Browsing by Subject "religious education"

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  • Viinikka, Kaisa; Ubani, Martin; Lipiäinen, Tuuli; Kallioniemi, Arto (2019)
    This study investigates religious education (hereinafter referred to as “RE”) student teachers’ perceptions about what constitutes a successful teacher in the next 20-30 years. The study focuses on RE student teachers in teacher education in Finland. The students were studied in the light of a 21st century skills framework. The data were gathered using a questionnaire (N=43) and interviews (n=8). The analysis of the interviews was deductive content analysis with a quantification of the results. There were several results from the study. For instance, the RE student teachers’ expectations of professional development are connected to their perceptions of the task requirements. The RE student teachers perceived all kinds of interaction skills as an essential part of RE teacher competence in the future along with dialogue skills. The RE student teachers also emphasised learning to learn and critical thinking skills as the core skills of a successful RE teacher in the future. The participants seemed to highlight all the different literacy skills (information, media, technology and religious) as the core skills of a successful RE teacher. Especially religious literacy was considered to be a key skill in the competence of the RE teacher in the future.
  • Khalili, Samaneh; Kallioniemi, Arto; Bagheri Noaparast, Khosrow (2022)
    This article aims to identify and compare the characteristics of human agency in liberal and Islamic religious education, comparing Iran as a religious context influenced by Islamic state ideology with Finland as a liberal context and a secular state ideology. This comparison will be accomplished by document analysis of the national curricula for education in Iran and Finland. Methodologically, a comparative study and a deductive content-analysis approach will be employed. The paper will provide an analytical framework for human agency mainly based on Biesta's and Halstead's views as interpreters of liberal perspectives and Bagheri's view as an Islamic scholar. The comparison will be considered in the light of three categories: the foundation of agency, the requirements of agency and the educational consequences of agency. The results show that in all curriculum documents human agency is always considered but with distinct concepts and emphasis. In Iran, the focus is on spiritual aspects based on wisdom whereas in Finland the focus is on social aspects based on pure reasoning. The study suggests some points about the compatibility of Islam and liberal thought through the concept of human agency.
  • Luodeslampi, Juha; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto (2019)
    This article examines the career paths of Finnish Religious Education (RE) teachers who were born in the 1930s, through a retrospective, self-autobiographical life history approach. The material reported here is a part of wider data of mainly written narratives (N = 62) from RE teachers who recount their career trajectories. In these career-focused life histories, the teachers outline their own professionalism as embedded in changing sociohistorical contexts, where to a great extent they tell about the active development of the school and the teaching of their particular subject to answer to the changing needs and challenges. Some teachers have, along with their teaching, also been actively involved in different communities or associations. Many of the Religious Education teachers here reflect on their career paths in relation to their profession as a teacher and often also with double qualifications as pastor trained theologians. At times, this constructs a possibility for tension between the roles of a teacher and that of a pastor, and in the perceptions of RE as a school subject and as something “preached” in the pulpit—some see their professionalism above all in relation to their religious life. This also includes a notable gender divide in the data, as at the time when these teachers gained their professional qualifications, it was only possible for men to be ordained in the Finnish Lutheran Church. Succeeding this, the male teachers in these data commonly have pastorhood as their first profession. For the purpose of this article, the career accounts of four teachers have been selected for further analysis, as they were perceived as telling examples of the wider material in terms of more or less typical career paths.
  • Poulter, Saila (2017)
    The aim of this paper is to explore the history of Finnish religious education (RE) from the perspective of civic education. The research is based on a historical and content analysis of the data, which consist of written pedagogical and curricular material on Lutheran RE from the last 150 years. The analysis, which employs the Foucauldian concept of governmentality to explore the changes in the relationship between citizenship and religion, morality and power, demonstrates that RE has been a powerful tool in shaping civic identities throughout its history. However, the justifications for RE have differed markedly according to the social conditions of the day. This study further claims that liberalisation and individualisation are the main ideological and moral concepts that describe the change in the notion of citizenship. The main contribution of this analysis is to address the importance of understanding how the formation of civic identity is always shaped by historical and ideological currents and particularly how the externally controlling power of the nation state has been replaced by less visible ways of governing the liberal subject.
  • Matilainen, Mia; Kallioniemi, Arto (2011)
    There has been much discussion about the most suitable model of religious education (RE hereafter) in public schools all around Europe. The Finnish model of RE has attracted great interest, because in Finland RE is given according to one’s own religion. The Finnish model of RE is very unique and it emphasises the right of religious minorities to participate in RE according to their own religion in state-owned schools. In this article we examine headmasters’ conceptions of the current Finnish RE solution from the perspective of human rights. The study is based on qualitative interviews. Headmasters presented both advantages and disadvantages of the current RE solution. These advantages are briefly: freedom of religion, an opportunity to get RE according to one´s own religion, knowing one´s own roots, an opportunity to understand people from different religious backgrounds and an opportunity to study other religions for those students who are not members of religious communities. The limits of the solution are that it puts students into their own religious groups and this limits possibilities for religious dialogue, which should be one of the key elements of modern RE. RE has a strong potential to promote human rights. It is important to discuss different models of arranging education from the viewpoint of human rights. The human rights viewpoint should be central when dealing with the aims, contents and organization structure of RE. Different interpretations of religious freedom and the right to religious education are important considerations especially for RE.
  • Machreich, Miklas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the experience of principals in the metropolitan area about how partly integrated worldview education has been implemented and why schools have been transferred to it. In addition, in this thesis I’m interested in how schools have planned the partly integrated way of teaching in their school, how teachers, guardians and students responded when school started to teach it, is the integrated way of teaching successful and what are the principals’ future views in the teaching of religious education. The topic of this thesis is highly relevant, because religious education has been the subject of the debate in both media and research. Research on factors in the background have not been studied at least in Finland. However, some research has been done on principles, pupils and teachers in the objectives and success of integrated worldview education. In the theoretical part of the thesis, I used my bachelor’s thesis from 2020 and topical research in the field. This research aims to examine the subject from the perspective of principals. The research questions are: How schools have implemented and planned the teaching of partly integrative worldview education in their schools? And What were the biggest factors that schools have been transferred into partly integrated worldview education? Methods. This thesis was qualitative in nature which I conducted as an interview. Interviews with six principals took place between December 2020 and February 2021. I chose to interview principals from the metropolitan area who is working at schools that teach partly integrative worldview education. This thesis does not aim for generalizability and the aim of my research was to provide information about experiences of the principals. The material was analysed using content analysis and the interview method was theme interviews. Results and conclusions. Based on the results of the study the integrated worldview education will be implemented in three different ways: to one grade, to 2-4 grades or throughout the whole primary school. I created five factory categories for why schools transferred to partly integrative worldview education. These were: 1. ideological and essential elements of worldview education factors, 2. cultural diversity factors, 3. the opportunity to arrange a teaching in a new way, 4. economic factors, 5. teaching organization factors. None of these factors were the only reason behind the transfer, but many factors worked together with transfer. Partly integrated teaching based on the results, was well received by teachers, pupils and guardians. At the beginning most questioning of the new way of teaching came from the guardians. All principals felt that integrative worldview education was a successful way to teach. In the future principals hoped for more freedom at arranging worldview education at the school level and hoped that Finland would also be transmitted to teaching of common subject for all students in worldview education.