Browsing by Subject "repurposing"

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  • Herring, Shawn; Oda, Jessica M.; Wagoner, Jessica; Kirchmeier, Delaney; O'Connor, Aidan; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; Huang, Qinfeng; Liang, Yuying; DeWald, Lisa Evans; Johansen, Lisa M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Olinger, Gene G.; Ianevski, Aleksandr; Aittokallio, Tero; Paine, Mary F.; Fink, Susan L.; White, Judith M.; Polyak, Stephen J. (2021)
    Neglected diseases caused by arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) and filoviruses like Ebola virus (EBOV) primarily afflict resource-limited countries, where antiviral drug development is often minimal. Previous studies have shown that many approved drugs developed for other clinical indications inhibit EBOV and LASV and that combinations of these drugs provide synergistic suppression of EBOV, often by blocking discrete steps in virus entry. We hypothesize that repurposing of combinations of orally administered approved drugs provides effective suppression of arenaviruses. In this report, we demonstrate that arbidol, an approved influenza antiviral previously shown to inhibit EBOV, LASV, and many other viruses, inhibits murine leukemia virus (MLV) reporter viruses pseudotyped with the fusion glycoproteins (GPs) of other arenaviruses (Junin virus (JUNV], lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and Pichinde virus (PICA). Arbidol and other approved drugs, including aripiprazole, amodiaquine, sertraline, and niclosamide, also inhibit infection of cells by infectious PICV, and arbidol, sertraline, and niclosamide inhibit infectious LASV. Combining arbidol with aripiprazole or sertraline results in the synergistic suppression of LASV and JUNV GP-bearing pseudoviruses. This proof-of-concept study shows that arenavirus infection in vitro can be synergistically inhibited by combinations of approved drugs. This approach may lead to a proactive strategy with which to prepare for and control known and new arenavirus outbreaks.
  • Antoniades, Athos; Nicolaidou, Iolie; Spachos, Dimitris; Mylläri, Jarkko; Giordano, Daniela; Dafli, Eleni; Mitsopoulou, Evangelia; Schizas, Christos N.; Pattichis, Constantinos; Nikolaidou, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis (2015)
    Background: The mEducator Best Practice Network (BPN) implemented and extended standards and reference models in e-learning to develop innovative frameworks as well as solutions that enable specialized state-of-the-art medical educational content to be discovered, retrieved, shared, and re-purposed across European Institutions, targeting medical students, doctors, educators and health care professionals. Scenario-based evaluation for usability testing, complemented with data from online questionnaires and field notes of users' performance, was designed and utilized for the evaluation of these solutions. Objective: The objective of this work is twofold: (1) to describe one instantiation of the mEducator BPN solutions (mEducator3.0 - "MEdical Education LINnked Arena" MELINA+) with a focus on the metadata schema used, as well as on other aspects of the system that pertain to usability and acceptance, and (2) to present evaluation results on the suitability of the proposed metadata schema for searching, retrieving, and sharing of medical content and with respect to the overall usability and acceptance of the system from the target users. Methods: A comprehensive evaluation methodology framework was developed and applied to four case studies, which were conducted in four different countries (ie, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Romania), with a total of 126 participants. In these case studies, scenarios referring to creating, sharing, and retrieving medical educational content using mEducator3.0 were used. The data were collected through two online questionnaires, consisting of 36 closed-ended questions and two open-ended questions that referred to mEducator 3.0 and through the use of field notes during scenario-based evaluations. Results: The main findings of the study showed that even though the informational needs of the mEducator target groups were addressed to a satisfactory extent and the metadata schema supported content creation, sharing, and retrieval from an end-user perspective, users faced difficulties in achieving a shared understanding of the meaning of some metadata fields and in correctly managing the intellectual property rights of repurposed content. Conclusions: The results of this evaluation impact researchers, medical professionals, and designers interested in using similar systems for educational content sharing in medical and other domains. Recommendations on how to improve the search, retrieval, identification, and obtaining of medical resources are provided, by addressing issues of content description metadata, content description procedures, and intellectual property rights for re-purposed content.