Browsing by Subject "replacement"

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  • Juusela, Maija (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Sodium chloride is considered to be one of the most important ingredients in sausage production in terms of safety and quality. It is the biggest source of sodium in sausages which has been proven to have negative effects on health. In Finland meat dishes and products are responsible for one third of the sodium consumption per day for men and one fourth for women. Finland is going to begin applying the EU regulation on the provision of food information to consumers by the end of the year 2016. This regulation concerns nutrient information in the food packages. According to the regulation the new threshold value for sausages containing less salt than usual is 1,5 %. The objective of this study was to develop a sausage within the new threshold containing less than 1,2 % added salt and examine changes in sensory properties caused by salt replacements. The sensory method used in this research was quantitative comparison of multiple samples. The variable in the pork meat sausage samples was different potassium chloride salt replacers. Changes in sensory properties were examined by comparing the taste and texture of the samples to a reference sample. The taste properties assessed were saltiness, bitterness and metallic taste. Textural properties under evaluation were firmness and juiciness. The texture was also studied by firmness tests with Instron texture analyzer. According to the statistical results with applied Bonferroni correction, the only significantly differing property was saltiness. Two of the three replacer samples were assessed as less salty than the reference. However, compared to the hidden reference samples, no significant differences were detected. According to the results from the texture analysis, the sample containing the highest potassium chloride content was the least firm. On the basis of the sensory analyses, potassium chloride could be a considerable alternative to sodium chloride as a salt replacer.
  • Saku, S. A.; Linko, R.; Madanat, R. (2020)
    Background and Aims: Emergency Response Teams have been employed by hospitals to evaluate and manage patients whose condition is rapidly deteriorating. In this study, we aimed to assess the outcomes of triggering the Emergency Response Teams at a high-volume arthroplasty center, determine which factors trigger the Emergency Response Teams, and investigate the main reasons for an unplanned intensive care unit admission following Emergency Response Team intervention. Material and Methods: We gathered data by evaluating all Emergency Response Team forms filled out during a 4-year period (2014-2017), and by assessing the medical records. The collected data included age, gender, time of and reason for the Emergency Response Teams call, and interventions performed during the Emergency Response Teams intervention. The results are reported as percentages, mean +/- standard deviation, or median (interquartile range), where appropriate. All patients were monitored for 30 days to identify possible intensive care unit admissions, surgeries, and death. Results: The mean patient age was 72 (46-92) years and 40 patients (62%) were female. The Emergency Response Teams was triggered a total of 65 times (61 patients). The most common Emergency Response Team call criteria were low oxygen saturation, loss or reduction of consciousness, and hypotension. Following the Emergency Response Team call, 36 patients (55%) could be treated in the ward, and 29 patients (45%) were transferred to the intensive care unit. The emergency that triggered the Emergency Response Teams was most commonly caused by drug-related side effects (12%), pneumonia (8%), pulmonary embolism (8%), and sepsis (6%). Seven patients (11%) died during the first 30 days after the Emergency Response Teams call. Conclusion: Although all 65 patients met the Emergency Response Teams call criteria, potentially having severe emergencies, half of the patients could be treated in the arthroplasty ward. Emergency Response Team intervention appears useful in addressing concerns that can potentially lead to unplanned intensive care unit admission, and the Emergency Response Teams trigger threshold seems appropriate as only 3% of the Emergency Response Teams calls required no intervention.