Browsing by Subject "reconstruction"

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  • Könönen, Anna (2006)
    This is a study of the process of returning. It examines how returnees rebuild homes and social networks in Prijedor area, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Social networks were lost because of the collapse of the former Yugoslavia, war, internal displacement and fleeing. Returning to the area of Prijedor began spontaneously, and was intensive especially during the years 2000 and 2001. The study is based on fieldwork in Prijedor (October-December 2001). The methods were participant observation, writing notes and a detailed field diary, and conducting interviews. This study searches answers to the questions why anyone wants to return to a place from where he and his family, relatives and friends were evicted, and to where they are still not wanted to return. In the discussion about what 'home' means for the returnees, the starting point is Karen Armstrong's argument about 'home' referring to both a place and to social relations. Furthermore, this study examines how the social network is rebuilt, and what are the elements that encourage or possibly discourage it. This discussion is based on Elisabeth Bott's and Jeremy Boissevain's theories of social networks, and additional theoretical discussion is included as the analysis proceeds. The study suggests that the social network is a vital element in survival strategies and in that way also central in the whole process of returning. The emphasis is that the study about social networks is essential especially in an unorganized state or society. It is argued that the environment, the psychological as well as the physical environment, has a vital function in building a social network. Therefore, the larger discourse in this thesis is how violence and nationalism are connected in daily life, and what would be possible actions that might prevent the rise of violent nationalism, in this case, ethnonationalism (Stanley Tambiah) and constitutional nationalism (Robert Hayden). The returnees encountered various obstacles, and even though international organizations and local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) gave irreplaceable assistance, many challenges were left to tackle. The legacy of Tito's socialism and the 'transition' also influenced the work of the organizations. The study shows that one of the discouraging elements was bureaucratic ethnic cleansing, a term introduced by Robert Hayden. He considers both bureaucratic ethnic cleansing and direct violence as consequences of the same logic in different social settings. The discussion of ethnicity and Joel Halpern's analysis of the cyclical sense of time in which 'decades past become yesterday' gave additional body to the theory of 'transferred burden' (siirtotaakka) introduced by Martti Siirala and Sirpa Kulonen. Cyclical sense of time, this study argues, enforces the transfer of the 'burden'. Hence, it is concluded that due to the cyclical sense of time combined with the legacy of 'transition' and the 'transferred burden', self-repetitive historical structures exist producing such internal as well as external forms that create a fertile ground for endemic and external interference of violent nature. The outcome is discouraging elements or even blocks in the process of building new networks as well as in the process of ensuring sustainable peace and well-being. By applying Victor Turner's theory of social drama to the cases of disturbances in social life, it is suggested that grass-root mediators would be trained. They would collect detailed feedback from all sides of the schism, process it, and share it as constructive feedback, for all parties again. It is also shown that it would be possible for the government – later on the people – to change some of the disintegrative features of its ethnic sentiment. Those would especially be the features of constitutional nationalism, state chauvinism and bureaucratic ethnic cleansing.
  • Kovacs, Gyongyi; Matopoulos, Aristides; Hayes, Odran (Taylor & Francis, 2010)
  • Mäkitie, Antti; Kamali, Alexander; Mroueh, Rayan; Lindford, Andrew; Koivunen, Petri; Autio, Timo; Lassus, Patrik; Halle, Martin; Bäck, Leif; Palmgren, Björn; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle (2020)
    Background and aims: Stage II cancer of the tongue is mostly managed surgically both locally and regionally. However, indications for postoperative radiotherapy and reconstructive options vary between centers. This paper aims to describe differences in treatment in a geographically homogenous cohort. Methods: A retrospective comparison was made between two cohorts of clinical T2N0 tongue cancer from Finland and Sweden. The Finnish cohort included 75 patients and the Swedish 54. All patients had curative intent of treatment and no previous head and neck cancer. Data analyzed consisted of pathological stage, size and thickness of tumor, frequency of reconstruction, radiotherapy delivered, and survival. Results: The Finnish cohort included a higher proportion of patients managed with reconstructive surgery (67%) than the Swedish cohort (0%), p <.00001. More patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (84%) in the Swedish cohort than in the Finnish (54%), p <.0002. The Finnish cohort had a higher level of survival and included more frequent downstaging (cTNM to pTNM).
  • Savolainen, M.; Ritvanen, A.; Hukki, J.; Vuola, P.; Telkka, J.; Leikola, J. (2017)
    Correction of calvarial defects after calvarial vault reconstruction (CVR) is challenging in craniosynostosis patients of advanced age and typically employs autologous bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a potential alternative material for autologous bone, but its use has not been extended to correct calvarial defects. CVR patients operated at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, during 2008-2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria of the study were CVR patients who received DBM plate, with or without bone dust, on calvarial defects and who had suitable uncovered defect on the contralateral side as control. This study included 17 craniosynostosis and one positional plagiocephaly patient, whose mean age was 6.9 years (range 0.9-19 years). The mean follow-up time was 5.6 years. The fusion degree of all defects was measured from 1 week to 1 year postoperatively using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) images by the OsiriX (R) method. Medical records were reviewed for DBM-related complications. A total of 26 defects were covered with a DBM plate (mean area 11.1 cm(2)) and 26 control defects were identified (mean area 7.8 cm2). The mean fusion degree of the DBM defects was 74% and 54% for the controls (p <0.001). The mean fusion degree of nine DBM defects that lacked bone dust deposition was 66% and 55% for the nine controls (p <0.059). The difference between the DBM and control defects was statistically significant for patients older than 30 months (p <0.03). No DBM-related complication was observed. DBM plate is a safe and useful material to promote ossification in calvarial defects in CVR. Furthermore, DBM appears to be more effective in older patients (> 30 months) than in younger patients or when used with bone dust. (C) 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Stratoulias, Vassilis; Michon, Frederic (2019)
    Recent advances in bioengineering and biomaterials, along with knowledge deriving from the fields of developmental biology and stem cell research, have rendered feasible functional replacement of full organs. Here, we describe the methodology for bioengineering a tooth, starting from embryonic epithelial and mesenchymal single cell suspensions. In addition, we describe the subsequent steps of processing this minute structure for use in applications such as histological examination, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridisation. This methodology can be used for any minute structure that needs to be used in paraffin blocks.•Detailed methodology for reproducible and reliable results•Extra step to ensure single cell populations•Subsequent minute structure processing for histological analysis
  • Wasmuth, Melanie (2019)
    The statue of Darius I found at Susa provides a striking example for petrifying an identity construction that is transient in nature. Darius I is simultaneously Persian Great King and Egyptian pharaoh. Usually, either one or the other aspect is put to the fore in the preserved media of presentation. Characteristically, the statue in its current headless state combines these identities and presents a new image, which follows neither regional tradition, but is understandable in either of the two (and beyond). As such, long-term and cross-cultural readability is explicitly ordered in the commission inscription on the statue, and this can be equally assumed for the missing head. Based on this hypothesis, I will reconsider the scope of potential reconstructions of the statue and, consequently, of the secondary context of erection at the gate building of the ‘palace of Darius’ at Susa.