Browsing by Subject "reform"

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  • Sama, Thomas Babila; Hiilamo, Heikki (2019)
    Aim:The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies used by the alcohol industry to influence the reform of the Alcohol Act in Finland during the preparation phase between 2016 and 2017. The study answers the following research question: what strategies were used by the alcohol industry to change the original purpose of the reform on alcohol in Finland?Method:Primary data were collected through 16 expert interviews with experts who had participated in the preparation of the alcohol reform in Finland, while secondary data were collected from prior literature, journal articles and Google databases.Results:The results identified three main political strategies used by the alcohol industry to influence the reform of the law on alcohol in Finland during the preparation phase between 2016 and 2017: ?information?, under which the alcohol industry lobbied politicians in Parliament through Members of Parliament of the National Coalition Party due to the close ties between the two; ?constituency building?, under which the alcohol industry formed alliances with interest groups in the grocery-retail business in Finland, to advocate for liberalisation of the law, as well as the use of social media ? specifically Twitter ? to lobby the public; and lastly, ?policy substitution? to promote self-regulation.Conclusions:The results suggest that the involvement of the alcohol industry in political decision-making following Finland?s EU membership has given the industry legitimacy and new opportunities to influence alcohol policy, while limiting policies to protect the public from alcohol-related harms. The results may be useful to alcohol policy-makers.
  • Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, Markus (2004)
    EU, som institution, lider av legitimitetsbrist bland sina medborgare som framgått ur bl.a. samhällsdebatten. Ändå har EU och de institutioner som representerar EU mycket uppgifter och ansvar som direkt berör medborgarna i medlemsländerna. Under de senaste åren har det kommit i offentligheten kommit fram fall som visat på tydligt missbruk av EU-medel vilket höjt på misstroedet mot institutionerna. I min avhandling försöker jag granska problemet ur den vinkeln om det att förvaltningen inte är organiserad enligt sådana arbetssätt man känner sig trygg med kan vara en av orsakerna till den låga legitimiteten. Syftet med avhandlingen är att granska vilka ledarskapskulturer det finns inom EU och att med hjälp av dessa granska vilka länders kulturer är starka inom EU-förvaltningen. Jag studerar förvaltningsreformen av den Europeiska kommissionen och presenterar vilka nya arbetssätt som införs och med vilka länders ledarskapskulturer de korrelerar. Jag granskar också hurdan typ av förvaltnigsreform reformen är och vad det kan bero på att den sker nu. Mitt empiriska material om ledarskapskulturer har jag fått från Hofstedes verk ”Cultures consequences: International differencies in work related values”. Jag använder mig av hans maktavstånds dimension och dimensionen om hantering av osäkerhet för att få fram de europeiska ledarskapskulturer. Med hjälp av den teori jag presenterar om förvaltningsreformer och EU-förvaltningen får jag svar på de frågor jag ställer. Det går klart och entydigt att säga att det inte finns någon gemensam europeisk ledarskpapskultur. Förvaltningen var fram till reformen helt organiserad och fungerade också enligt en sydeuropeisk kultur. I.o.m. reformen införs nya arbets- och förhållningssätt med målet att bilda en europeisk förvaltningskultur. Man har tagit med de bästa praxisarna från medlemsländerna. I reformprogrammet kan man utläsa en klar strävan att lämna de tidigare häftigt kritiserade arbetssättena bakom sig och lära sig nytt. En stor del av de nya arbettssättena går att finna i nordvästeturopeisk förvaltningskultur.
  • Ahtiainen, Raisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The educational reform, launched in Finland in 2008, concerns the implementation of the Special Education Strategy (Opetusministeriö 2007) under an improvement initiative called Kelpo. One of the main proposed alterations of the Strategy relates to the support system of comprehensive school pupils. The existed two-level model (general and special support) is to be altered by the new three-level model (general, intensified and special support). There are 233 municipalities involved nationwide in the Kelpo initiative, each of which has a municipal coordinator as a national delegate. The Centre for Educational Assessment [the Centre] at the University of Helsinki, led by Professor Jarkko Hautamäki, carries out the developmental assessment of the initiative's developmental process. As a part of that assessment the Centre interviewed 151 municipal coordinators in November 2008. This thesis considers the Kelpo initiative from Michael Fullan's change theory's aspect. The aim is to identify the change theoretical factors in the speech of the municipal coordinators interviewed by the Centre, and to constitute a view of what the crucial factors in the reform implementation process are. The appearance of the change theoretical factors, in the coordinators' speech, and the meaning of these appearances are being considered from the change process point of view. The Centre collected the data by interviewing the municipal coordinators (n=151) in small groups of 4-11 people. The interview method was based on Vesala and Rantanen's (2007) qualitative attitude survey method which was adapted and evolved for the Centre's developmental assessment by Hilasvuori. The method of the analysis was a qualitative theory-based content analysis, processed using the Atlas.ti software. The theoretical frame of reference was grounded on Fullan's change theory and the analysis was based on three change theoretical categories: implementation, cooperation and perspectives in the change process. The analysis of the interview data revealed spoken expressions in the coordinators' speech which were either positively or negatively related to the theoretical categories. On the grounds of these change theoretical relations the existence of the change process was observed. The crucial factors of reform implementation were found, and the conclusion is that the encounter of the new reform-based and already existing strategies in school produces interface challenges. These challenges are particularly confronted in the context of the implementation of the new three-level support model. The interface challenges are classified as follows: conceptual, method-based, action-based and belief-based challenges.
  • Puukka,Ilkka (2001)
    The objective of this study was the exercise of power and the politics related to it in the reform and change processes that have been carried out in a bureaucratic organization that belongs to the public administration. The study attempts to find out what happens when reforms deal with paradigrnatic models of activity that are related to bureaucratic procedures, and which factors activate resistance to change and in what conditions activity based on rational decision-making is maintained. This is a multiple-case study. The cases (4) dealt with the core functions and supportive functions of the Finnish Defense Forces. The basic material of the cases was formed out of notes the author had made on personal experiences; the notes have been supplemented with relevant document material. The cases took place between 1987 and 1999. Bureaucracy theory was used as the theoretical fl=ework, and on this basis the cases were analyzed from four different viewpoints: rational and incremental viewpoints and the viewpoints of power and interpretation. The cases showed that the better a reform can be justified with the help of the prevailing organization culture, the better the reform is accepted. Conceming the behavior of the actors, the study showed that officials, using various political and administrative channels, tend to try to break up decisions unfavorable to them. The institutional power exercised by the highest body of officials, allied with different interest groups, p-oved to be a strong opposing force to a minister exercising political power. The intertwining of rational strivings and bureaucratic politics meant that decisions in the change processes described by the cases began to tum into random outcomes of "various games". The organizations being studied acted strongly to interventions directed at their areas of operations. In all cases, an influential characteristic turned out to be interpretation and the incremental progression of changes. The cases can be seen to have shown that in refonns directed at the paradigrnatic models of activity in the defense administration a successful execution requires the ability and means to penetrate three paradigmatic walls that reject change. These walls are the wall of bureaucracy, the wall of military culture and the wall of professionalism. In the rational progression of the change process, a critical factor was found to be the top leadership's shared view of scenarios, visions and strategies as well as the principies of the management of change. The study showed that when reforins touch upon paradigrnatic models of activity related to bureaucratic procedures, the generation and management of a refortn project without the commitment of political decision-makers and the top body of officials brings with it phenomena and procedures related to bureaucratic politics. The cases also show that in change situations there is reason to pay attention not only to structures and organizations, but also to the attitudes of the individual and also that a change situation must also be approached from a psychological point of view. The development of change management in the defense administration requires the finding of the means and tools needed to break the prevailing paradigmatic walls and procedural reforms related to the execution of change. The study showed that when managing deepreaching changes that touch upon the entire field of administration, the behavior and activities of the minister become decisively important faetors. The minister can therefore be seen as a value leader and in this role he must become strongly involved in the game of bureaucratic politics played by officials.