Browsing by Subject "rehtori"

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  • Kukkola, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Lähes kaikki kiusaamisteot täyttävät jonkin rikoksen tunnusmerkistön ja ne loukkaavat kiusatun perusoikeuksiin sidottuja oikeushyviä, lapsen oikeuksia ja oppilaan oikeutta perusopetuslain mukaiseen turvalliseen opiskeluympäristöön. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan sitä voiko opettajalle ja rehtorille syntyä rikosoikeudellinen vastuu, jos he eivät puutu kiusaamiseen. Opettajan ja rehtorin tehtävänä on huolehtia oppilaiden turvallisuuden toteutumisesta. Heidän velvollisuuksiin virkansa puolesta kuuluu tietää ja tuntea alansa määräykset ja siten puuttua kiusaamiseen. Jos opettaja ei noudata tai ei ole selvittänyt velvollisuuksiaan, voi hän syyllistyä tuottamukselliseen virkavelvollisuuden rikkomiseen rikoslain 40 luvun 10 §:n mukaan. Kiusaamiseen puuttumiseksi ei ole annettu yhtenäistä ja selkeää ohjeistusta. Jos virkavelvollisuus on määritelty epäselvästi, rikosoikeudellisen vastuun perusteet voivat jäädä syntymättä laillisuusperiaatteen perusteella. Opettajalla ja rehtorilla on virkansa puolesta myös erityinen oikeudellinen suojelu- ja valvontavelvollisuus suhteessa oppilaisiin. Jos he laiminlyövät velvollisuutensa, voivat he syyllistyä rikoslain 3 luvun 3 §:n 2 momentin mukaiseen epävarsinaiseen laiminlyöntirikokseen niissä tapauksissa, joissa laiminlyönnin seurauksena on rikoslain 21 luvun 10 §:n mukainen vammantuottamus. Jos tuottamuksellinen virkavelvollisuuden rikkominen ei laillisuusperiaatteen takia tule kysymykseen, voi rikosoikeudellinen vastuu kuitenkin syntyä epävarsinaisena laiminlyöntirikoksena. Ympäröivän yhteiskunnan muuttuessa oikeusjärjestelmä ei välttämättä sisäistä kovin nopeasti uusia arvoja ja periaatteita, joita esimerkiksi lapsen oikeudet ilmentävät. Tällöin voi odotusten ja todellisuuden välille syntyä jännitteitä. Jos opettajan ja rehtorin piittaamattomuuteen kiusaamistapauksissa ei puututa rikosoikeuden keinoin, voi se rikkoa oikeudenmukaisuuteen kohdistuvia odotuksia sekä horjuttaa luottamusta kouluinstituutioon. Tilannetta selkiyttäisi, jos kiusaamisen käsitteen määrittely lisätään perusopetuslakiin, tarkennetaan opettajan ja rehtorin virkavastuun sisältöä kiusaamistilanteissa sekä lisätään kaikkien viranomaisten niin opettajien kuin tuomareiden ymmärrystä ja tuntemusta lasten perusoikeuksista ja YK:n lapsen oikeuksien sopimuksen velvoittavuudesta.
  • Tikkanen, Lotta (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Well-being at work is challenged by problems in employee–working environment fit. Therefore job stress can occur. Employees can use several strategies to adjust the fit and gain better well-being. If the job-stress is prolonged, it may eventually cause burnout. Previous studies indicate that burnout is related to problems in working community, individual well-being and turnover. In the educational field employees experience more job stress and burnout symptoms than in other fields. Only a few studies have been done about school principals' well-being. Therefore the aims of the research were to analyze school principals' well-being and to investigate if proactive strategies, principal–working environment fit and turnover intentions relate to challenges of well-being. Research data was gathered as a part of a wider, national research project called Learning, agency and pedagogical well-being in comprehensive school (Pyhältö, Pietarinen & Soini, 2014). The participants were selected with random sampling method (N=6000). Altogether 2310 teachers and principals completed the questionnaire. Principals and assistant principals (from now on: principals, n=420) were selected for this research. Principals were clustered into different groups based on the challenges of well-being they reported. Those challenges were measured in terms of job stress and burnout symptoms. The clusters that represented burnout symptoms and job stress were formed through hierarchical cluster analysis, K-Means cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis. One-way analysis of variance and crosstabs were conducted to see, whether principals in different clusters varied in terms of proactive strategies, principal–working environment fit, turnover intentions and background variables. Results indicate that on average the principals are doing quite well. Even so, quite a lot of them reported turnover intentions. It was possible to cluster principals into four groups: 1) principals, who experience well-being, 2) cynical principals, 3) principals, who experience burnout and 4) principals in danger of burn out. The cluster membership was related to proactive self-regulating strategies, principal–working environment fit and turnover intentions. Principals who experience well-being reported the best principal–working environment fit, strongest proactive self-regulating strategies and less turnover intentions. Cynical principals reported quite strong proactive self-regulating strategies, second worst principal–working environment fit and some turnover intentions. Principals who experience burnout reported weakest proactive self-regulating strategies, worst principal–working environment fit and most turnover intentions. Principals in danger of burn out reported quite good principal–working environment fit, quite weak proactive strategies and lots of turnover intentions. In future there is a need to better understand the development of school principal burnout and the motives behind school principals' turnover intentions.
  • Broms, Mandi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Leadership and management has been an interest of research for a long time, school princi-pals being no exception. However, there is a substantial need for research about manage-ment of human resources for principals. As previous research shows, this type of research is important as leadership affects work motivation, which in its turn affects work performance. To be able to develop the management of human resources of principals, it is important to understand how principals think around it. The aim of this study is to provide an insight of what the principals of this study thinks about leadership and what they value concerning ma-nagement of human resources. This study is a qualitative study, the methods are a mix of case study and qualitative content analysis. The data consists of six (n=6) interviews with Finnish principals, who work in comprehensive schools and/or upper secondary schools. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews consisting of basic questions regarding their work as principals and five fictional cases. The principals were asked to explain how they would act if the situ-ation would appear in their school. The data was analysed according to the principles of con-tent analysis. The conclusion of this study is that the principals interviewed describe their leadership of human resources as matters and values that can be divided into four themes: 1. Humane centered leadership, 2. Strong leadership, 3. Active leadership and 4. Restricted leadership. All six principals agreed on themes 1-3, but one of the principals did not speak of theme number 4. As a conclusion the principals of this study consider themselves as leaders that solve problems with discussions and empathy, but they use stronger leadership if the situat-ion requires. The principals actively try to create structures and prevent problems, but do not consider their leadership as perfect that can not be developed.
  • Vaarula, Sarianne (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Research objectives. The Special Education Strategy, the legislative change based on it, and the change in the Finnish National Core Curriculum for Pre-primary and Basic Education build the background for this study. An improvement initiative called KELPO was founded in 2008 to implement a new three-level support system in municipalities. To support this initiative, the Network of Intensified and Special Support in the Metropolitan Area was founded in 2010. The Network consists of 22 pilot schools from four metropolitan municipalities and the Centre for Educational Assessment at the University of Helsinki that carries out the developmental assessment of the initiative. The objective of my study was to form an overall view of the functioning of the Network. The data included interviews of 20 principals of the schools belonging to the Network. The interviews were conducted by the Centre for Educational Assessment in the autumn of 2010. The research question is: What do principals speak about the networking done inside and between the municipalities? Methods. I received the data as already transcribed for my use. I researched it using a narrative research approach. As a method I used both thematic reading and classifying narratives by the holistic-content. These methods belong under the analyze of narratives. I collected the narratives from the principals under themes that arose from the data delimited by my research question. The narrative analysis materialized by writing the research story, as a new story was built by the principals' stories theme by theme. The classification of the narratives by the holistic-content method was realized according to what kind of a gatekeeper's role each principal had. With a gatekeeper I here mean the intermediary role of a principal between the school and outside world. In addition, I used the analysis of interactive production of the narrative when applicable. Results and conclusions. Explicit features in the story of the Network were the principals', at least partial, uncertainty of the purpose of the networking, lack of time and resources, changing of initiatives, and lack of continuity. Positive narratives about ownership and empowerment could also be found. Nonetheless, many of the preconditions for success described by the school reform and school networking theories were not fulfilled. According to the collective story, there was no shared goal or purpose, and nor were the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness fulfilled. Three different kinds of gatekeepers were found in the data: The Exemplary ones, The Survivors and The Losers. The distinguishing factor turned out to be sharing of information at school. Based on the narratives, the schools with principals taking care of sharing information were the most active in partaking in networking.