Browsing by Subject "religion"

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  • Wikblad, Emelie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Religion väcker nyhetsmediers intresse i en tid när stora konflikter knyts till religioner, när den religiösa mångfalden i samhället ökar och med den kontrasten mellan religiöst och sekulärt. Teorin om medialisering av religion utgår från nordiska kontexter, där banden till religionen försvagas, och hävdar att det är mediernas representationer av religioner som i dag ligger till grund för människors kunskap. Syftet med den här avhandlingen är därför att få kunskap om finlandssvenska journalisters attityder till nyhetsmediernas roll som källa till information om de två största världsreligionerna: kristendomen och islam. Det här uppnås genom att granska hur journalisterna förhåller sig till frågor om representation, ansvar och kunskapsbehov. Metoden som används är kvalitativ attitydforskning, vilken bygger på att människors attityder formas i sociala situationer och kan studeras genom deras ställningstaganden och argumentationer. Materialet består av intervjuer med åtta journalister från finlandssvenska nyhetsmedier. I intervjuerna ställdes informanterna inför 20 påståenden som rör religionerna och det redaktionella arbetet. Attityderna analyserades genom att granska och kategorisera informanternas ställningstaganden och motiveringar. En djupare analys av attitydernas objekt och subjekt gav vidare kunskap om informanternas syn på sitt eget arbete, ansvar och journalistens yrkesroll. Den huvudsakliga slutsatsen är att journalisterna omfattar tanken att nyhetsmedierna har en roll som källa till information om kristendom respektive islam. Den här rollen är ändå sekundär både till principer som karakteriserar journalistrollen och till de praktiska omständigheter som styr arbetet. Synen på nyhetsmediernas roll och porträttering av religionerna är också av distinkt olika karaktär. För kristendomens del är det icke-kontroversiellt att se nyhetskriterierna som den främsta faktorn som avgör dess plats och roll i nyheterna. När det gäller islam finns en annan nivå av känslighet och fokus på korrekthet, bildning och nyans i rapporteringen. Ett centralt drag i attityderna är spänningen mellan inställningen till porträtteringen av religionerna å ena sidan och nyhetsjournalistikens principer å andra sidan. Informanternas attityder uppvisar stora likheter med tidigare studier och det finns klara paralleller mellan attityderna och den dokumenterade bilden av nyhetsrapporteringen om religion. De attityder journalisterna i den här studien uttrycker ger stöd för tesen att medierna har en central roll i att definiera och rama in frågor om kristendom och islam i samhällsdiskussionen. Informanterna tillstår möjliga negativa konsekvenser av hur framför allt islam representeras i olika typer av media. Samtidigt fyller flertalet attityder en funktion av att förklara och rationalisera det redaktionella arbetet. Ur journalisternas synvinkel kan nyhetsmedierna inte beskyllas för att fokusera på negativa nyheter, eftersom yrkets ideologi och mediets logik säger att dessa har prioritet. Det här kan i sin tur antas påverka hur det egna arbetet utförs. Den sammanlagda bilden blir att attityderna till nyheterna som källa till information om kristendomen och islam, bland journalister i västerländska kontexter, i stor utsträckning gynnar status quo i nyhetsrapporteringen.
  • Arminen, Ilkka; Segersven, Otto Erik Alexander; Simonen, Mika (2019)
    As a part of their normative theory of expertise, Harry Collins and Robert Evans proposed that interactional expertise forms the third kind of knowledge, located between formal propositional knowledge and embodied skills. Interactional expertise refers to the capability to grasp the conceptual structure of another’s social world, and it is expressed as the ability to speak fluently the language spoken in that social world. According to their theory, it is a key concept of sociology, because it refers to the understanding and coordination of joint actions between members of different social groups. Collins and Evans have further claimed that minority social group members tend to outpace majority social group members in terms of interactional expertise. Drawing on ethnomethodology, we detail the ways in which interactional expertise is displayed and revealed in experiments. This allowed us to specify the underlying reasons for the distribution of interactional expertise between social groups. Our results indicate that the difference between the groups depends on whether a group is either actively maintained or a passive latent category, because interactional expertise provides for not only the crossing of social boundaries but also their maintenance. The minority social group members’ greater interactional expertise or competence is therefore proven to be illusory.
  • University of Helsinki, Swedish School of Social Science Subunit; Sillander, Kenneth; Couderc, Pascal; (NIAS press,, 2012)
    NIAS studies in Asian topics
  • Mikeshin, Igor (2018)
    16th Annual Conference of the European Association for the Study of Religions titled Multiple Religious Identities – Individuals, Communities, Traditions was held on October 17–21, 2018 in Bern, Switzerland. In this report on EASR 2018 conference I focus on its general idea and topic, give a brief overview of the plenary talks and panels, and organizational and conceptual problems.
  • Gillin, Joel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study is a descriptive account and analysis of the ideas and arguments of Canadian philosopher James K. A. Smith (1970 - ) in regard to religion and the secular. Using Smith’s published texts, the study examines some of the problems he sees with these concepts from different subfields of philosophy and evaluates Smith’s proposed solutions. The study begins with a discursive overview of the issues scholars face in the study of religion and the secular. Next, the study examines Smith’s engagement with theological traditions and postmodern thought to critique the epistemology and ontology of the secular, followed by Smith’s articulation of a “liturgical” anthropology as a model for understanding religion and secular practices. The final chapter explores the implications of Smith’s analysis and his advocacy of a post-secular approach to 1) the study of religion, 2) the public square, and 3) religious conflict. The study finds that Smith cogently employs postmodern thought to deconstruct the foundationalist epistemology of the secular. Furthermore, he argues that the secular relies upon an unsubstantiated ontology of closed, autonomous nature that gives secular theorizing and science an unwarranted privileged epistemic status. Modern philosophical anthropology is also found to be overly cognitive, and Smith proposes an original model emphasizing embodiment in which humans are desiring beings shaped by formative practices (“liturgies”). With these results, Smith’s post-secular approach to the study of religion shows that common distinctions between secular and religious beliefs and practices are misleading. A liturgical framework may provide better conceptual tools to locate and explain human behavior, including religious/secular violence, with some complications requiring further research. His analysis suggests a normative post-secularism which allows space for religious identities in the public sphere could potentially meet the challenges of pluralism and religious conflict.
  • Rivinoja, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This Master’s thesis examines how societal power is exercised and negotiated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and the media in contemporary Finnish society. Conducting a critical discourse analysis of Helsingin Sanomat coverage on the Church and Finland’s asylum seekers between August 2015 and September 2017, the three levels of mediatization of religion as presented by Hjarvard (2008) are offered as a potential theoretical framework to capture essential aspects of the media’s ubiquitous impact on institutional religion. The first chapters introduce the research topic and provide contextual understanding of the Church’s position in contemporary Finnish society and media. This is followed by a literature review and the theoretical and methodological frameworks guiding the analysis. The analysis answers to the research question through the three levels of mediatization of religion. The findings demonstrated the usefulness of critical discourse analysis coupled with the mediatization of religion theory, as the research method highlighted the aspects of prevalence and dominance of mediatization. Although the mediatization of religion theory was not found to provide an exhaustive account on the dynamics between Helsingin Sanomat and the Church, the presence of all three levels of mediatization together with the dominance of media discourses and the Church’s subordination to media logic could be discerned. This thesis provides insight into the renegotiation process of the Church’s place and role in Finnish society, a topic that until today has remained understudied. Further, it sheds light on the power of both the media and the Church to steer and maintain discourses. From the perspective of the Religion, Conflict and Dialogue Master’s Degree program, analyzing the theme within the context of the asylum seeker situation can be deemed supportive for purposes of further research on institutional religion’s role in dialogue promotion and bringing about social cohesion.
  • Zafaranloo, Saeed (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Peace has always been a pivotal issue in the core of humankind’s thoughts throughout centuries; prophets, great thinkers, poets and elites have expressed their concern, vision and ideas of peace. Major world religions have teachings for peace. As one of the new religious movements of the world, Baha’i Faith has placed peace in the focus of its teaching. There have also been academic and intellectual efforts to define peace and to present plans for making peace like the works of Johan Galtung, the founder of the peace and conflict studies. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the peace plan of Baha’i Faith with Johan Galtung’s peace theory and explore their possible crucial differences and similarities (commonalities). In Galtung’s book, Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization, the first chapter is peace theory which is used to explore Baha’i teachings on peace in Baha’i primary sources like writings of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of Baha’i Faith, Abdu’l-Bahá' (first successor), Shoghi Effendi (Guardian and appointed head of the Faith) and Universal House of Justice (supreme ruling body) publications. Secondary Baha’i sources are also studied which are articles, papers and books written about Baha’i Faith. The method of comparative analysis used in this study is lens comparison in which we explore A (Galtung’s Peace Theory) less than B (Baha’i Faith peace plan), we use A as a lens through which to view B. The text A is used as a framework to understand and compare with text B. Galtung’s peace theory is an umbrella under which Baha’i teachings are studied. The idea of peace and the approach toward this idea is in the center of this comparison. During this process, the differences and commonalities of A and B are listed and analyzed in three realms, i.e. in relation to peace and gender, peace and democracy and peace and inter-state systems. After every point by point comparison chapter, all common and different features of A and B are observed, listed and analyzed to verify to what degree they are similar with or differ from each other. In this way, it is possible to see the level of proximity and remoteness of two sources and to verify how much they converge or diverge. The thesis reveals in which areas of peace-building ideas, Galtung and Baha’i Faith have common approaches and in which areas they have different standpoints, i.e. this paper disclosed, on gender and peace, both approaches have high level of proximity and convergence.
  • Taira, Teemu (2019)
    This article examines religion in Finnish newspapers, arguing that religion-related discourses have changed from one of Lutheran dominance to one of diversity. The main data consists of a longitudinal sample (1946-2016) of the most popular Finnish newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, and especially of its editorials and readers' letters. Additional data covers a wider variety of newspapers from the 1990s to 2018. The data is analysed using quantitative content analysis and a discursive approach. It will be suggested that it is possible to discuss diversity both as an emergent discourse and a theme in the Finnish media since the mid-1990s, thereby overcoming earlier frameworks that took Lutheranism for granted or gave it a special role in the private sphere. The analysis shows that these shifts do not provide clear support for the idea that newspapers and journalism are anti-religious; rather, it suggests that they may be understood as having a 'liberalizing' effect, especially when religious values are not seen as compatible with those of journalists and newspapers.
  • Marin, Pinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective. The way science and religion relate is a topic of lasting debate and discussion but little research. Thus, people's perceptions of the science-religion relationship remain poorly understood. Yet, the way people relate science and religion to each other seem to be connected to their opinions, attitudes, and choices. The aim of this study was to examine how epistemic cognition, ontological confusions of core knowledge, and the perceived social importance of science and religion predict agreement with four science-religion perspectives: conflict, independence, dialogue, and integration. Method. Participants (N=2256) were adult Finns who had, in an online survey, given their view on whether science and religion are in conflict. The sample was largely nonreligious with 67.2% not belonging to any religious denomination. Three logistic regressions were used to predict the likelihood to hold the conflict, dialogue and integration views, and an ordinal logistic regression was used to examine agreement with the independence view. Age, gender and education were controlled in all analyses. Results. Intuitive thinking style, core ontological confusions, and the perceived social importance of religion decreased the likelihood to hold the conflict view whereas a simple view of knowledge and importance of science increased it. Regarding the three non-conflict views, core ontological confusions increased the likelihood to hold the dialogue and integration views, but decreased the likelihood to hold the independence view. In addition, intuitive thinking style increased the odds to agree with the dialogue and integration views. Moreover, importance of religion increased the likelihood to hold the dialogue and integration views while importance of science increased the likelihood to agree with the independence view. Discussion. Differences in epistemic cognition, core ontological confusions, and the perceived social importance of science and religion affected agreement with the four science-religion perspectives. Therefore, it is likely that the ways people perceive the relation between science and religion could be better understood through further examination of thinking styles, views of knowledge and knowing, category errors, and attitudes.
  • Juvonen, Annimari (2008)
    Human rights discourse is one of the transnational languages, which may be used to approach migration. This study aims at sketching the ways how abstract human rights articulations, such as the convention drafted in the United Nations for the protection of the human rights of migrants and their families, are made meaningful in a particular context. The context of this study is the Portuguese society, and the distinct but overlapping relationship between the Church and the state. The convention protecting the human rights of migrants has not been ratified in any of the European countries so far, which the Catholic Church considers as a departure from the universality inherent to human rights. This study considers the way the Church aims at addressing its transnational audience and at criticizing the national and regional spheres through a common concept to both human rights and Catholicism, the universal human family. Human rights become meaningful to the Catholic actors through the concept of family, and the convention on the human rights of migrants is interpreted as a countermovement to the emphasis on individualism, characteristic to the human rights system - thus supporting the Catholic conceptualization about the foundation of the well-being of both the individual and the society. This study has relied on media sources to sketch the main features of the Portuguese discourse on migration and the particular situations in which human rights discourse is used. The homilies of Portuguese Bishops have provided the central concepts through which the relationship between human rights, religion, and the state are discussed. A concrete example of the way how the Catholic actors unite human rights claims with religious rhetoric is a concern over the human rights of migrants brought forward by Bishop Januário Torgal Ferreira during the pilgrimage of Fátima. The transformative power of a pilgrimage thus supports the human rights claims. The cult of Fátima, which holds a strong nationalist tradition due to the legacy of the dictatorship, is now a stage for transnational and modern ideas. The central observation of this study is that human rights discourse functions as a definer of the relationship between the Church and the state, because it is associated with Catholic humanism which aims at balancing the secular politics of the state. In the modern society this relationship is often perceived as distinct, because the interference of the supernatural in the politics of the secular state is not wanted. However, in the Portuguese society the Church has been constitutive to the history of the nation-state, and the so-called secularization process has not pushed it aside from the hegemonic position that it enjoys in the Portuguese society. This study traces the reasons which enable the religious to enter the public sphere of the modern society, and contribute to the construction of the intermediary role of the Catholic actors.
  • Kasurinen, Jaana (Helsingfors universitet, 2001)
    The purpose of this research is to deepen the understanding of the culture of the veil among Somali women in Finland. The research deals with ethnicity, identity, easing the immigrant's readjustment with the help of one's own culture, and the connection between the religion of Islam and the veil. The veil will be studied from both the historical and religious point of view. The research will also familiarize the reader with the dress code for women in the Koran. The empirical part of the research is carried out as a qualitative study with the help of content analysis, with emphasis in phenomenology. The aim of the phenomenological research method is to reach a person's experience world, and to search for common contents from individual experiences. The material for this study has been collected by interviewing ten Somali women. Some of the women wear veils, some do not. It can be said, on the ground of this research, that the decision about taking on the veil is made by the women themselves. The main cause for wearing the veil is to indicate religiousness. As other motives we can see a search for security, enhancing of solidarity, individual interpretation of the instructions of the religion, covering the ethnic dress while outside, protecting men from the beauty of women, and wearing the veil in the mosque or while praying. As a latent motive we can point out the resisting of Western culture. Not wearing the veil can be justified by the women's need for independence, the veil being unpractical, the want of modernity, the alternation of different ways of dressing, the adaptation of the new culture, abandoning one's own culture, and abandoning the external emphasizing of the religion. Also the veil is not part of the Somali culture; it is a habit adapted from elsewhere.
  • Kaartinen, Timo (2019)
    The article explores Islam as an element of the social and symbolic formations created in the context of long-distance trade relations in the Aru and the Kei islands of southeast Maluku. The Muslim migrants and traders who settled in the area in the early colonial period created places that served as entry points to the local, autochthonous society. Even as these sites allowed Muslims to control access to local cultural domains, they allured local people with possible access to trade wealth and mobility. By creating conceptual and tangible boundaries around the indigenous domain, early Islam anticipated the contrast between universally valid religious convictions and materially embedded cultural forms. This contrast became significant after the large-scale conversions to Christianity and Islam in the late colonial period. Islam was also transformed by its interaction with various cosmopolitan discourses, but it has remained more accommodating than Christianity towards socially embedded ritual practices and material symbols. This raises the question whether 'cultural Islam' should be defined by its neutral, apolitical attitude towards the secular state which is complicated by the fact that the culturally embedded Islam in Maluku took form in the absence of centralised state power.
  • Pihlström, Sami (2020)
    Kant’s philosophy was an important background for the pragmatist tradition, even though some of the major classical pragmatists, especially William James, were unwilling to acknowledge their debt to Kant. This essay considers the relation between Kant and James from the perspective of their conceptions of the human condition. In particular, I examine their shared pessimism, employing Vanden Auweele’s (2019) recent analysis of Kant’s pessimism and arguing that this is required by James’s meliorism (which is put forward as a middle-ground option between optimism and pessimism). A comparative inquiry into Kant’s and James’s views on the relation between ethics and religion is provided against this background of their shared philosophical anthropology.
  • Koski, Kaarina; Moilanen, Ulla (Gaudeamus, 2019)
  • Ryytty, Eeva Agneta (2008)
    Ett världsomfattande fenomen är underrepresentationen av kvinnor på positioner av politiskt beslutsfattande. En av de tydligaste indikatorerna på kvinnors politiska deltagande är deras närvaro i de nationella parlamenten. Men av de 189 länder som finns listade på Inter-Parliamentary Unions hemsida på Internet är det endast 17 länder som har en andel på 30 % eller mer kvinnliga parlamentsledamöter. Varför finns det så få kvinnor i de nationella parlamenten? Syftet med denna pro gradu-avhandling är att granska fyra faktorer som inverkar på i vilken utsträckning kvinnliga kandidater blir invalda i nationella parlament. De fyra faktorerna är: valsystem, religion, utbildning och förvärvsarbete. Jämförelsen gjordes mellan olika västerländska demokratier.Metod: most similar systems design. Valsystem kan uppdelas grovt i majoritetsval, semi-proportionella val och proportionella val. I dagsläget är det proportionella valsystemet i snitt mest framgångsrikt med att få in kvinnor i det nationella parlamentet, semi-proportionella system är på andra plats och på tydlig sista plats finns majoritetsval. Ser man däremot på variansen mellan olika länder med samma valsystem ser man att de största skillnaderna står att finna mellan länder med proportionellt valsystem. Medeltalet säger alltså inte hela sanningen i det här fallet. I endast 2 av de 25 länder som är med i uppsatsen, fanns det en betydande mindre andel kvinnor med högskoleutbildning (i arbetskraften) än män och samma med kvinnors förvärvsarbete; i endast 2 av 25 länder fanns det en betydligt mindre andel kvinnor i arbetskraften än i de övriga länderna. Både i de länder med mest kvinnor i parlamentet och i de länder med minst kvinnor i parlamentet fanns betydande andelar kvinnor med högskoleutbildning och i förvärvsarbete. Med avseende på detta borde kvinnorna som grupp tillhandahålla kunskaper och färdigheter som är till nytta i det politiska livet. I övervägande protestantiska länder är andelen kvinnor högt i det nationella parlamentet men bilden av de övervägande katolska länderna är mer varierande. I vissa starkt katolska länder är andelen kvinnor lågt men det finns också katolska länder med hög andel kvinnor i det nationella parlamentet. Också bland med länder med religiöst blandad befolkning varierar andelen kvinnor i det nationella parlamentet stort. Beträffande religionen var skillnaden mellan de övervägande protestantiska länderna och de övervägande katolska länderna tydlig gällande medeltalet för andelen kvinnor i det nationella parlamentet. Däremot fanns det både övervägande protestantiska länder, länder med religiöst blandad befolkning och övervägande katolska länder som kunde uppvisa över 30 % kvinnor i det nationella parlamentet. Däremot verkar skillnaden i kvinnorepresentation vara tydligare då det gäller valsystem. Det är visserligen sant att länderna med proportionellt valsystem uppvisade en betydande skillnad sinsemellan vad gäller andelen kvinnor i det nationella parlamentet. Men av de tio länder, av de länder som är med i uppsatsen, som uppvisar flest kvinnor i parlamentet använder ett land semi-proportionellt valsystem och övriga nio proportionellt system. Inget av länderna med majoritetsval har över 30 % kvinnor i det nationella parlamentet medan nio länder med proportionellt valsystem har över 30 % kvinnor i det nationella parlamentet. Källor Duverger, M. (1955). The Political Role of Women. Unesco, Frankrike. Farrell, D.M. (2001). Electoral Systems. A Comparative Introduction. Palgrave, New York. Galligan, Y. & Trembley, M. (eds.) (2005). Sharing Power. Women, Parliament, Democracy. Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, England. Inglehart, R. & Norris, P. (2003). Rising Tide. Gender Equality and Cultural Change around the World. Cambride, UK. ILO (2006). Key Indicators of the Labour Market. Fourth Edition. ILO, Geneva. Norris, P. & Inglehart, R. (2004). Sacred and Secular. Religion and Politics Worldwide. Cambride, UK. Stokes, W. (2005). Women in Contemporary Politics. Cambridge, UK. Wirth, L. (2001). Breaking through the glass ceiling. Women in managment. ILO, Geneva.
  • Snellman, Ida Anna Karin; Richter, Amica Linnea (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    I vår pro gradu-avhandling undersöker vi den Evangelisk Lutherska kyrkans roll i invandrares integration i Helsingfors. Invandringen till Finland har ökat de senaste åren, speciellt efter att situationen i flera områden i Mellanöstern och Nordafrika blivit oroligare. Internationella organisationen för migration (IOM) har uppmanat religiösa organisationer i Europa till en aktivare roll i integrationsarbete, vilket utgör grunden till vår forskning. Religiösa organisationer har möjlighet att stöda invandrares sociala och kulturella integration, medan det statliga och kommunala integrationsarbetet fokuserar på ekonomisk och strukturell integration. Eftersom avhandlingen är ett gemensamt projekt med två författare, undersöker vi ämnet ur två perspektiv. Ida Snellman undersöker vad multikulturellt arbete i den Evangelisk Lutherska kyrkan innebär och hur de anställda upplever att arbetet inverkar på invandrares integration. Amica Richter undersöker hur invandrare upplever att den Evangelisk Lutherska kyrkan inverkar på deras integration och i vilken mån de upplever att kyrkan kan ta del av integrationsarbetet i Helsingfors. Avhandlingen är en kvalitativ studie och materialet är insamlat genom semi-strukturerade intervjuer. Idas material består av åtta intervjuer med personer som arbetar med multikulturellt arbete inom den Evangelisk Lutherska kyrkan. Amica har intervjuat åtta personer med invandrar bakgrund, som har deltagit i den Evangelisk Lutherska kyrkans aktiviteter. Vi har använt innehållsanalys för att analysera våra material. Vår teoretiska referensram baserar sig på teorier om socialt kapital. Enligt Idas analys kan den Evangelisk Lutherska kyrkans multikulturella arbete delas upp i multikulturellt arbete med religiöst fokus och arbete som går utöver religion. Dessa två delar av det multikulturella arbetet är närvarande i både finskspråkiga och svenskspråkiga församlingar så väl som i församlingar på övriga språk. Arbetet inverkar på invandrares sociala kapital genom att stärka band till andra invandrare, kristna och majoritetsbefolkningen samt genom att bygga broar till lokala församlingar och till det finska samhället. Ur Amicas analys framgår att invandrare upplever den Evangelisk Lutherska kyrkan som stöd för deras sociala integration genom att erbjuda sociala nätverk och spirituellt stöd. Utöver att kyrkan kan fungera som brobyggare till det finska samhället, har invandrare med olik religiös tillhörighet även skapat band till volontärer, församlingsmedlemmar och till anställda i kyrkan. Kyrkan går mot en alltmer volontärbaserad organisationsmodell och i denna utveckling har invandrare möjlighet att inverka positivt. Ett aktivt deltagande i församlingslivet stöder invandrares integration genom att skapa band och bygga broar. Utgående från denna studie upplevs gemenskapen i församlingen och den interreligiösa dialogen som meningsfull av kristna invandrare såväl som av invandrare med annan eller ingen religiös övertygelse.
  • Tyrväinen, Helena (2012)
    When he settled in Nice in 1930, Armas Launis (1884–1959) became an outsider both to his native Finland and to his new home country, France. In the late 1930s this Protestant composer was working on two operas to his own libretti, whose events were situated in historical North Africa. A student of Jean Sibelius, Ilmari Krohn (Helsinki), Wilhelm Klatte (Berlin), and Waldemar von Baussnern (Weimar), Launis visited Tunisia and Morocco in 1924–27 and spent two winters in Algiers, where he made the acquaintance of two directors of the Conservatoire’s Arabic department: Edmond Nathan Yafil and Mahieddine Bachetarzi. Why did Launis chose religious subjects for his operas Theodora and Jehudith? How do North-African impulses appear in these works? The answers are based on Launis’s books Opera and Spoken Theatre (1915) and In the Land of the Moors (1927), his lecture, ‘Traits of Arabo-Moorish music’ (1928), and his correspondence with Sister Marie Béatrice, a French missionary.
  • Kortti, Jukka Petteri (2018)
    The political public sphere is at one and the same time both public, and private and religion operates in both the public and the private spheres in the modern way of life. This article approaches the dynamics between the cultural and the political public sphere from the point of view of religion; how the cultural intelligentsia developed its worldview fuelled with attitudes towards religion in times of political turmoil. The case study, based on the empirical analysis of cultural periodicals and societies around them, concerns the Finnish liberal intelligentsia in the early twentieth century. The first decade of the 1900s was a particularly important period of formation for the Finnish public sphere; the societal turmoil highlighted the importance of cultural periodicals in defining what was important for the national public sphere. The case of religion is an illustrative example of it, particularly from the point of view of the liberal intelligentsia of the era.
  • Niemi, Pia-Maria; Kallioniemi, Arto; Ghosh, Ratna (2019)
    The emergence of religiously -motivated terrorist attacks and the increasing xenophobia expressed in Europe concern religions in many ways. Questions related to religion also lie at the core of educational aims and practices used to create national cohesion and understanding about different types of values and worldviews. However, despite the topicality of the issue, we have little knowledge about the ways in which young adults experience religions in a secular state. In order to contribute to the discussion regarding the relationships between religion, nationality, security, and education, this study focuses on investigating how politically active young adults experience the role of religions in Finnish society. The qualitative data of this study were collected from young adults (18–30-year- olds) through an online questionnaire distributed through political youth organisations. The content analysis of the responses (altogether 250 respondents) identified five main orientations towards religions. The findings highlight the importance of providing young people with education about different faiths and worldviews for reducing prejudices, especially those related to Islam. The findings also highlight the need to address in education and society the possible but not as self-evident relationship between violence and religion, and to do this more explicitly than is currently done.
  • van den Broeke, Leon; Kunter, Katharina (2021)
    This article is about the way that the notion of religion is understood and used in election manifestos of populist and nationalist right-wing political parties in Germany and the Netherlands between 2002 and 2021. In order to pursue such enquiry, a discourse on the nature of manifestos of political parties in general and election manifestos specifically is required. Election manifestos are important socio-scientific and historical sources. The central question that this article poses is how the notion of religion is included in the election manifestos of three Dutch (LPF, PVV, and FvD) and one German (AfD) populist and nationalist parties, and what this inclusion reveals about the connection between religion and populist parties. Religious keywords in the election manifestos of said political parties are researched and discussed. It leads to the conclusion that the notion of religion is not central to these political parties, unless it is framed as a stand against Islam. Therefore, these parties defend the Jewish-Christian-humanistic nature of the country encompassing the separation of 'church' or faith community and state, the care for the historical and cultural heritage of church buildings, and the subordination of the freedom of religion to the freedom of expression. The election manifestos also reveal that Buddhism and Hinduism are absent in the discourses of these political parties.