Browsing by Subject "remodeling"

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  • Malmström, Kristiina; Lohi, Jouko; Malmberg, Leo Pekka; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Lindahl, Harry; Sarna, Seppo; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Mäkelä, Mika J. (2020)
    Abstract Background The relationship of airway hyperresponsiveness to airway remodeling and inflammation in infants with wheeze is unclear. Objective To investigate airway hyperresponsiveness, remodeling and inflammation in infants with wheeze and troublesome breathing. Methods Inclusion criteria: full-term, 3-23 months of age; doctor diagnosed wheeze and persistent recurrent troublesome breathing; without obvious structural defect, suspicion of ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency or specified use of corticosteroids. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was evaluated by performing a methacholine bronchial challenge test combined with whole body pletysmography and rapid thoracoabdominal compression. Endobronchial biopsies were analyzed for remodeling (thickness of reticular basement membrane and amount of airway smooth muscle) and for inflammation (numbers of inflammatory cells). Correlation analyses were performed. Results Forty-nine infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the present study. Median age was 1.06 years (IQR 0.6; 1.5). Lung function was impaired in 39/49 (80%) children, at the median age of 1.1 years. Methacholine challenge was successfully performed in 38/49 children. Impaired baseline lung function correlated with AHR (p=0.047, Spearman). In children with the most sensitive quartile of AHR, the percentage of median bronchial airway smooth muscle % and the number of bronchial mast cells in airway smooth muscle were not significantly higher compared to others (p=0.057 and 0.056 respectively). No association was found between AHR and thickness of reticular basement membrane or inflammatory cells. Only a small group of children with both atopy and AHR (the most reactive quartile) had thicker airway smooth muscle area than non-atopics with AHR (p=0.031). Conclusions & Clinical Relevance These findings don not support the concept that AHR in very young children with wheeze is determined by eosinophilic inflammation or clear-cut remodeling although it is associated with impaired baseline lung function. The possible association of increased airway smooth muscle area among atopic children with AHR remains to be confirmed.
  • Unbiased Biomarkers Prediction Re; Jevnikar, Zala; Östling, Jörgen; Vaarala, Outi (2019)
    Background: Although several studies link high levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) to asthma severity and decreased lung function, the role of IL-6 trans-signaling (IL-6TS) in asthmatic patients is unclear. Objective: We sought to explore the association between epithelial IL-6TS pathway activation and molecular and clinical phenotypes in asthmatic patients. Methods: An IL-6TS gene signature obtained from air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with IL-6 and sIL-6R was used to stratify lung epithelial transcriptomic data (Unbiased Biomarkers in Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes [U-BIOPRED] cohorts) by means of hierarchical clustering. IL-6TS-specific protein markers were used to stratify sputum biomarker data (Wessex cohort). Molecular phenotyping was based on transcriptional profiling of epithelial brushings, pathway analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis of bronchial biopsy specimens. Results: Activation of IL-6TS in air-liquid interface cultures reduced epithelial integrity and induced a specific gene signature enriched in genes associated with airway remodeling. The IL-6TS signature identified a subset of patients with IL-6TS-high asthma with increased epithelial expression of IL-6TS-inducible genes in the absence of systemic inflammation. The IL-6TS-high subset had an overrepresentation of frequent exacerbators, blood eosinophilia, and submucosal infiltration of T cells and macrophages. In bronchial brushings Toll-like receptor pathway genes were upregulated, whereas expression of cell junction genes was reduced. Sputum sIL-6R and IL-6 levels correlated with sputum markers of remodeling and innate immune activation, in particular YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase 3, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta, IL-8, and IL-1 beta. Conclusions: Local lung epithelial IL-6TS activation in the absence of type 2 airway inflammation defines a novel subset of asthmatic patients and might drive airway inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in these patients.
  • Kainu, Ville; Hermansson, Martin; Somerharju, Pentti (2010)
  • Imhof, Thomas; Balic, Anamaria; Heilig, Juliane; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Chiquet, Matthias; Niehoff, Anja; Brachvogel, Bent; Thesleff, Irma; Koch, Manuel (2021)
    The continuously growing mouse incisor provides a fascinating model for studying stem cell regulation and organ renewal. In the incisor, epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells assure lifelong tooth growth. The epithelial stem cells reside in a niche known as the cervical loop. Mesenchymal stem cells are located in the nearby apical neurovascular bundle and in the neural plexus. So far, little is known about extracellular cues that are controlling incisor stem cell renewal and guidance. The extracellular matrix protein tenascin-W, also known as tenascin-N (TNN), is expressed in the mesenchyme of the pulp and of the periodontal ligament of the incisor, and is closely associated with collagen 3 fibers. Here, we report for the first time the phenotype of tenascin-W/TNN deficient mice, which in a C57BL/6N background exhibit a reduced body weight and lifespan. We found major defects in the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament of the growing rodent incisors, whereas molars were not affected. The alveolar bone around the incisor was replaced by a dense scar-like connective tissue, enriched with newly formed nerve fibers likely leading to periodontal pain, less food intake and reduced body weight. Using soft food to reduce mechanical load on the incisor partially rescued the phenotype. In situ hybridization and Gli1 reporter mouse experiments revealed decreased hedgehog signaling in the incisor mesenchymal stem cell compartment, which coordinates the development of mesenchymal stem cell niche. These results indicate that TNN deficiency in mice affects periodontal remodeling and increases nerve fiber branching. Through periodontal pain the food intake is reduced and the incisor renewal and the neurovascular sonic hedgehog secretion rate are reduced. In conclusion, tenascin-W/TNN seems to have a primary function in rapid periodontal tissue remodeling and a secondary function in mechanosensation.