Browsing by Subject "religiosity"

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  • Sipilä, Pyry; Gulnara, Harrasova; Mustelin, Linda; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Since medieval times, an association between religiosity and anorexia nervosa has been suggested, but few systematic studies exist. This study examines in a nationwide setting whether personal or family religiosity is associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa among women in adolescence and early adulthood. Women (N = 2,825) from the 1975 to 1979 birth cohorts of Finnish twins were screened for lifetime DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (N = 92). Parental religiosity was assessed by self-report when the women were aged 16 years. The women self-reported their religiosity at ages 16 and 22 to 27 years. Parental religiosity did not increase the risk of lifetime anorexia nervosa, and neither did religiosity of the women themselves in adolescence. In early adulthood, a J-shaped curve was compatible with the data, indicating increased risk both at low and high levels of religiosity, but this result was statistically non-significant. Religiosity was weakly negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction. There was some suggestive evidence for socioregional variation in the association of religiosity with lifetime anorexia nervosa. In this first population study to directly address religiosity and anorexia nervosa, no evidence was found for a significant association of religiosity with anorexia nervosa either at the personal or family level. Some regional differences are possible. A modest protective association of religiosity with body dissatisfaction is also possible. Despite compelling case descriptions of holy anorexia, religiosity does not appear to be a central factor in the development of anorexia nervosa in Finland, a highly secularized Christian country.
  • Kuivaniemi, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives: From the viewpoint of public safety and offender rehabilitation, there is a constant need for a development of more effective recidivism prevention programs. Religion has been offered as a solution to prevent recidivism and at the moment, many religious programs are run in the offender population. The objective of thesis is to examine the associations of religion on recidivism and whether this association is mediated by antisocial peer influence. Methods: This thesis utilizes a comprehensive longitudinal Pathways to Desistance data, in which participants were followed for seven years. The sample used in this thesis includes 1354 juvenile offenders, convicted of a serious offence, from Phoenix and Philadelphia, United States. The recidivism was examined with Self-Reported Offending (SRO) measure, and for the purposes of this thesis, both 1- year and 2-year measurements were used. The extent of religious beliefs and the frequency of church attendance were assessed with Importance of Spirituality scale. The associations of both religious beliefs and church attendance with recidivism in 1-year and 2-year measurements, and the mediating effects of antisocial peer influence, were assessed via binary logistic regression. Results and conclusions: It was found that religious beliefs predicted a decrease in recidivism two years after the religious beliefs were measures, but that association was not present in the 1-year follow-up. Higher church attendance was associated with a higher amount of recidivism at both 1-year and 2-year follow-ups after religious beliefs, antisocial peer influence and demographic variable were controlled for. Also, contrary to the framework of the social control theory, it was found that the association of religious beliefs or church attendance with recidivism was not mediated by the antisocial peer influence. In addition, the association of the religious beliefs on recidivism was not moderated by church attendance and vice versa. Overall, the body of literature on this subject is still very limited, with mixed results and with different types of measurements used. The findings of this thesis add to the evidence base and suggest that the effect of religion on recidivism is small at best, and that it is dependent on the constructs and measurements used. The development of recidivism prevention programs should focus on elements that have more empirical evidence and have been proven to work.
  • Jussila, Jonna (2000)
    The licentiate thesis studies young people's opinions on religion and God in the world, which is said to underline the meaning of relativism. The corpus is collected from the Helsingin Sanomat 'youngsters' opinion' column from 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Writings concerning religion are studied in the light of contemporary sociology and the sociology of religion. What has happened to religion in the process of modernization? Can theories of modernization interpret young people successfully? The corpus is mainly based on tough argumentation between religious and non-religious writers. Additionally, the writings of the 'open minded', and youngsters who 'have their own religion' have contributed important features to the corpus. The research questions focus on the substance of the argumentation: what are the arguments which youngsters use to support and refute religion like? I am also interested in the nature of privatised religion: does it exist in the writings and how can it be described from the point of view of selected sociologists? The approach to the study can be called 'society-analytical'. Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman, Gianni Vattimo, Thomas Luckmann and Harvie Ferguson are examples of theorists who function as 'research lences' in the study. Writings have been classified and components arising out of them are discovered and understood through the spectrum of the chosen theories. Writings are considered as youngsters' cultural speak about religion. On the other hand, colourful and powerful stories are expected to tell something new about the subject 'modern world and religion'. Wide modernization theory meets the most intimate views of youngsters concerning the changes in the world around us. The study shows how conflicting are the signals that contemporary culture can offer in matters religious. 'Movement' stems from many directions. Young writers opposing religion accuse religious writers of irrationality, lack of autonomy and intolerance. They think that in the contemporary context, autonomy can lead to a world of justice and tolerance. Religion has become incapable of sustaining the ends of good values. Religion is also experienced as something opposed to youth culture. It means abandoning the teenagers' way of life. The metaphors connected with religious people reflect this: weakness, oldness, and immaturity are seen to describe them well. On the other hand, seen through the eyes of other youngsters, the contemporary relative culture is experienced as anxious and meaningless. Many young writers have found the solution in traditional religion. Their writings work as descriptions of returning to the 'metaphysical ground'. When the world of choice appeared to be unbearable, the 'digging' of old religion has started. Christianity still has the function of bringing a sense of meaning to existence. Religion also plays a new role in the life of the young. Instead of dogmatism, the idea of rebuilt private religion lies in its ability to bring a sense of dimension, richness and exoticness to young people's life.