Browsing by Subject "resistance"

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  • Reyes-García, Victoria; Andrés-Conejero, Oriol; Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Molina, José Luis (2019)
    Society's understanding of a conflict is mediated by information provided in mass media, for which researchers stress the importance of analyzing media portrays of stakeholders in a conflict. We analyze information from the Bolivian press regarding the construction of a road crossing the Isiboro-Secure Indigenous Territory and National Park (TIPNIS). Using stakeholder's and social network analyses, we explore stakeholder's positions and alliances as represented in the media and contrast it with previous scholarly work. We found that some actors cited as central in scholar analyses of the conflict are largely absent in the media (e.g., private investors, conservationist sector) and that the media tend to present stakeholders as having more homogeneous positions than the academic literature does while also neglecting some important alliances in their account. The media also suggests that Indigenous communities are forging stronger alliances with urban sectors and civil society, alliances not stressed by researchers.
  • Moyano-Galceran, Lidia; Pietila, Elina A.; Turunen, S. Pauliina; Corvigno, Sara; Hjerpe, Elisabet; Bulanova, Daria; Joneborg, Ulrika; Alkasalias, Twana; Miki, Yuichiro; Yashiro, Masakazu; Chernenko, Anastasiya; Jukonen, Joonas; Singh, Madhurendra; Dahlstrand, Hanna; Carlson, Joseph W.; Lehti, Kaisa (2020)
    Metastatic cancers commonly activate adaptive chemotherapy resistance, attributed to both microenvironment-dependent phenotypic plasticity and genetic characteristics of cancer cells. However, the contribution of chemotherapy itself to the non-genetic resistance mechanisms was long neglected. Using high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) patient material and cell lines, we describe here an unexpectedly robust cisplatin and carboplatin chemotherapy-induced ERK1/2-RSK1/2-EphA2-GPRC5A signaling switch associated with cancer cell intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance. Mechanistically, pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of RSK1/2 prevented oncogenic EphA2-S897 phosphorylation and EphA2-GPRC5A co-regulation, thereby facilitating a signaling shift to the canonical tumor-suppressive tyrosine phosphorylation and consequent downregulation of EphA2. In combination with platinum, RSK inhibitors effectively sensitized even the most platinum-resistant EphA2(high), GPRC5A(high) cells to the therapy-induced apoptosis. In HGSC patient tumors, this orphan receptor GPRC5A was expressed exclusively in cancer cells and associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor survival. Our results reveal a kinase signaling pathway uniquely activated by platinum to elicit adaptive resistance. They further identify GPRC5A as a marker for abysmal HGSC outcome and putative vulnerability of the chemo-resistant cells to RSK1/2-EphA2-pS897 pathway inhibition.
  • Vähäkangas, Auli Maria (2019)
    This article studies the experiences of same-sex couples in connection with a prayer ritual conducted over their registered partnerships and focuses on the pre-legal context of same-sex marriage in Finland. The aim is to analyze conformity and resistance in the participants' understanding of personalized ritual through Grimes's categories of language, space, time, and actors. The findings reveal that most of the rituals had both elements of resistance that were understood as following a same-sex culture and of conformity with heterosexual nuptial traditions. Double affiliation with Christian and gay culture produces complex forms of conformity and resistance. Personalization of the religious rituals was more important to the participants of the study than following heterosexual traditions.
  • Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar; Ali, Akhtar; Cheng, Xiaofei; Mäkinen, Kristiina; Agindotan, Bright; Wang, Xifeng (2021)
  • Laine, Anna M.; Lindholm, Tapio; Nilsson, Mats; Kutznetsov, Oleg; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2021)
    Journal of Ecology 109, 4 (2021), 1774–1789
    1. Most of the carbon accumulated into peatlands is derived from Sphagnum mosses. During peatland development, the relative share of vascular plants and Sphagnum mosses in the plant community changes, which impacts ecosystem functions. Little is known on the successional development of functional plant traits or functional diversity in peatlands, although this could be a key for understanding the mechanisms behind peatland resistance to climate change. Here we aim to assess how functionality of successive plant communities change along the autogenic peatland development and the associated environmental gradients, namely peat thickness and pH, and to determine whether trait trade-offs during peatland succession are analogous between vascular plant and moss communities. 2. We collected plant community and trait data on successional peatland gradients from post-glacial rebound areas in coastal Finland, Sweden and Russia, altogether from 47 peatlands. This allowed us to analyse the changes in community-weighted mean trait values and functional diversity (diversity of traits) during peatland development. 3. Our results show comparative trait trade-offs from acquisitive species to conservative species in both vascular plant and Sphagnum moss communities during peatland development. However, mosses had higher resistance to environmental change than vascular plant communities. This was seen in the larger proportion of intraspecific trait variation than species turnover in moss traits, while the proportions were opposite for vascular plants. Similarly, the functional diversity of Sphagnum communities increased during the peatland development, while the opposite occurred for vascular plants. Most of the measured traits showed a phylogenetic signal. More so, the species common to old successional stages, namely Ericacae and Sphagna from subgroup Acutifolia were detected as most similar to their phylogenetic neighbours. 4. Synthesis. During peatland development, vegetation succession leads to the dominance of conservative plant species accustomed to high stress. At the same time, the autogenic succession and ecological engineering of Sphagna leads to higher functional diversity and intraspecific variability, which together indicate higher resistance towards environmental perturbations.
  • Kuukka-Anttila, Hanna; Peuhkuri, Nina; Kolari, Irma; Kause, Antti (2020)
    Parasite infectivity, virulence and host resistance have been in the centre of the scientific interest when it comes to host-parasite relationships. In addition to resistance, hosts may also vary in their tolerance against parasites. This is important to notice because resistance and tolerance have different consequences in host-parasite co-evolution. Here, we show that families of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) show both host defence strategies, resistance, and tolerance, against infectivity and virulence ofDiplostomumsp. (Trematoda) parasites. Both strategies have moderate genetic variation and are genetically independent of each other. It is also shown that the families having the highest performance measured as higher weight, better condition factor and lower mortality in absence of the parasites suffer the most when parasitism increases. For practical breeding programmes, this means that both resistance and tolerance can be improved by selection without compromising one of the strategies. These results give new insight into defence strategies against parasites in fish and into processes of fish-parasite co-evolution.
  • Kafle, Madan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Oat (Avena sativa L.) is the second largest cereal crop (in terms of production) in Finland and the prevalence of Fusarium graminearum in Nordic region is increasing. Infection by F. graminearum causes fusarium head blight (FHB) leading to accumulation of mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol) in addition to the reduction of yield. European union has set the limit for deoxynivalenol for unprocessed oat as 1.75 ppm. Therefore, it is a challenge for the production and marketing of oat to stay within the limit. Being aware of these problems and lack of much understanding in this area, this study was carried out at Boreal plant breeding company located in Jokioinen, Finland. It was aimed to check for associations between traits and markers in an oat field artificially inoculated with F. graminearum. The traits under consideration were plant height, maturity class, heading date, anther extrusion, deoxynivalenol content and germination capacity of kernels. To check the correlation between the traits and explore the variation existing in our germplasm was also the focus of this study. The experimental field was sown as row plots and after one month of sowing, it was inoculated with oat seeds infected with F. graminearum. The phenotypic data were recorded on suitable time and the genome-wide association study was carried out using genome association and prediction integrated tool in R software. Among the traits under consideration, maturity class showed an association with the markers and showed significant positive correlation with deoxynivalenol accumulation and can be considered for further study.
  • Nygren, Anja; Kröger, Markus; Gills, Barry (2022)
    This article examines global extractivisms and transformative alternatives; addressing: (1) access to and control over resources, (2) governance and recognition, (3) environmental-social harms, and (4) justice. The examination of these themes provides an understanding of the sociospatial links between extractivism and differentiated distribution of benefits and burdens. The study sheds light on the politics of recognition, including the discourses and policies that enable extractive industries to obtain licences to operate in resource-rich territories. The analysis illuminates the inseparability of environmental-social impacts of extractivism, including altered human-nonhuman relations, while opening perspectives to claims for justice and the search for transformative alternatives.
  • Tuominen, Pekka (2020)
    Kontula, a suburban estate at the margins of Helsinki, Finland, has been plagued by a notorious reputation since its construction in the 1960s. At different moments in history, it has reflected failed urbanity, with shifting emphases on issues such as rootlessness, segregation, intergenerational poverty, and unsuccessful integration of immigrants. Unlike many other suburban estates in Helsinki, it has become a potent symbol of the ills of contemporary urbanity in the vernacular geography of the city. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this article explores how its inhabitants experience the dynamic between the internalised stigma and their responses to it. The focus is on how historically formed and spatially defined senses of belonging and exclusion shape their everyday lives and how they have found ways to challenge the dominant perceptions about their homes and neighbourhoods. I argue that an understanding of cultural intimacy, conceptually developed by Michael Herzfeld, offers a useful way to approach the tension between essentialised categories and lived realities. Rather than simply limiting their agency, the shared stigma enables inhabitants to form powerful senses of belonging. The article emphasises how culturally intimate understandings employ both complex historical trajectories and shifts in relative location to question and confront the stigma in the language of mutual trust and belonging.
  • Tammisto, Tuomas; Wilenius, Heikki (Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura, 2021)
    Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia
  • Ihanus, Juhani (2021)
  • Carter, Corey A.; Oronsky, Bryan T.; Roswarski, Joseph; Oronsky, Arnold L.; Oronsky, Neil; Scicinski, Jan; Lybeck, Harry; Kim, Michelle M.; Lybeck, Michelle; Reid, Tony R. (2017)
    Checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PD-1 or CTLA-4, have revolutionized the treatment of multiple cancers. Despite the enthusiasm for the clinical successes of checkpoint inhibitors, and immunotherapy, in general, only a minority of patients with specific tumor types actually benefit from treatment. Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic alterations as a mechanism of clinical resistance to immunotherapy. This review presents evidence for that association, summarizes the epi-based mechanisms by which tumors evade immunogenic cell death, discusses epigenetic modulation as a component of an integrated strategy to boost anticancer T cell effector function in relation to a tumor immunosuppression cycle and, finally, makes the case that the success of this no-patient-left-behind strategy critically depends on the toxicity profile of the epigenetic agent(s).
  • Koskinen, Juho; Ortiz Martinez, Pilar; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Joutsen, Suvi; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu (2022)
    Yersinia enterocolitica is a psychrotrophic zoonotic foodborne pathogen. Pigs are considered the main reservoir of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3, which is the most commonly isolated bioserotype in many European countries. Consuming pork contaminated with Y. enterocolitica can be a health threat, and antimicrobial-resistant strains may complicate the treatment of the most severe forms of yersiniosis. We analyzed the antimicrobial resistance of 1,016 pathogenic porcine Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains originating from Belgium, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Russia, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Based on available reports, we also compared antimicrobial sales for food production animals in these countries, excluding Russia. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined using a broth microdilution method with VetMIC plates for 13 antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur (CTF), chloramphenicol (CHL), ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid (NAL), streptomycin (STR), sulfamethoxazole (SME), tetracycline (TET), and trimethoprim (TMP). The antimicrobial resistance of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains varied widely between the countries. Strains resistant to antimicrobial agents other than ampicillin were rare in Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Russia, with prevalence of 0.7, 0.4, 0, and 8.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was found in Spanish and Italian strains, with 98 and 61% of the strains being resistant to at least two antimicrobial agents, respectively. Resistance to at least four antimicrobial agents was found in 34% of Spanish, 19% of Italian, and 7.1% of English strains. Antimicrobial resistance was more common in countries where the total sales of antimicrobials for food production animals are high and orally administered medications are common. Our results indicate that antimicrobials should be used responsibly to treat infections, and parenteral medications should be preferred to orally administered mass medications.
  • Niemi, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Root and butt rot is the most harmful fungal disease affecting Norway spruce in southern Finland. In approximately 90 % of cases the causal agent is Heterobasidion parviporum. Root and butt rot infections have not been reported in Finnish peatlands. However, the increase in logging operations in peatlands means there is a risk that the fungus will eventually spread to these areas. The aim of this study was to find out the impact of growing site on the resistance of Norway spruce to Heterobasidion parviporum infections. This was investigated by artificially inoculating H. parviporum to spruce trees in pristine mire, drained peatland and mineral soil and comparing the defence reactions. Additionally, the effect of genotype on resistance was studied by comparing the responses of spruce clones representing different geographic origins. The roots and stems of the trees to be sampled were wounded and inoculated with wood dowels pre-colonised by H. parviporum hyphae. The resulting necrosis around the point of inoculation was observed. It was presumed that increased length of necrosis indicates high susceptibility of the tree to the disease. The relationship between growth rate and host resistance was also studied. The results indicated that growing site does not have a statistically significant effect on host resistance. The average length of necrosis around the point of inoculation was 35 mm in pristine mire, 37 mm in drained peatland and 40 mm in mineral soil. It was observed that growth rate does not affect resistance, but that the genotype of the tree does have an effect. The most resistant spruce clone was the one with Russian origin. The results suggest that the spruce stands in peatlands are not more resistant to root and butt rot infections than those in mineral soil. These findings should be taken into consideration when logging peatland forests.
  • Erkama, Niina; Vaara, Eero (Organizational Studies, forthcoming, 2009/2010, 2009)
    Critical organization scholars have focused increasing attention on industrial and organizational restructurings such as shutdown decisions. However, we know little about the rhetorical strategies used to legitimate or resist plant closures in organizational negotiations. In this paper, we draw from New Rhetoric to analyze rhetorical struggles, strategies and dynamics in unfolding organizational negotiations. We focus on the shutdown of the bus body unit of the Swedish company Volvo in Finland. We distinguish five types of rhetorical legitimation strategies and dynamics. These include the three classical dynamics of logos (rational arguments), pathos (emotional moral arguments), and ethos (authority-based arguments), but also autopoiesis (autopoietic narratives), and cosmos (cosmological constructions). Our analysis adds to the previous studies explaining how organizational restructuring as a phenomenon is legitimated, how this legitimation has changed over time, and how contemporary industrial closures are legitimated in the media. This study also increases our theoretical understanding of the role of rhetoric in legitimation more generally.
  • Erkama, Niina; Vaara, Eero (Organization Studies, 2009)
    Critical organization scholars have focused increasing attention on industrial and organizational restructurings such as shutdown decisions. However, little is known about the rhetorical strategies used to legitimate or resist plant closures in organizational negotiations. In this article, we draw from New Rhetoric to analyze rhetorical struggles, strategies and dynamics in unfolding organizational negotiations. We focus on the shutdown of the bus body unit of the Sweden-based Volvo Bus Corporation in Finland. We distinguish five types of rhetorical legitimation strategies and dynamics. These include the three classical dynamics of logos (rational arguments), pathos (emotional moral arguments), and ethos (authority-based arguments), but also autopoiesis (autopoietic narratives), and cosmos (cosmological constructions). Our analysis contributes to previous studies on organizational restructuring by providing a more nuanced understanding of how contemporary industrial closures are legitimated and resisted in organizational negotiations. This study also increases theoretical understanding of the role of rhetoric in legitimation more generally.
  • Uusitalo, Tuomas (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Sulfonylureas is large, widely, especially in cereal production, used herbicide group since 1980’. Continual unilateral use of sulfonylureas has resulted in development of sulfonylurea resistant weeds. Common chickweed [Stellaria media (L.) Vill.] is common weed in Finland, which is known to have developed sulfonylurea resistance. The aim of this work was to investigate herbicides to control sulfonylurea resistant chickweed as well as to optimize the timing of the weed control. Further attention paid to the effect of weed control to the barley grain yield and its quality. This study was organized as a field experiment in Somero during summer 2012 a randomized complete block design. Sulfonylurea resistant chickweed population was found from this specific field. Experiment included 14 herbicide treatments. One of the herbicides studied was sulfonylurea. Herbicides applied at early and late timing. After treatments, the number of chickweed was counted, its biomass was weighed and N content analysed. Furthermore, the coverage of chickweed and the herbicide efficacy was evaluated visually. Barley was harvested and the grain yield and its quality was analysed. Sulfonylurea Express 50 SX did not control chickweed as effectively as expected. Starane 180 was effective only when 0,6L/ha dosage was used. Ariane S, K-Trio and Primus were effective, with efficacies over 90%. Efficacies of these herbicides were not dependent of timing. Oxyril did not control chickweed as well as was assumed. Efficacy of Oxytril was better when applied at early timing. It seems that the best options to for weed management in case of sulfonylurea resistant chickweed are Starane 180, K-Trio and Ariane S.
  • Koskinen, Heli Irmeli (2019)
    Larsen, Nansen, Grönvold, Wolstrup and Henriksen (1997) have previously reviewed the prospects of control of equine nematodes by using fungal cultures. Since then more investigations have been implemented and actualized. Field trials and laboratory tests have been reported with new perspectives and increasing number of animals in trials. The aim of this new review of literature is to add new knowledge to those questions that remained open in the 1990s. In particular, on the perspective of veterinary practitioner and sustainable use of deworming practices it is important to know those directions which should be followed.
  • Könönen, Jukka (2021)
    Due to the difficulties in accessing detention facilities, the discussion on immigration detention often draws on limited empirical data with varying degrees of attention paid to the heterogeneity of the detained population and their different stakes in an impending removal. Although a closed institution, various legal and administrative processes related to the enforcement of immigration decisions render immigration detention a relational field. Drawing on my fieldwork experiences while conducting multi-sited ethnographic research on the immigration detention system in Finland, I discuss how methodological choices, theoretical presuppositions and circumstantial factors affect the production of knowledge on immigration detention. I address the relevance of: 1) the case selection among detainees with considerably varying immigration histories, social situations and detention times; 2) a multi-sited research setting to conceive the various processes of immigration enforcement during detention; 3) an engaged research strategy to access detainees' first-hand knowledge of their immigration cases beyond dramatic representations; and 4) the employment of administrative data in contextualising empirical findings. I argue for the importance of examining detainees' negotiations with the deportation apparatus, which shapes available options for detainees as well as determines the outcome of detention from the 'outside', despite its absence in everyday life in detention.
  • Wambui, Joseph; Eshwar, Athmanya K.; Aalto-Araneda, Mariella; Pöntinen, Anna; Stevens, Marc J. A.; Njage, Patrick M. K.; Tasara, Taurai (2020)
    Nisin is a commonly used bacteriocin for controlling spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in food products. Strains possessing high natural nisin resistance that reduce or increase the potency of this bacteriocin against Listeria monocytogenes have been described. Our study sought to gather more insights into nisin resistance mechanisms in natural L. monocytogenes populations by examining a collection of 356 field strains that were isolated from different foods, food production environments, animals and human infections. A growth curve analysis-based approach was used to access nisin inhibition levels and assign the L. monocytogenes strains into three nisin response phenotypic categories; resistant (66%), intermediate (26%), and sensitive (8%). Using this categorization isolation source, serotype, genetic lineage, clonal complex (CC) and strain-dependent natural variation in nisin phenotypic resistance among L. monocytogenes field strains was revealed. Whole genome sequence analysis and comparison of high nisin resistant and sensitive strains led to the identification of new naturally occurring mutations in nisin response genes associated with increased nisin resistance and sensitivity in this bacterium. Increased nisin resistance was detected in strains harboring RsbUG77S and PBPB3V240F amino acid substitution mutations, which also showed increased detergent stress resistance as well as increased virulence in a zebra fish infection model. On the other hand, increased natural nisin sensitivity was detected among strains with mutations in sigB, vir, and dlt operons that also showed increased lysozyme sensitivity and lower virulence. Overall, our study identified naturally selected mutations involving pbpB3 (lm0441) as well as sigB, vir, and dlt operon genes that are associated with intrinsic nisin resistance in L. monocytogenes field strains recovered from various food and human associated sources. Finally, we show that combining growth parameter-based phenotypic analysis and genome sequencing is an effective approach that can be useful for the identification of novel nisin response associated genetic variants among L. monocytogenes field strains.