Browsing by Subject "religions"

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  • Tainio, Liisa; Kallioniemi, Arto; Hotulainen, Risto; Ahlholm, Maria; Ahtiainen, Raisa; Asikainen, Mikko; Avelin, Lotta; Grym, Iina; Ikkala, Jussi; Laine, Marja; Lankinen, Ninni; Lehtola, Katju; Lindgren, Esko; Rämä, Irene; Sarkkinen, Tuomas; Tamm, Marja; Tuovila, Emilia; Virkkala, Niklas (Valtioneuvoston kanslia, 2019)
    Valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimustoiminnan julkaisusarja
    Globalisation and increasing mobility diversify societies and expand the number of languages and religions in the Western countries. With the speed of present demographic change, Finnish schools and other educational institutions, including teacher education, have not been fully able to adapt to this new situation. Key issues in immigrant integration comprise the adoption of the local language and culture while also maintaining the language(s), religion and culture of the country of origin. From the point of view of general education, the school subjects that best support integration are Finnish or Swedish as a second language (S2, R2), the learner’s own mother tongue, and religion / ethics. The many languages and religions in schools is a research project funded by the Finnish Government and carried out in the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the University of Helsinki. The project has generated rich knowledge of the resources and future needs of the teaching of minority languages and religions, and of Finnish and Swedish as a second language, at different levels of education. The goal of the project has been to provide research-based knowledge for decision makers and education administrators to be able to better allocate resources and to take concrete actions toward the successful integration of recent immigrants to the Finnish society. The project covered early childhood education, pre-primary education, instruction preparing for basic education, basic education, vocational education, upper secondary education, and pre-service and in-service teacher education. Data was collected mainly by online surveys sent to education providers and to teacher education departments in the universities. Data regarding in-service education was collected through teacher organisations and the National Agency of Education. Additionally, data supplied by Statistics Finland and other authorities were used. The project also aimed to disclose well-functioning research-based models for teaching. Examples of these were inquired directly from schools. The survey questions were adjusted for the different educational fields and levels, and they were pre-tested with the respective target groups. The project was carried out in 2017–2018. Key results regarding the different educational fields or levels are summarised (in Finnish) at the beginning of this report, followed by recommendations based on these results. The recommendations emphasise, among other things, that attention should be paid to the qualifications of teachers of minority languages and religions at all levels of education. Furthermore, it is recommended that diverse pathways for acquiring qualifications should be created, for example, through in-service training or by supporting religion and ethics teachers to acquire qualifications for teaching several religions. In vocational training, guidance related to multiculturalism and multi- lingualism should be increased.
  • Dsilva, Keshia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    There exists an extensive body of research on homosexuality, yet only a few studies address local meanings of homosexuality and still fewer attempt to understand the processes that construct these meanings and the values and beliefs of the people that share these meanings. Such studies would be particularly relevant in India as a developing and highly pluralistic country where the legal status of homosexuality has been in a state of flux. The unique history and religious diversity in India have shaped the way in which different communities come to understand homosexuality. Influences of both colonization and tradition are salient and constantly interacting, yet in many ways conflicting with each other. To explore these influences and intersections in relation to conceptions of homosexuality, the social representation theory was used as a methodological framework. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangalore with six families from the urban middle class representing the major religions of Hinduism, Islam and Christianity. Out of these six families, two families from each of the three religions participated. For each family, one member belonged to the youngest generation (18+ years of age), one to the middle generation and one to the grandparents’ generation. As Bangalore is the second fastest growing metropolis in India, it provided a good background to explore potential influences of modernisation. The inter-generational and inter-religious approach helped to provide insights on how these categories, in addition to their national identity as Indians, entwine and frame these participants’ representations of homosexuality. Across religions and generations, three representations of homosexuality were identified: nature, nurture and culture. In the first, homosexuality was categorized in terms of what is ‘natural’ and ‘unnatural’, in the second in terms of ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ and in the third, in terms of ‘deviant’ and ‘non-deviant’. Despite these convergent primary categorizations, participants’ ages, religions and gendered perceptions of what constitutes homosexuality intersected in diverse yet specific and patterned ways. My analysis sheds light on the functions served by these representations, local practices and customs, as well as social change in India with respect to meanings, understandings and practices of homosexuality.