Browsing by Subject "research"

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  • Alitalo, Okko; Saarreharju, Roosa; Henter, Ioline D.; Jr, Carlos A. Zarate; Kohtala, Samuel; Rantamäki, Tomi (2021)
    Depression is frequently associated with sleep problems, and clinical improvement often coincides with the normalization of sleep architecture and realignment of circadian rhythm. The effectiveness of treatments targeting sleep in depressed patients, such as sleep deprivation, further demonstrates the confluence of sleep and mood. Moreover, recent studies showing that the rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine influences processes related to sleep-wake neurobiology have led to novel hypotheses explaining rapid and sustained antidepressant effects. Despite the available evidence, studies addressing ketamine's antidepressant effects have focused on pharmacology and often overlooked the role of physiology. To explore this discrepancy in research on rapid acting antidepressants, we examined articles published between 2009-2019. A keyword search algorithm indicated that vast majority of the articles completely ignored sleep. Out of the 100 most frequently cited pre clinical and clinical research papers, 89 % and 71 %, respectively, did not mention sleep at all. Furthermore, only a handful of these articles disclosed key experimental variables, such as the times of treatment administration or behavioral testing, let alone considered the potential association between these variables and experimental observations. Notably, in preclinical studies, treatments were preferentially administered during the inactive period, which is the polar opposite of clinical practice and research. We discuss the potential impact of this practice on the results in the field. Our hope is that this perspective will serve as a wake-up call to (re)-examine rapid-acting antidepressant effects with more appreciation for the role of sleep and chronobiology.
  • Keipi, Kari (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Hellman, Matilda (2021)
  • Heikinheimo, L.; Ervasti, S.; Ahonen, L. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1959)
  • Fuentes, Blanca; Ntaios, George; Putaala, Jukka (2021)
  • da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Bogoni, Juliano André; Heino, Jani (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021)
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9: 670212
    According to metacommunity theory (Leibold et al., 2004), the structure of local communities results from the interplay between local factors (e.g., environmental filtering, species interactions) and regional factors (e.g., dispersal rates, landscape configuration). The relative importance of these factors is highly dependent on the organisms’ biological traits, landscape connectivity, and the spatial and temporal scales considered (Heino et al., 2015; Tonkin et al., 2018; Viana and Chase, 2019; Almeida-Gomes et al., 2020; Cañedo-Argüelles et al., 2020; Lansac-Tôha et al., 2021). However, the differences in metacommunity assembly mechanisms found among studies are far from being fully understood. The evaluation of temporal dynamics of metacommunities has only emerged recently (Cañedo-Argüelles et al., 2020; Jabot et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020; Lindholm et al., 2021) and the application of the metacommunity theory in other fields, such as biomonitoring, conservation biology or ecosystem restoration, is yet to be fully explored (Bengtsson, 2010; Heino, 2013; Leibold and Chase, 2018; Chase et al., 2020; Cid et al., 2020; Heino et al., 2021). In this Research Topic, our aim was to invite researchers working in different biogeographic regions and ecological systems (Figure 1) to publish a number of innovative papers on metacommunity spatio-temporal dynamics. We expect to obtain a better understanding of how the factors and processes that structure metacommunities vary in space and time, as well as the implications of such dynamics for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management.
  • Nyyssönen, Aarne (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1959)
  • Sinnemäki, Aino (2003)
    The subject of the thesis is the way of thought, writing, talk and action constructed in time and place in Finnish academic sociology. The institutional, textual and political problems of outlining and defining sociology run through the whole thesis. A more exact outline comes from the actual subject of research, Professor Erik Allardt's ongoing life work. Allardt's work has had a broader impact than just on Finnish academic sociology and through this both the university institution and research politics enter into my research. Many of the theoretical concepts of the thesis are based on the works of Pierre Bourdieu, Steven Shapin, and Helga Nowotny. The research material is first and foremost texts that have produced and interpreted Finnish sociology, secondly archive material, the most important of these are the protocols of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Helsinki, but also expert statements found in the archives of other universities and the protocols of the Central Board of Research Councils from 1986-1990, third oral and written reminiscences. The method of research is linking the central fragments of texts through concepts with the already ample history writing of Finnish sociology. This method is more a method of presenting than of explaining things. The titles of the three main parts of the thesis are 'Habitus and Capital'. 'Fields' and 'Practices'. In chapter two of part one Allardt's background and resources, on which his career was built, are presented. In chapter three of part two a general picture of post-war Finnish sociology is presented. In chapter four Allardt's activity as an academic actor is analyzed according to different forms of university capital. In chapter 5 the non-academic aspects of Allardt's political activity and his links to fields of economy are analyzed. Chapter 6 of part three presents Allardt's work through various archive materials and reminiscences. Chapter 7 deals with the heart of academic matter, writing. In chapter 8 the historical self-understanding of Finnish sociology is analyzed. In Erik Allardt's career there is an unusual and balanced program-view of the function of sociology in society and an attempt to realize this view on all levels, both in research and in participation in society. It is a question of acting in an area, where research produces information, that is experienced as convincing and needed, that creates and forms a view of society, that 'needs' more of that information and that supports the production of such information. Allardt's lifework is part of a time, where in this area at least from time to time a certain 'balance' was achieved. He has had a central part in at least the following developments in Finnish society. The professionalization of science has brought scientists closer to other highly educated professional groups. Mass university education has produced scientifically trained professionals in many fields. This might have led to the questioning of the former special position of authority of science. The same phenomenon has also created a 'mass audience' for science, that is capable of following scientific reasoning and discussions.
  • Karlsson, Michael (2002)
    I avhandlingen utreds hurdan betydelse Internet, och då framförallt WWW och e-post, har fått för finlandssvenska journalister, som hjälpmedel i deras arbete. Utgångspunkten har varit att undersöka om Internet har hunnit bli ett lika viktigt verktyg på Svenskfinlands redaktioner, som det enligt forskningen är utomlands. Attityden är i grunden skeptisk – innehållet i media har inte blivit speciellt mycket annorlunda sedan nätets intåg. Vad kan då en finlandssvensk journalist egentligen ha för nytta av nätet, varför är de flesta så intresserade av det? I texten diskuteras olika slag av insamling av journalistiskt material med hjälp av nätet – oftast är det lika med sökning av information på WWW, men också bland annat intervjuer via e-post och sökning efter bild- och ljudmaterial. Källkritik behandlas skilt, eftersom det är en central fråga när man diskuterar information från nätet och speciellt WWW. Som teoretisk bakgrund har använts främst Ari Heinonens Journalism in the Age of the Net – Changing Society, Changing Profession (1999), Don Middlebergs och Steven Ross’ utredningar från 2000 och 2001, samt Timo Lüges Usage Patterns and Information Needs of Journalists on the Internet. An Empirical Study at USUS – the Usually Useful Internet Guide for Journalist (1999). Både kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder har använts i den egna forskningen. Dels baserar sig resultaten på en traditionell enkät, som gick ut till samtliga finlandssvenska dagstidningar hösten 1999, och dels på tio kompletterande kvalitativa intervjuer med etermediejournalister från våren och hösten 2001. Resultaten visar främst att Internet under några år snabbt har hunnit etablera sig som ett av de mest använda journalistiska hjälpmedlen också i Svenskfinland. Nätet är inte orsak till någon större förändring av innehållet i media, men det är flexibelt och till stor hjälp med mängder av mindre saker – kontaktuppgifter, bakgrundsinformation, i viss mån nya uppslag (i den mån journalistens samvete tillåter det), och mycket annat. Allt det här anses numera vara lättare eller snabbare än tidigare, och det är tillräckligt mycket för att slutsatsen av forskningen skall vara att Internet idag verkligen är ett av mest användbara verktygen som står till en journalists tjänst, tillsammans med telefonen, den bärbara inspelningsutrustningen och ordbehandlaren.
  • Appelroth, Eric (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1959)
  • Hynninen, Elina; Moliner, Rafael; Ekelund, Jesper; Korpi, Esa R.; Elsilä, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Psykedeelit eli serotonergiset hallusinogeenit ovat herättäneet uutta mielenkiintoa neurotieteissä ja psykiatriassa viime vuosina. Psykedeelejä tutkitaan nykyään pääsiassa psykedeeliavusteisen terapian muodossa. Tähänastiset tutkimukset antavat viitteitä mahdollisista hoidollisista ominaisuuksista muun muassa masennuksen, ahdistuksen, riippuvuuksien sekä kivun hoidossa. Nykyisten tutkimustulosten mukaan hoidolliset vaikutukset saattavat osalla potilaista jatkua pitkään hoitojakson jälkeen. Psykedeelit sitoutuvat keskushermostossa useisiin välittäjäainereseptoreihin, mutta niiden pääasiallinen molekulaarinen vaikutusmekanismi on serotonergisen 5-HT2A-reseptorin aktivaatio. Subjektiivisesti koetut vaikutukset välittyvät useita eri välittäjäaineita käyttävien hermoratojen toiminnallisten muutosten kautta, toistaiseksi melko huonosti tunnetuilla molekulaarisilla mekanismeilla. Aivotasolla psykedeelien on havaittu vähentävän tärkeiden yhteyskeskusten aktiivisuutta, lisäävän toiminnallisia yhteyksiä korkean tason aistikeskusten välillä sekä lisäävän hermosolujen muovautuvuutta. Psykedeelien voimakkaita psykologisia vaikutuksia ovat muutokset omassa kehonkuvassa ja ympäröivän maailman havainnoinnissa. Lisääntynyt hyvänolontunne, joka kuitenkin voi hetkessä muuttua voimakkaaksi ahdistukseksi on tyypillistä. Psykedeelien aikaansaama kokemus riippuu vahvasti käyttäjän omasta mielentilasta ja käytönaikaisesta ympäristöstä. Yliannostustilanteessa yleisiä haittoja ovat oksentelu, kuume, veren hyytymisen häiriöt, sympaattinen yliaktiivisuus ja lyhyet koomajaksot. Psykedeelejä pidetään fysiologisesti turvallisina aineina, mutta valvomattomissa olosuhteissa psykedeelien käyttäjä voi ajautua voimakkaiden psyykkisten vaikutusten alaisena vaarallisiin tilanteisiin ja onnettomuuksiin. Toleranssi psykedeeleihin kehittyy jo muutaman keskisuuren päivittäisen annoksen jälkeen. Lääketieteellinen psykedeelitutkimus on hyvin alkuvaiheessa. Tutkimukset ovat toistaiseksi olleet otannoiltaan pieniä ja asetelmiltaan usein avoimia ja kontrolloimattomia, minkä vuoksi ne ovat toistaiseksi riittämättömiä kuvastamaaan psykedeelien todellista vaikuttavuutta ja turvallisuutta.
  • Rask, Mikko; Mačiukaitė-Žvinienė, Saulė; Tauginienė, Loreta; Dikčius, Vytautas; Matschoss, Kaisa; Aarrevaara, Timo; d’Andrea, Luciano (Routledge, 2018)
    The field of public participation is developing fast, with phenomena such as citizen science and crowdsourcing extending the resource base of research, stimulating innovation and making science more accessible to the general population. Promoting public participation means giving more weight to citizens and civil society actors in the definition of research needs and in the implementation of research and innovation. As yet, there is limited understanding of the implications of widespread use of public participation and as a result, there is a risk that it will become a burden for research and an obstacle to bridging the gap between research and society. This volume presents the findings of a three-year international study on innovative public participation. The resulting work studies the characteristics and trends of innovative public participation through a global sample of 38 case studies. It provides theoretical generalisations on the dynamics of public participation, suggestions for an evaluation framework and clear empirical examples of how public participation works in practice. Illustrated by best practice cases, the authors identify characteristics which contribute to successful public participation. The book is aimed primarily at scholars and practitioners of public participation, as well as research managers, policy makers and business actors interested in related issues. There is also a secondary market for students and scholars of European governance studies, sociology and political sciences.
  • Peräkylä, Anssi (2010)
    Psychoanalytic interpretation is normally understood as a sequence of two utterances: the analyst gives an interpretation and the patient responds to it. This paper suggests that, in the interpretative sequence, there is also a third utterance where psychoanalytic work takes place. This third interpretative turn involves the analyst’s action after the patient’s response to the interpretation. Using conversation analysis as method in the examination of audio-recorded psychoanalytic sessions, the paper will explicate the psychoanalytic work that gets done in third interpretative turns. Through it, the analyst takes a stance towards the patient’s understandings of the interpretation, which are shown in the patient’s response to the interpretation. The third interpretative turns on one hand ratify and accept the patient’s understandings, but, in addition to that, they also introduce a shift of perspective relative to them. In most cases, the shift of perspective is implicit but sometimes it is made explicit. The shifts of perspective bring to the foreground aspects or implications of the interpretation that were not incorporated in the patient’s response. They recast the description of the patient’s experience by showing new layers or more emotional intensity in it. The results are discussed in the light of Faimberg’s concept of listening to listening and Schlesinger’s concept of follow-up interpretation.
  • Mikola, Peitsa; Kangas, Esko; Heikurainen, Leo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1959)
  • Wegelius, Theodor (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1959)
  • Heikurainen, Leo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1960)
  • Grant, Danielle M.; Brodnicke, Ole Bjørn; Evankow, Ann M.; Ferreira, André O.; Fontes, João T.; Hansen, Aslak Kappel; Jensen, Mads Reinholdt; Kalaycı, Tuğba Ergül; Leeper, Alexandra; Patil, Shalaka Kiran; Prati, Sebastian; Reunamo, Anna; Roberts, Aradhana J.; Shigdel, Rajesh; Tyukosova, Valentina; Bendiksby, Mika; Blaalid, Rakel; Costa, Filipe O.; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Stur, Elisabeth; Ekrem, Torbjørn (MDPI, 2021)
    Diversity 2021, 13(7), 313
    Over the last two decades, the use of DNA barcodes has transformed our ability to identify and assess life on our planet. Both strengths and weaknesses of the method have been exemplified through thousands of peer-reviewed scientific articles. Given the novel sequencing approaches, currently capable of generating millions of reads at low cost, we reflect on the questions: What will the future bring for DNA barcoding? Will identification of species using short, standardized fragments of DNA stand the test of time? We present reflected opinions of early career biodiversity researchers in the form of a SWOT analysis and discuss answers to these questions.
  • Ghosh, Bipashyee; Kivimaa, Paula; Ramirez, Matias; Schot, Johan; Torrens, Jonas (Oxford University Press, 2021)
    Science and Public Policy, 48, 5, October 2021, 739–756
    The impending climate emergency, the Paris agreement and Sustainable Development Goals demand significant transformations in economies and societies. Science funders, innovation agencies, and scholars have explored new rationales and processes for policymaking, such as transformative innovation policy (TIP). Here, we address the question of how to orient the efforts of science, technology, and innovation policy actors to enable transformations. We build on sustainability transitions research and a 4-year co-creation journey of the TIP Consortium to present twelve transformative outcomes that can guide public policy agencies in evaluating and reformulating their projects, programmes, and policies. We illustrate the transformative outcomes in two empirical cases: transitions towards mobility-as-a-service in the Finnish transport system and the emergence of speciality coffee in Colombia. We argue that the twelve transformative outcomes can guide public policy agents to fundamentally transform their ways of thinking and operation in advancing transformative change.