Browsing by Subject "reliability"

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  • Sagath, L.; Lehtokari, V.-L.; Välipakka, S.; Udd, B.; Wallgren-Pettersson, C.; Pelin, K.; Kiiski, K. (2018)
    Background: Our previous array, the Comparative Genomic Hybridisation design (CGH-array) for nemaline myopathy (NM), named the NM-CGH array, revealed pathogenic copy number variation (CNV) in the genes for nebulin (NEB) and tropomyosin 3 (TPM3), as well as recurrent CNVs in the segmental duplication (SD), i.e. triplicate, region of NEB (TRI, exons 82-89, 90-97, 98-105). In the light of this knowledge, we have designed and validated an extended CGH array, which includes a selection of 187 genes known to cause neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). Objective: Our aim was to develop a reliable method for CNV detection in genes related to neuromuscular disorders for routine mutation detection and analysis, as a much-needed complement to sequencing methods. Methods: We have developed a novel custom-made 4×180 k CGH array for the diagnostics of NMDs. It includes the same tiled ultra-high density coverage of the 12 known or putative NM genes as our 8×60 k NM-CGH-array but also comprises a selection of 175 additional genes associated with NMDs, including titin (TTN), at a high to very high coverage. The genes were divided into three coverage groups according to known and potential pathogenicity in neuromuscular disorders. Results: The array detected known and putative CNVs in all three gene coverage groups, including the repetitive regions of NEB and TTN. Conclusions: The targeted neuromuscular disorder 4×180 k array-CGH (NMD-CGH-array v1.0) design allows CNV detection for a broader spectrum of neuromuscular disorders at a high resolution. © 2018 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
  • Stolze, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to evaluate the reliability of forest products forecast information produced by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe member States. The study also aims to answer which dimensions of data quality are the most important when producing these predictions This study is carried out as quantitative research and it focuses on the predictions made by the 27 member States, produced between 2002 and 2017. This research aims to find out what methods are used by different member States and which methods produce the most reliable results. This research also aims to find out if there are any differences in reliability when assessing different product flows (removals, production, exports or imports) of the various products analyzed. There were clear differences visible between different products in the results of this research. In some products, almost all member States had managed to produce reliable predictions, while for others majority of member States didn’t manage that. There were also differences between member States and some were clearly more reliable than others. The biggest factor affecting reliability was volume: for most parts, bigger volumes meant more reliable predictions. Production and removals were more reliable product flow than imports or exports. This is due to the nature of imports and exports, as they are more easily affected by outside impacts. Although all member States were able to be sorted into four groups based on how different product flows looked like, no clear patterns were visible when observing how different member States produce predictions. Almost all of the interviewed representatives of member States reported that they were using almost or exactly the same methods to produce predictions.
  • Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J.N; Saame, Jaan; Anes, Bárbara; Heering, Agnes; Leito, Ivo; Näykki, Teemu; Stoica, Daniela; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Bastkowski, Frank; Snedden, Alan; Camões, M. Filomena (Elsevier, 2021)
    Analytica Chimica Acta 1182 (2021), 338923
    The use of the unified pH concept, pHabsH2O, applicable to aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, which allows interpreting and comparison of the acidity of different types of solutions, requires reliable and objective determination. The pHabsH2O can be determined by a single differential potentiometry measurement referenced to an aqueous reference buffer or by a ladder of differential potentiometric measurements that allows minimisation of inconsistencies of various determinations. This work describes and assesses bottom-up evaluations of the uncertainty of these measurements, where uncertainty components are combined by the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) or Taylor Series Approximation (TSM). The MCM allows a detailed simulation of the measurements, including an iterative process involving in minimising ladder deviations. On the other hand, the TSM requires the approximate determination of minimisation uncertainty. The uncertainty evaluation was successfully applied to measuring aqueous buffers with pH of 2.00, 4.00, 7.00, and 10.00, with a standard uncertainty of 0.01. The reference and estimated values from both approaches are metrologically compatible for a 95% confidence level even when a negligible contribution of liquid junction potential uncertainty is assumed. The MCM estimated pH values with an expanded uncertainty, for the 95% confidence level, between 0.26 and 0.51, depending on the pH value and ladder inconsistencies. The minimisation uncertainty is negligible or responsible for up to 87% of the measurement uncertainty. The TSM quantified measurement uncertainties on average only 0.05 units larger than the MCM estimated ones. Additional experimental tests should be performed to test these uncertainty models for analysis performed in other laboratories and on non-aqueous solutions.
  • NITEP-Grp; Sumrein, Bakir O.; Mattila, Ville M.; Lepola, Vesa; Laitinen, Minna K.; Launonen, Antti P. (2018)
    Background: Optimal fracture classification should be simple and reproducible and should guide treatment. For proximal humeral. fractures, the Neer classification is commonly used. However, intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the Neer classification has been shown to be poor. In clinical practice. it is essential to differentiate 2-part surgical neck fractures from multi-fragmented fractures. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether surgeons can differentiate 2-part surgical neck fractures from multifragmented fractures using plain radiographs and/or computed tomography (CT). Methods: Three experienced upper limb specialists and trauma surgeons (B.O.S., A.P.L., and V.L.) independently reviewed and classified blinded plain radiographs and CT scans of 116 patients as showing 2-part surgical neck fractures or multi-fragmented fractures. Each imaging modality was reviewed and classified separately by each surgeon, after which each surgeon reviewed both modalities at the same time. This process was repeated by all surgeons after 24 weeks. Intraobserver and interobserver analyses were conducted using Cohen and Reiss K values, respectively. Results: The K coefficient for interobserver reliability showed substantial correlation (0.61-0.73) and was as follows: 0.73 for radiographs alone, 0.61 for CT scans alone, and 0.72 for radiographs and CT scans viewed together. After 24 weeks, the process was repeated and intraobserver reliability was calculated.The K coefficient for intraobserver reliability showed substantial correlation (0.62-0.75) and was as follows: 0.62 for radiographs alone, 0.64 for CT scans alone, and 0.75 for radiographs and CT scans viewed together. Conclusion: Clinicians were able to differentiate 2-part surgical neck fractures from multi-fragmented fractures based on plain radiographs reliably. (C) 2018 The Author(s).
  • Relander, Annukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The psychometric properties, validity and reliability, of numeracy assessment have a significant role in identifying students’ special education needs in mathematics. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the validity and reliability evidence of numeracy measures used by teachers at the elementary school for children aged 9 through 12 years. Methods: A systematic search of Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, PsychINFO and PudMed abstract databases was completed up to the March, 2020. The abstracts and articles were evaluated independently by two reviewers according to the inclusion criteria. Consensus was reached by discussions. Only peer-reviewed articles reporting psychometric properties of numeracy measures and published in English were included. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P, 2015) guidelines were applied for reporting. The terminology and classification of psychometric properties followed the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Three validity properties and three reliability properties were searched and extracted from the articles. Results: Of the 4763 abstracts 921 full-text articles were screened and 13 studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. Two additional studies were identified through reference search. Half of the psychometric properties of the numeracy measures were not studied and reported in the articles. All the six reliability and validity properties were found for one measure. The evidence on the psychometric properties was limited for most of the measures due to the incomplete or missing psychometric data. Conclusions: The validity and reliability of the measures is limited and further evidence and research is needed.
  • Multanen, J.; Ylinen, J.; Karjalainen, T.; Kautiainen, H.; Repo, J. P.; Häkkinen, A. (2020)
    Background and Aims: The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is the most commonly used outcome measure in the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to translate the original Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire into Finnish and validate its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: We translated and culturally adapted the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire into Finnish. Subsequently, 193 patients completed the Finnish version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire, 6-Item CTS Symptoms Scale, and EuroQol 5 Dimensions 12 months after carpal tunnel release. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was re-administered after a 2-week interval. We calculated construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and coefficient of repeatability. We also examined floor and ceiling effects. Results: The cross-cultural adaptation required only minor modifications to the questions. Both subscales of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale) correlated significantly with the CTS-6 and EuroQol 5 Dimensions, indicating good construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 for both the Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale, indicating high internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient greater than 0.8 for both scales. The coefficient of repeatability was 0.80 for the Symptom Severity Scale and 0.68 for the Functional Status Scale. We observed a floor effect in the Functional Status Scale in 28% of participants. Conclusion: Our study shows that the present Finnish version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is reliable and valid for the evaluation of symptom severity and functional status among surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome patients. However, owing to the floor effect, the Functional Status Score may have limited ability to detect differences in patients with good post-operative outcomes.
  • Repo, Jussi Petteri; Piitulainen, Kirsi; Häkkinen, Arja; Roine, Risto Paavo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Becker, Paju; Tukiainen, Erkki Juhani (2018)
    Background: Thus far there have been no specific patient-reported outcome instrument in Finnish for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment after major lower extremity amputation and successful prosthesis fitting.Methods: The prosthesis evaluation questionnaire (PEQ) was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Finnish. Participants completed a questionnaire package including the Finnish version of the PEQ and the 15D HRQoL instrument. Scales (n=10) were tested for internal consistency, floor-ceiling effect, and reproducibility for which participants completed the PEQ twice within a 2-week interval. Validity was tested by estimating the correlation between the 15D index and the scales. The authors included 122 participants who had completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions in the final analysis.Results: Mean scale scores of the 10 scales varied from 52 to 83. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.67 to 0.96. The total score showed no floor-ceiling effect. Reproducibility of the scales was good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.78-0.87; coefficient of repeatability, 19-36). Significant correlations were observed between the 15D index and the scales for ambulation, social burden, usefulness, and well-being.Conclusions: This study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the Finnish version of the PEQ in assessing the HRQoL among major lower extremity amputated patients who have been fitted with prosthesis.Implications for rehabilitationMeasurement of quality of life during rehabilitation can provide important information on patients' well-being.The prosthesis evaluation questionnaire (PEQ) is a valid instrument for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after major lower extremity amputation.This study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the Finnish version of the PEQ for assessing HRQoL among patient who have undergone major lower extremity amputation.
  • Pulkkinen, Hanna S. M.; Reunanen, Vilma L. J.; Hyytiäinen, Heli K.; Junnila, Jouni J. T.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M.; Lappalainen, Anu K. (2020)
    Elbow incongruity is a form of elbow dysplasia that causes osteoarthritis, pain, and lameness, and it is common in chondrodystrophic dog breeds. The objective of this retrospective secondary analysis study was to evaluate the intra- and interobserver repeatability of a novel radiographic incongruity grading system for assessing elbow incongruity in three chondrodystrophic dog breeds-the dachshund, Skye Terrier, and Glen of Imaal Terrier. We conducted an observer agreement study that included 220 mediolateral antebrachial radiographs from 110 dogs with the elbow in 90 degrees flexion. The radiographs were independently assessed by three observers at three time points, using a four-stepped grading scale. The proportion of agreement and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Both the intra- and interobserver proportions of agreement were substantial when three grades were required to be identical (.705-.777 and .609, respectively), and almost perfect for two identical grades (.991-1.000 and .991, respectively). Some differences in repeatability between breeds were noted; specifically, the intraobserver repeatability was higher in the dachshund, and the interobserver repeatability was lower in the Glen of Imaal Terrier. Our study showed that the radiographic imaging protocol and incongruity grading system have high repeatability when assessing elbow incongruity in chondrodystrophic dog breeds.
  • Lopez-Pedersen, Anita; Mononen, Riikka; Korhonen, Johan; Aunio, Pirjo; Melby-Lervåg, Monica (2021)
    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Early Numeracy Screener. The Early Numeracy Screener is a teacher-administered, paper-and-pencil test measuring counting skills, numerical relational skills, and basic arithmetic skills. Three hundred and sixty-six first graders took the Early Numeracy Screener at the beginning of the school year. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in order to examine whether the screening tool was identified as a one-factor model or a three-factor model. The confirmatory factor analysis found evidence for the three-factor model, establishing construct validity. Evidence for criterion-related validity was found in crosstabulation and correlation with the national test measuring overall mathematics performance taken towards the end of the school year. The Early Numeracy Screener may serve as an indicator of young children's performance in early numeracy. The brevity and ease of use of the Early Numeracy Screener make it suitable for classroom instructional settings.
  • Suhonen, Riitta; Lahtinen, Katja; Stolt, Minna; Pasanen, Miko; Lemetti, Terhi (2021)
    Patient-centredness in care is a core healthcare value and an effective healthcare delivery design requiring specific nurse competences. The aim of this study was to assess (1) the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the Finnish version of the Patient-centred Care Competency (PCC) scale and (2) Finnish nurses' self-assessed level of patient-centred care competency. The PCC was translated to Finnish (PCC-Fin) before data collection and analyses: descriptive statistics; Cronbach's alpha coefficients; item analysis; exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses; inter-scale correlational analysis; and sensitivity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable, high for the total scale, and satisfactory for the four sub-scales. Item analysis supported the internal homogeneity of the items-to-total and inter-items within the sub-scales. Explorative factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution, but the confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the four-factor structure (Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) 0.92, goodness-of-fit index (GFI) 0.99, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) 0.065, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) 0.045) with 61.2% explained variance. Analysis of the secondary data detected no differences in nurses' self-evaluations of contextual competence, so the inter-scale correlations were high. The PCC-Fin was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of nurses' patient-centred care competence. Rasch model analysis would provide some further information about the item level functioning within the instrument.