Browsing by Subject "rat"

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  • Littrell, John; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Baud, Amelie; Rastas, Pasi; Solberg-Woods, Leah; Flister, Michael J. (2018)
    An accurate and high-resolution genetic map is critical for mapping complex traits, yet the resolution of the current rat genetic map is far lower than human and mouse, and has not been updated since the original Jensen-Seaman map in 2004. For the first time, we have refined the rat genetic map to sub-centimorgan (cM) resolution (
  • Surin, Alexander M.; Khiroug, Serguei; Gorbacheva, Lubov R.; Khodorov, Boris I.; Pinelis, Vsevolod G.; Khiroug, Leonard (2013)
    ATP in neurons is commonly believed to be synthesized mostly by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation. Neuronal mitochondria have been studied primarily in culture, i.e., in neurons isolated either from embryos or from neonatal pups. Although it is generally assumed that both embryonic and postnatal cultured neurons derive their ATP from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, this has never been tested experimentally. We expressed the FRET-based ATP sensor AT1.03 in cultured hippocampal neurons isolated either from E17 to E18 rat embryos or from P1 to P2 rat pups and monitored [ATP]c simultaneously with mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm; TMRM) and NAD(P)H autofluorescence. In embryonic neurons, transient glucose deprivation induced a near-complete decrease in [ATP]c, which was partially reversible and was accelerated by inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose. In the absence of glucose, pyruvate did not cause any significant increase in [ATP]c in 84% of embryonic neurons, and inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthase with oligomycin failed to decrease [ATP]c. Moreover, ΔΨm was significantly reduced by oligomycin, indicating that mitochondria acted as consumers rather than producers of ATP in embryonic neurons. In sharp contrast, in postnatal neurons pyruvate added during glucose deprivation significantly increased [ATP]c (by 54 ± 8%), whereas oligomycin induced a sharp decline in [ATP]c and increased ΔΨm. These signs of oxidative phosphorylation were observed in all tested P1-P2 neurons. Measurement of ΔΨm with the potential-sensitive probe JC-1 revealed that neuronal mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced in embryonic cultures compared to the postnatal ones, possibly due to increased proton permeability of inner mitochondrial membrane. We conclude that, in embryonic, but not postnatal neuronal cultures, ATP synthesis is predominantly glycolytic and the oxidative phosphorylation-mediated synthesis of ATP by mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase is insignificant. © 2013 Surin, Khiroug, Gorbacheva, Khodorov, Pinelis and Khiroug.
  • Astikainen, Piia; Mällo, Tanel; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Naatanen, Risto (2014)
  • Voutilainen, Merja H.; De Lorenzo, Francesca; Stepanova, Polina; Bäck, Susanne; Pulkkila, Päivi; Pörsti, Eeva; Saarma, Mart; Männistö, Pekka T.; Tuominen, Raimo K. (2017)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and the accumulation of intracellular inclusions containing alpha-synuclein. Current therapies do not stop the progression of the disease, and the efficacy of these treatments wanes over time. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are naturally occurring proteins promoting the survival and differentiation of neurons and the maintenance of neuronal contacts. CDNF (cerebral dopamine NTF) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived NTF) are able to protect DAergic neurons against toxin-induced degeneration in experimental models of PD. Here, we report an additive neurorestorative effect of coadministration of CDNF and GDNF in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD in rats. NTFs were given into the striatum four weeks after unilateral intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA (20 mu g). Amphetamine-induced (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) rotational behavior was measured every two weeks. Number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells from SN pars compacta (SNpc) and density of TH-positive fibers in the striatum were analyzed at 12 weeks after lesion. CDNF and GDNF alone restored the DAergic function, and one specific dose combination had an additive effect: CDNF (2.5 mu g) and GDNF (1 mu g) coadministration led to a stronger trophic effect relative to either of the single treatments alone. The additive effect may indicate different mechanism of action for the NTFs. Indeed, both NTFs activated the survival promoting PI3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, but only CDNF decreased the expression level of tested endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress markers ATF6, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha subunit (eIF2 alpha).
  • Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Korpi, Esa R.; Aitta-aho, Teemu (2019)
    Extinction and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference were studied in glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor GluA1 subunit-deficient mice (global GluA1-KO mice). In line with previous findings, both acquisition and expression of conditioned place preference to morphine (20 mg/kg, subcutaneously) were fully functional in GluA1 KO mice compared with wild-type littermate controls (GluA1-WT), thus enabling the study of extinction. With a 10-session extinction paradigm, the GluA1 KO mice showed complete extinction similar to that of the GluA1-WT mice. Morphine-induced reinstatement (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) was detected in both mouse lines. GluA1 KO mice moved more during all the phases of the experiment, including the place conditioning trials, extinction sessions, and place preference tests. The results suggest that the GluA1 subunit may be dispensable or prone to compensation at the neural circuitries delineating extinction and reinstatement. The GluA1 KO mice show altered long-term between-session habituation, which extends longer than previously anticipated.
  • Zhurakovskaya, Ekaterina; Leikas, Juuso; Pirttimaki, Tiina; Mon, Francesc Casas; Gynther, Mikko; Aliev, Rubin; Rantamaki, Tomi; Tanila, Heikki; Forsberg, Markus M.; Gröhn, Olli; Paasonen, Jaakko; Jalkanen, Aaro J. (2019)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the gradual degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to striatal dopamine depletion. A partial unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion causes 40-60% dopamine depletion in the lesioned rat striatum, modeling the early stage of PD. In this study, we explored the connectivity between the brain regions in partially 6-OHDA lesioned male Wistar rats under urethane anesthesia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 5 weeks after the 6-OHDA infusion. Under urethane anesthesia, the brain fluctuates between the two states, resembling rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep states. We observed clear urethane-induced sleep-like states in 8/19 lesioned animals and 8/18 control animals. 6-OHDA lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower functional connectivity between the brain regions. However, we observed these differences only during the REM-like sleep state, suggesting the involvement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in REM sleep regulation. Corticocortical and corticostriatal connections were decreased in both hemispheres, reflecting the global effect of the lesion. Overall, this study describes a promising model to study PD-related sleep disorders in rats using fMRI.
    The exposure to amoxicillin has been associated with molar incisor hypomineralization. This study aimed to determine if amoxicillin disturbs the enamel mineralization in in vivo experiments. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly assigned into three groups to received daily phosphatase-buffered saline or amoxicillin as either 100 or 500 mg/kg. Mice received treatment from day 13 of pregnancy to day 40 postnatal. After birth, the offsprings from each litter continued to receive the same treatment according to their respective group. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content in the dental hard tissues were analyzed from 60 upper first molars and 60 upper incisors by the complexometric titration method and colorimetric analysis using a spectrophotometer at 680 nm, respectively. Lower incisors were analyzed by X-ray microtomography, it was measured the electron density of lingual and buccal enamel, and the enamel and dentin thickness. Differences in Ca and P content and electron density among the groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. There was no significant difference on enamel electron density and thickness among the groups (p > 0.05). However, in incisors, the higher dose of amoxicillin decreased markedly the electron density in some rats. There were no statistically significant differences in Ca (p = 0.180) or P content (p = 0.054), although the higher dose of amoxicillin could affect the enamel in some animals. The amoxicillin did not significantly alter the enamel mineralization and thickness in rats. © 2020
  • Tuomola, Karoliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Trichinella-suvun loiset ovat maailmanlaajuisesti levinneitä sukkulamatoja, jotka ovat infektiivisiä useille eläinlajeille ja tarttuvat myös ihmiseen. Loiset aiheuttavat ongelmia muun muassa lihateollisuudessa, haittaavat tuotantoeläinten terveyttä ja ovat elintarviketurvallisuusriski. Eri Trichinella-lajien infektiivisyys eri isäntäeläinlajeissa vaihtelee. Esimerkiksi Trichinella spiralis aiheuttaa rotassa voimakkaamman infektion kuin Trichinella nativa, mutta syytä loislajien erilaiseen infektiviteettiin samassa isäntäeläinlajissa ei tiedetä. Trichinella-loisten elämänkiertoon kuuluu sekä enteraali- eli suolistovaihe että parenteraalivaihe eli suoliston ulkopuolella tapahtuva vaihe. Vielä on epävarmaa, missä vaiheessa elämänkiertoa loislajien selviytyminen rotassa eroaa toisistaan. Tutkielmani kokeellisen osuuden tarkoituksena oli selvittää rotan ulosteita tutkimalla, kiinnittyykö toinen tutkituista Trichinella-lajeista (T. spiralis tai T. nativa) paremmin suolen seinämään ja tuleeko toinen nopeammin ulos suolesta. Mikäli rotan heikosti infektoivat T. nativa -loiset tulevat T. spiralis -loisia nopeammin ulosteen mukana ulos suolistosta, voidaan olettaa suolistovaiheen immuunipuolustuksen olevan ainakin osatekijä rotan kyvyssä puolustautua T. nativa –infektioita vastaan. Työ suoritettiin infektoimalla kuusi rottaa T. spiralis -loisella ja kuusi rottaa T. nativa -loisella. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa oli mukana kolme kontrollirottaa, joita ei infektoitu. Rottien ulosteet kerättiin seitsemän viikon ajalta, ja näytteet tutkittiin FLOTAC-menetelmällä. Ulosteista etsittiin Trichinella-loisten aikuis- ja toukkamuotoja. Ulostenäytteistä ei löytynyt yhtään loista. Kokeen jälkeen rotat lopetettiin ja niiden suolet tutkittiin, mutta suolistakaan ei löytynyt loisia. Lopetettujen eläinten lihasnäytteitä tutkimalla eläinten todettiin infektoituneen kyseessä olleelle loislajille tyypillisellä voimakkuudella. Kontrollirotista ei löydetty loisia. Koska rottien ulosteista tai suolista ei löytynyt loisia huolimatta onnistuneista infektoinneista, voidaan todeta käytetyn menetelmän olleen kokeeseen sopimaton. Mikäli loisia olisi löytynyt ulosteista, olisi ollut tarpeellista verrata eri lajeilla infektoitujen ryhmien tuloksia. Tieto siitä, tapahtuuko rotan suolistossa jotain, mikä heikentää toisen Trichinella-lajin infektiivisyyttä, olisi ollut merkittävä. Saadut tulokset olisivat olleet hyödyksi pohdittaessa parempia keinoja Trichinella-tartuntojen ennaltaehkäisyyn ja infektioiden hoitoon.