Browsing by Subject "retirement"

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  • Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause and cause-specific disability retirement. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from their inception to May 2019. A total of 27 (25 prospective cohort and 2 nested case-control) studies consisting of 2 199 632 individuals qualified for a meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We used a random effects meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, and performed sensitivity analyses. There were a large number of participants and the majority of studies were rated at low or moderate risk of bias. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and disability retirement. Underweight (hazard ratio (HR)/risk ratio (RR)=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41), overweight (HR/RR=1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19) and obese individuals (HR/RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.71) were more commonly granted all-cause disability retirement than normal-weight individuals. Moreover, overweight increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.26, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.39) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.41), and obesity increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.94), mental disorders (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.61) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=2.80, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.24). The association between excess body mass and all-cause disability retirement did not differ between men and women and was independent of selection bias, performance bias, confounding and adjustment for publication bias. Obesity markedly increases the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders. Since the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, disease burden associated with excess body mass and disability retirement consequently are projected to increase. Reviewregistrationnumber: CRD42018103110.
  • Pulakka, Anna; Halonen, Jaana I.; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2019)
    Aims: We examined the effect of retirement transition on changes in smoking, identified trajectories of smoking around the retirement transition, and investigated factors predicting the membership in the trajectories. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study included 1,432 current or former smokers who entered into statutory retirement in 2000-2011 and who filled out two to four questionnaires sent at four-year intervals. Effect of retirement on smoking was analysed as a non-randomized pseudo-trial in which we compared the likelihood of quitting and relapsing smoking between two subsequent survey waves among those who retired and did not retire. We used latent class analysis to identify trajectories of smoking status and smoking intensity (low: 10 cigarettes/day), and multinomial logistic regression models to assess pre-retirement factors associated with smoking trajectories. Results: Retirement transition was associated with 1.7-fold odds of quitting smoking (95% confidence intervals 1.3-2.2) compared with no retirement transition. We identified three smoking status trajectories: 'sustained non-smoking' (61% of the participants), 'sustained smoking' (23%) and 'decreasing smoking' (16%). For 489 baseline smokers, we identified three smoking intensity trajectories: 'sustained high intensity smoking' (32% of the participants), 'sustained low intensity smoking' (32%) and 'decreasing high intensity smoking' (35%). Living outside an inner urban area predicted membership in the 'decreasing smoking' versus 'sustained smoking' trajectory. Conclusions: Smokers are more likely to quit smoking during transition to retirement than before or after it. Characteristics of the smoking environment may affect smoking behaviour around retirement.
  • Myllyntausta, Saana; Salo, Paula; Kronholm, Erkki; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2019)
    Study Objectives: Relief from work stress has been hypothesized to explain improvements in sleep duration and quality following retirement, but this has not been confirmed with longitudinal studies. By using repeat sleep data, we examined the role of removal of work-related stressors in changes in sleep at retirement. Methods: The study population consisted of 2,053 participants from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study. Participants' sleep duration, sleep difficulties (difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep), daytime tiredness, and sleep loss due to worry were assessed using surveys conducted once a year before and after retirement (average number of repeat surveys 3.5 [range 2-5] per participant). We used Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to examine the associations between work-related stressors (job strain, low work time control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) and changes in sleep at retirement. Results: An increase in sleep duration and decrease in waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep, daytime tiredness, and sleep loss due to worry were observed shortly after retirement. No systematic associations across the work-related stressors and changes in sleep characteristics were observed. Higher number of work-related stressors before retirement was not associated with a greater magnitude of favorable changes in any of the postretirement sleep characteristics investigated. Conclusions: This longitudinal study suggests that perceived sleep improves shortly after retirement and that these changes are mainly driven by factors other than relief from work stress.
  • Hakola, Tuulia (2002)
    The Finnish pension system is structured mainly with a pay-as-you-go –principle. Accordingly, the working population pays the pensions of the already retired population. If there is a change in the worker-retiree –ratio, financing of the pension system can become problematic. Therefore, the timing of retirement or the average retirement age matters. The decision to retire is influenced by a number of economic and non-economic factors. This thesis focuses on the economic incentives of retirement. The thesis uses large panel data sets to construct these incentives for the Finnish population. The aim of the study is to assess how much these incentives affect the probability of retirement. The first essay divides retirement into retirement with the disability pension, with the unemployment pension and with the old-age pension. Higher replacement rate increases the conditional probability of retirement, but this relationship is non-monotonic. Most clearly the replacement rate increases the probability of retirement through the unemployment pension, and it has no effect on the timing of the old-age retirement. The second essay shows that ignoring the difference between disability application and transition probability produces results that are halfway between the two. The essay also tests the impact of a number of different life-cycle incentives. Results on the pure life-cycle incentives are counter-intuitive, whereas the option value results are of the expected sign. The third essay considers part-time retirement. Financial compensation is estimated for each individual in full-time work, part-time work and in full-time retirement. Results show that the part-time pension has been financially most advantageous to those who chose this option. The essay also estimates that fifty per cent of the partially retired would have chosen full-time retirement, had they not had the part-time option. The fourth essay takes also the employer incentives into account. It tests an implicit contracts model on a linked employer-employee panel data. Results show that joint incentives of early retirement matter more when the economic conditions are bad. The essay also shows that experience-rating of the displacements affects the firm behaviour.
  • Penttilä, Elina; Hannula, Samuli; Numminen, Jura; Irjala, Heikki; Selander, Tuomas; Parmanne, Piitu; Mäkitie, Antti (2020)
    We determined the employment status of recently graduated otorhinolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons (ENT doctors) in Finland during the past 10 years. We also investigated the job vacancy rate of the Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (Department of ORL-HNS). An electronic questionnaire was sent to all ENT doctors who had graduated during 2007-2017 and to chief physicians of all Departments of ORL-HNS. Chi-square and Fisher's test were used in the analyses. Altogether 129 ENT doctors had graduated and 125 (96.9%) responded. Thirty (24%) physicians had been employed in a position that did not correspond to their ENT doctor training. All 30 chief physicians responded and a total of 306 physicians were working at their departments (215 ENT doctors, 91 residents). However, there were only 241 available positions (197 for ENT doctors, 44 for residents). It was estimated that 65 ENT doctors would retire within 10 years. At the moment there does not seem to be a significant shortage of ENT doctors in Finland. The current national volume of resident intake in the ENT training programme is twofold in comparison with the estimated retirement rate in the public sector.
  • Hakola, Tuulia (1999)
    The pension system forms a highly significant part of the whole social welfare system. The impact of the pension system is not limited to the financial aspects, but, for example, labour markets, savings, capital accumulation and income distribution can be affected. This study considers the effects of the pension system on the labour supply of the elderly. As the Finnish pension system is mainly a Pay-As-You-Go system, the concurrent change in the demographic structure, compounded by increased early retirements, is likely to yield strong pressures on the financing of the current pension system. The study evaluates early withdrawals by the elderly from the labour force. It assesses the significance of the implicit economic incentives, provided by the pension system, to retire early. The incentives are measured by an option value to retirement. Transition probabilities are considered in a random effects probit model, using the data from the Employment Registry of the Statistics Finland. The empirical results provide evidence that economic incentives matter also to the Finnish labour force. The results reveal that if an individual gains financially by postponing his retirement, he is more likely to do so. Simulations show that two of the implemented and contemplated policy reforms have a desired impact on the retirement probabilities.
  • Kuusi, Tero; Martikainen, Pekka; Valkonen, Tarmo (2020)
    We quantify the impact of old-age retirement on health using longitudinal Finnish register data for the period 2000–2012. The data allows for a strict isolation of the effects of transition from work to retirement for both mental and physical health indicators. We use the lowest statutory eligibility age for full old-age pensions, 63 years, as an instrument in FE-IV estimation to ensure causal inference. We find that (1) retirement at age 63 moderately decreases the use of antidepressants, especially for women. The effect is sharp, while it is somewhat reversed in the later years; (2) the beneficial effects of retirement on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal conditions are smaller and more diffused; (3) for occupational classes, our results show a reduction in antidepressant use for women in almost all occupations, whereas for men it is significant for manual workers and farmers; (4) we find stronger declines in the anti-depressant use among men and women who retire from low- and mid-income work, as well as more robust decrease in the risk of cardiovascular diseases for high-income and non-single; and (5) our test of external validity shows that the beneficial effects in antidepressant use can be extended to apply to most Finns retiring at ages 62–64.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Aalto, Ville; Pentti, Jaana; Lallukka, Tea; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background and AimsLife transitions such as retirement may influence alcohol consumption, but only a few studies have described this using longitudinal data. We identified patterns and predictors of risky drinking around the time of retirement. DesignA cohort study assessing trajectories and predictors of risky drinking among employees entering statutory retirement between 2000 and 2011. Setting and ParticipantsA total of 5805 men and women from the Finnish Public Sector study who responded to questions on alcohol consumption one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. MeasurementsWe assessed trajectories of risky drinking (> 24 units per week among men, > 16 units among women, or an extreme drinking occasion during past year) from pre- to post-retirement, as well as predictors of each alcohol consumption trajectory. FindingsThree trajectories were identified: sustained healthy drinking (81% of participants), temporary increase in risky drinking around retirement (12%) and slowly declining risky drinking after retirement (7%). The strongest pre-retirement predictors for belonging to the group of temporary increase in risky drinking were current smoking [odds ratio (OR)=3.90, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.70-5.64], male sex (OR=2.77, 95% CI=2.16-3.55), depression (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.05-1.99) and work-place in the metropolitan area (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.00-1.66). Compared with the slowly declining risky drinking group, the temporary increase in risky drinking group was characterized by lower occupational status and education, and work-place outside the metropolitan area. ConclusionsIn Finland, approximately 12% of people who reach retirement age experience a temporary increase in alcohol consumption to risky levels, while approximately 7% experience a slow decline in risky levels of alcohol consumption. Male gender, smoking, being depressed and working in a metropolitan area are associated with increased likelihood of increased alcohol consumption.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Myllyntausta, Saana; Kauppi, Maarit; Kivimaki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Ervasti, Jenni; Prakash, K. C.; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2022)
    The extent to which long-term individual-oriented flexibility in working hours is associated with working beyond retirement age is not known. The aims of the present study were to identify trajectories of worktime control (WTC) and to examine whether the membership of WTC trajectories was associated with working beyond individual's pensionable age. A total of 1,953 older employees participated in the study and had data up to 16 years before pensionable age. Group-based latent trajectory modeling was used to identify WTC trajectories and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the associations of WTC trajectories with duration of employment. Seven trajectories described WTC: "Stable very low" (7%), "Stable low" (21%), "Declined" (12%), "Stable mid-low" (28%), "Improved" (10%), "Stable high" (16%), and "Stable very high" (5%). When compared with the lowest WTC trajectory groups, trajectories of "Stable high/very high" (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.54) and "Improved" WTC (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.25-1.78) were associated with longer duration of employment. Although the memberships of the "Stable high/very high" and "Improved" WTC trajectories correlated with gender, marital status, occupational position, and self-rated health, the association between WTC and duration of employment was not fully confounded or mediated by these factors. These findings support the hypothesis that having improved or constantly high control over working times from midlife to retirement age may prolong working lives at retirement age.