Browsing by Subject "reciprocity"

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  • Rantapuska, Elias; Freese, Riitta Irene; Jääskeläinen, Iiro; Hytönen, Kaisa (2017)
    We build on the social heuristics hypothesis, the literature on the glucose model of self-control, and recent challenges on these hypotheses to investigate whether individuals exhibit a change in degree of trust and reciprocation after consumption of a meal. We induce short-term manipulation of hunger followed by the trust game and a decision on whether to leave personal belongings in an unlocked and unsupervised room. Our results are inconclusive. While, we report hungry individuals trusting and reciprocating more than those who have just consumed a meal in a high trust society, we fail to reject the null with small number of observations (N = 101) and experimental sessions (N = 8). In addition, we find no evidence of short-term hunger having an impact on charitable giving or decisions in public good game.
  • Törrönen, Lea Maritta; Munn-Giddings, Carol; Gavriel, Chrissie; Morris, Demi (2018)
    How to ensure young adults are active partners in society is an issue across Europe. This issue has a particular relevance for young adults leaving the care system who may have been disadvantaged by their care experiences. Drawing on selected findings from the EU-funded study ‘Reciprocal Encounters – Young adults leaving care’ funded by European Union (2016–2018) we ask what supports and hinders meaningful participation in their communities? The study design was participatory action research involving young adults with leaving care experiences in question-setting, research design, ethical review, data generation, analysis or dissemination from both Finland and the UK. The data consists of 50 Finnish and 24 English peer interviews which were thematically analysed. The central message from the young adults was the importance they attributed to the meaning and continuity of social connections which support what we define as their ‘emotional participation’. To understand this concept and practice we draw on a theoretical discussion of reciprocity. A core similarity in both countries is that young adults long for stability in their relationships. Findings are presented along a spectrum describing experiences where young adults feel themselves emotionally connected to other persons and when there is more emotional distance. Different welfare practices shape these experiences, for example: the English services stressing child protection and the Finnish services stressing individualised-liberty practice. Both can strengthen or weaken emotional participation. We conclude by suggesting a move from individualistic practice towards community practice which has at its core the importance of supporting reciprocal relationships. KEYWORDS: Reciprocity, emotional participation, well-being, leaving care, participatory action research
  • Kokko, Marjut; Takala, Marjatta; Pihlaja, Päivi (2021)
    Co-teaching has become a well-known way of working among Finnish teachers in recent years. Teachers' collaboration is becoming increasingly important in light of the rising number of diverse students in regular classes. In an ideal co-teaching context, teachers collaborate as equals, recognise and respect each other's skills and competencies, and strengthen and support each other. In this study, we examine teachers' views on co-teaching and investigate which background factors explain teachers' views concerning the benefits and the challenges of co-teaching. The data obtained from Finnish basic education teachers' (N = 694) responses to an online questionnaire are analysed quantitatively. The results show some differences among the teachers' views. Subject teachers perceive more challenges in co-teaching than class and special education teachers. Class teachers perceive the fewest challenges. Although teachers are generally interested in co-teaching and some of them co-teach regularly, they also report several barriers to its application. The explanatory factors concerning the differences in teachers' views are gender, teachers' co-teaching experiences, the amount of co-teaching per week and working as a class teacher.
  • Külpmann, Katharina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In the past decades coaching as a human resource development tool has gained significant attention. In many countries around the world it is a flowering industry with many practitioners constantly entering the field, causing the amount intercultural coaching dyads to rise. The existing research corpus explores the coaching service from different angles, e.g. with regards to techniques or effectiveness. Most literature underscores the importance of the coach-coachee relationship; however, few studies transform this into an investigation topic. Even less attention is paid to this topic in an intercultural setting. This research shall consequently identify the aspects that act in the establishment of a coach-coachee relationship within a German-Mexican context. Furthermore, the influence of culture, especially national culture, will be examined. The thesis has three central aims. Firstly, this investigation shall enlarge the scarce research on the topic. Secondly, the data is examined from a modern cultural paradigm where culture is understood as a not self-evident or structured attribute, but a constructed creation between individuals. Thirdly, implications for practitioners in intercultural coaching shall be brought forwards. In accordance with the ontological understanding of human interaction and in line with the understanding of the concept of culture, the exploration of this thesis’s topic is done with the help of qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews with an interpretivist-constructivist thematic content analysis technique lead to meaningful results. As a core result, this research shows a large variety of relationship-building aspects in intercultural coaching which is due to a subjective assessment of the influence of culture on relationship, coaching and intercultural encounters. In this regards, a cultural lens was identified that has a predominantly positivistic, essentialist and static understanding of culture. Moreover, correlations between cultural understanding, the understanding of coaching and the depth of relationship are shown. All research participants further build and assess the coaching relationship with the help of multicollective, dynamic and interpersonal factors, indicating a modern cultural understanding, to co-create the reciprocal relationship and coaching culture. Practitioners may consequently want to courageously, and willingly, reconsider and ‘un-learn’ cultural concepts in order to avoid an overestimation of cultural influence in interactions, to meet the client’s needs and to live up to the diversification of culture.
  • Harkonen, Heidi (2019)
    Among low-income Havana residents, men frequently give money and other forms of material support to women in whom they have a romantic interest. For women, men's material contributions are expressions of responsibility and care. While men share this view to a degree, they sometimes have more ambiguous emotions regarding such practices. These tensions in different views of gendered reciprocity are influenced by large-scale changes that have taken place in Cuban society since the 1990s. Although, traditionally, state socialism has embraced ideas of gender egalitarianism and women's independent income, the post-Soviet period has seen the emergence of new inequalities, dependencies, and marginalizations that threaten earlier, socialist understandings of intimacy. The importance that women currently place on material wealth in terms of their views of a desirable partner highlights the gendered consequences of Cuba's contemporary economic transformations and their complex interplay with individuals' aspirations for love.
  • Hämäläinen, Hans-Mikael; Tanskanen, Antti Olavi; Danielsbacka, Mirkka Johanna Emilia; Arpino, Bruno (University Pompeu Fabra, 2018)
    RECSM Working Paper
  • Floyd, Simeon; Rossi, Giovanni; Baranova, Julija; Blythe, Joe; Dingemanse, Mark; Kendrick, Kobin H.; Zinken, Jörg; Enfield, N. J. (2018)
    Gratitude is argued to have evolved to motivate and maintain social reciprocity among people, and to be linked to a wide range of positive effects-social, psychological and even physical. But is socially reciprocal behaviour dependent on the expression of gratitude, for example by saying 'thank you in English? Current research has not included cross-cultural elements, and has tended to conflate gratitude as an emotion with gratitude as a linguistic practice, as might appear to be the case in English. Here, we ask to what extent people express gratitude in different societies by focusing on episodes of everyday life where someone seeks and obtains a good, service or support from another, comparing these episodes across eight languages from five continents. We find that expressions of gratitude in these episodes are remarkably rare, suggesting that social reciprocity in everyday life relies on tacit understandings of rights and duties surrounding mutual assistance and collaboration. At the same time, we also find minor cross-cultural variation, with slightly higher rates in Western European languages English and Italian, showing that universal tendencies of social reciprocity should not be equated with more culturally variable practices of expressing gratitude. Our study complements previous experimental and culture-specific research on gratitude with a systematic comparison of audiovisual corpora of naturally occurring social interaction from different cultures from around the world.