Fripiat, Francois; Tranter, Martyn; Landy, Jack Christopher; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Leu, Eva; Katlein, Christian; Mundy, C. J; Rysgaard, Søren; Tedesco, Letizia; Haas, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2022)
    Sea ice continues to decline across many regions of the Arctic, with remaining ice becoming increasingly younger and more dynamic. These changes alter the habitats of microbial life that live within the sea ice, which support healthy functioning of the marine ecosystem and provision of resources for human-consumption, in addition to influencing biogeochemical cycles (e.g. air–sea CO2 exchange). With the susceptibility of sea ice ecosystems to climate change, there is a pressing need to fill knowledge gaps surrounding sea ice habitats and their microbial communities. Of fundamental importance to this goal is the development of new methodologies that permit effective study of them. Based on outcomes from the DiatomARCTIC project, this paper integrates existing knowledge with case studies to provide insight on how to best document sea ice microbial communities, which contributes to the sustainable use and protection of Arctic marine and coastal ecosystems in a time of environmental change.