Browsing by Subject "review"

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  • Luokkala, Toni; Laitinen, Minna K.; Hevonkorpi, Teemu P.; Raittio, Lauri; Mattila, Ville M.; Launonen, Antti P. (2020)
    We found no clear evidence of the clinical superiority of distal radius fracture surgery among older adults at one year.Surgical treatment, however, may yield a faster recovery to previous level of activity in elderly patients.With operative treatment, hardware-based problems may warrant secondary operations and implant removal, whereas in non-operative treatment, symptomatic loss of alignment and malunion can occur.In elderly patients, non-operative treatment can be considered to be the gold standard.
  • Tapper, Julius (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The role of decompressive craniectomy as a cure in traumatic brain injuries has been widely been discussed. Therefore our aim was to assess the independent effect of decompressive craniectomy the outcome and mortality of the patient. We conducted an open-cohort retrospective study on adult blunt TBI patients. Patients were divided into three groups; conservative treatment, acute craniotomy and mass lesion evacuation (craniotomy) and decompressive craniectomy. Outcome was assessed using Glasgow Outcome Scale and overall mortality six months after the operation. The adjusted multivariate analysis did not show an independent association between decompressive craniectomy and mortality. Decompressive craniectomy prooved to be an independent risk factor for poor neurological outcome with an OR of 3.06. In conclusion, operating TBI patients with decompressive craniectomy was found to be a life-saving intervention for patients who in other cases were destined to die. For stronger evidence this subject needs more research of a prospective type.
  • Risbøl, Ole; Langhammer, Daniel; Mauritsen, Esben Schlosser; Seitsonen, Oula (2020)
    This paper gives a presentation of how airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been adopted in archaeology in the North over the period 2005-2019. Almost two decades have passed since ALS first emerged as a potential tool to add to the archaeologist's toolbox. Soon after, it attracted the attention of researchers within archaeological communities engaged with remote sensing in the Fenno-Scandinavian region. The first archaeological ALS projects gave immediate good results and led to further use, research, and development through new projects that followed various tracks. The bulk of the research and development focused on studying how well-suited ALS is for identifying, mapping, and documenting archaeological features in outfield land, mainly in forested areas. The poor situation in terms of lack of information on archaeological records in outfield areas has been challenging for research and especially for cultural heritage management for a long period of time. Consequently, an obvious direction was to study how ALS-based mapping of cultural features in forests could help to improve the survey situation. This led to various statistical analyses and studies covering research questions related to for instance effects on detection success of laser pulse density, and the size and shape of the targeted features. Substantial research has also been devoted to the development and assessment of semi-automatic detection of archaeological features based on the use of algorithms. This has been studied as an alternative approach to human desk-based visual analyses and interpretations of ALS data. This approach has considerable potential for detecting sites over large regions such as the vast roadless and unbuilt wilderness regions of northern Fennoscandia, and has proven highly successful. In addition, the current review presents how ALS has been employed for monitoring purposes and for landscape studies, including how it can influence landscape understanding. Finally, the most recent advance within ALS research and development has been discussed: testing of the use of drones for data acquisition. In conclusion, aspects related to the utilization of ALS in archaeological research and cultural heritage management are summarized and discussed, together with thoughts about future perspectives.
  • Laiti, Minna; Pakarinen, Anni; Parisod, Heidi; Salanterä, Sanna; Sariola, Salla (2019)
    Aim: To describe the encounters with sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth in healthcare based on the existing research. Background: The development of sexual orientation and gender identity can create challenges in an SGM youth's life, and they may need support from health professionals. Heteronormativity has been recognised as a barrier to the identification of diversity in sexuality and gender, and no previous literature review has studied heteronormativity thoroughly. Methods: An integrative review following Whittemore and Knafl was conducted. A literature search was systematically undertaken in six databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Eric, and Academic Search Premier). Finally, 18 research articles were included. Data were analysed deductively with the theoretical framework from Stevi Jackson's (2006) article to understand the role of heteronormativity in the healthcare of SGM youth. Findings: The encounters with SGM youth consisted of two simultaneous themes. Heteronormative care included three elements: (1) the effect of heteronormativity on health professionals' competence to work with SGM youth, (2) false assumptions about SGM youth, and (3) the influence of heteronormativity on encounters with SGM youth. Diversity-affirming care included two elements: (4) the considerateness of health professionals towards SGM youth and (5) inclusive care of SGM youth. Conclusion: This review summarised how SGM youth were encountered in healthcare and how heteronormativity was affecting their healthcare. Furthermore, this review identified elements that supported diversity-affirming care. With diversity-affirming care, SGM youth may access the information and support they need from healthcare. Further research is needed about how diversity-affirming care can be applied to the healthcare of SGM youth and how elements of heteronormative care are occurring globally in the healthcare of SGM youth. The perceptions of transgender and other gender minority youth were under-represented in the studies and research needs to focus more on how they are encountered in healthcare.
  • Ibounig, Thomas; Simons, T. A. (2016)
    Background and Aims: Quadriceps and patella tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries often resulting from minor trauma typically consisting of an eccentric contraction of the quadriceps muscle. Since rupture of a healthy tendon is very rare, such injuries usually represent the end stage of a long process of chronic tendon degeneration and overuse. This review aims to give an overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnostic principles, and recommended treatment protocols as supported by the literature and institutional experience. Material and Methods: A non-systematic review of the current literature on the subject was conducted and reflected against the current practice in our level 1 trauma center. Results and Conclusion: Risk factors for patella and quadriceps tendon rupture include increasing age, repetitive micro-trauma, genetic predisposition, and systemic diseases, as well as certain medications. Diagnosis is based on history and clinical findings, but can be complemented by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Accurate diagnosis at an early stage is of utmost importance since delay in surgical repair of over 3weeks results in significantly poorer outcomes. Operative treatment of acute ruptures yields good clinical results with low complication rates. Use of longitudinal transpatellar drill holes is the operative method of choice in the majority of acute cases. In chronic ruptures, tendon augmentation with auto- or allograft should be considered. Postoperative treatment protocols in the literature range from early mobilization with full weight bearing to cast immobilization for up to 12weeks. Respecting the biology of tendon healing, we advocate the use of a removable knee splint or orthotic with protected full weight bearing and limited passive mobilization for 6weeks.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Elovainio, Marko (2018)
    Modern work life is characterized by constant change, reorganizations, and requirements of efficiency, which make the distribution of resources and obligations, as well as justice in decisionmaking, highly important. In the work life context, it is a question not only of distributing resources and obligations, but also of the procedures and rules that guide the decisionmaking in the organization. Studies of these rules and procedures have provided the basis for a new line of research that evaluates leadership and social relationships in working communities; that is, distributive, procedural, and relational justice. This review follows the development of research on organizational justice from its origins in early social and motivational psychological theories to its establishment as a major line of research in modern work and organizational psychology. The adverse consequences of injustice include poor team climate, reduced productivity and well-being, and work-related illnesses.
  • Concas, Francesco; Mineraud, Julien; Lagerspetz, Eemil; Varjonen, Samu; Liu, Xiaoli; Puolamäki, Kai; Nurmi, Petteri; Tarkoma, Sasu (2021)
    The significance of air pollution and the problems associated with it are fueling deployments of air quality monitoring stations worldwide. The most common approach for air quality monitoring is to rely on environmental monitoring stations, which unfortunately are very expensive both to acquire and to maintain. Hence environmental monitoring stations are typically sparsely deployed, resulting in limited spatial resolution for measurements. Recently, low-cost air quality sensors have emerged as an alternative that can improve the granularity of monitoring. The use of low-cost air quality sensors, however, presents several challenges: they suffer from cross-sensitivities between different ambient pollutants; they can be affected by external factors, such as traffic, weather changes, and human behavior; and their accuracy degrades over time. Periodic re-calibration can improve the accuracy of low-cost sensors, particularly with machine-learning-based calibration, which has shown great promise due to its capability to calibrate sensors in-field. In this article, we survey the rapidly growing research landscape of low-cost sensor technologies for air quality monitoring and their calibration using machine learning techniques. We also identify open research challenges and present directions for future research.
  • Robinson, Rachel; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Schnitzlein, Daniel; Voit, Falk; Girchenko, Polina; Wolke, Dieter; Lemola, Sakari; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri (2020)
    Preterm birth research is poised to explore the mental health of adults born very preterm(VP;1970) included VP/VLBW individuals with controls born at term(≥37+0 weeks) or with normal birth weight(NBW; ≥2500g). Thirteen studies were included. Studies consistently showed an increased risk for psychotropic medication use for VP/VLBW adults in comparison to NBW/term controls, but whether VP/VLBW adults have an increased risk for mental health disorders or symptoms appearing in adulthood remains uncertain. The quality of the evidence was moderate (65.8%) to high (34.2%). Further research in larger samples is needed.
  • Björkroth, Johanna (Elsevier, 2004)
    Marinated meat products are consumed increasingly because they are convenient in meal preparing. In addition to sensory effects, marinating has been considered to increase product safety and shelf life quality. There are variations in meat marinating technologies around the world. In Finland, marinades are complex sauces which have a great effect on product appearance and taste. They are water-oil emulsions typically containing salt, sugar and acids (acetic, citric), rheology-improving additives (like xanthan gum and guar gum), antimicrobial agents (like sorbate and benzoate) spices and aroma strengtheners. The pH of these marinades is usually acidic, less than 5, so sugar is used to cut the edge of the acidic taste. Marinated meat products are usually packaged under modified atmospheres to prevent the growth of aerobic spoilage organisms. This results in the growth of psychrotrophic, anaerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the dominating spoilage organisms in these products. Marinating did not increase the shelf life of Finnish poultry products and it strongly selects certain spoilage-associated novel LAB species. Surprisingly, it did not have a strong inhibitory effect on Campylobacter. This may be due to the buffering capability of meat quickly neutralizing the pH of the acidic marinade. The change in the acidic pH towards neutrality also results in dissociation of the lipophilic acids making their antimicrobial effect nonexistent.
  • Heikinheimo, Oskari; Bitzer, Johannes; Garcia Rodriguez, Luis (2017)
    Objectives: In the context of women's health, we examine (1) the role that observational (real-world') studies have in overcoming limitations of randomised clinical trials, (2) the relative advantages and disadvantages of different study designs, (3) the importance of outcome data from observational studies when making health-economic or clinical decisions, and (4) provide insights into changing perceptions of observational clinical data. Methods: PubMed and internet searches were used to identify (i) guidance and expert commentary on designing, conducting, analysing, and reporting clinical trials or observational studies, (ii) supporting evidence of the rapid growth of observational (real world') studies and publications since the turn of millennium in the fields of contraception, reproductive health, obstetrics or gynaecology. Results: The rapidly growing use and validation of large, computerised medical records and related databases (e.g., health insurance or national registries) have played a major part in changing perceptions of observational data among researchers and clinicians. In the past 10 years, a distinct increase in the number of observational studies published tends to confirm their growing acceptance, appreciation and use. Conclusions: Observational studies can provide information that is impossible or infeasible to obtain otherwise (e.g., impractical, very expensive, or ethically unacceptable). Greater understanding, dissemination, uptake and use of observational data might be expected to drive ongoing evolution of research, data collection, analysis, and validation, in turn improving quality and therefore credibility, utility, and further application by clinicians.
  • Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2022)
    Aims: We examined the development of research articles published in the Scandinavian Journal of Public Health and its predecessors Acta Socio-Medica Scandinavica and the Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine from 1969 until 2020 to be able to identify the place of international comparisons of socioeconomic inequalities in health in the journal. Methods: Altogether 3237 research articles were screened to yield 126 comparative research articles. Examining full texts of the comparative articles led to 13 articles reporting comparisons of health inequalities. Results: The first one came out in 1972, but the rest only after the mid-1990s. The most common socioeconomic indicator was education, but also occupational class and income was used. The most common health indicator was self-rated health. The articles compared Nordic countries with each other, but also with non-Nordic countries. Although the number of comparative studies on health inequalities was relatively small, there were examples of well-designed studies using advanced methodology. We examined only published journal articles over the past five decades, not submitted but rejected papers. Conclusions: In the Scandinavian Journal of Public Health and its predecessors, comparisons of health inequalities were few and emerged relatively late, that is, during the past two decades.
  • Sundström, Liselotte; Vitikainen, Emma (2022)
    With their sedentary colonies, long-lived ant colonies lend themselves to long-term studies where fitness effects of life-history traits can be investigated in the wild, a task that is challenging in any organism and particularly rarely feasible in insects. Here, we summarize and examine the insights we have gained from a 28-year study on monogyne colonies of the narrow-headed ant Formica exsecta NYLANDER, 1846, and discuss the ecological and genetic repercussions that emanate from ecological realities and conflicting selection pressures in a fragmented landscape matrix. These entail the effects of habitat structuration on genetic diversity, the effects of reduced genetic diversity on the fitness of individuals and colonies, and the impact of the opposing selection pressures on short-versus long-range dispersal.
  • Kaprio, Jaakko; Bollepalli, Sailalitha; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Iso-Markku, Paula; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kujala, Urho; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Latvala, Antti; Leskinen, Tuija; Lindgren, Noora; Ollikainen, Miina; Piirtola, Maarit; Rantanen, Taina; Rinne, Juha; Rose, Richard J.; Sillanpää, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Sipilä, Sarianna; Viljanen, Anne; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Waller, Katja (2019)
    The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945-1957 in 2011-2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938-1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.
  • Kechagias, Konstantinos S.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos Katsikas; Kyriakidou, Margarita; Giannos, Panagiotis; Kalliala, Ilkka; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Paraskevaidi, Maria; Kyrgiou, Maria (2021)
    While the contributing factors leading to endometriosis remain unclear, its clinical heterogeneity suggests a multifactorial causal background. Amongst others, caffeine has been studied extensively during the last decade as a putative contributing factor. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we provide an overview/critical appraisal of studies that report on the association between caffeine consumption and the presence of endometriosis. In our search strategy, we screened PubMed and Scopus for human studies examining the above association. The main outcome was the relative risk of endometriosis in caffeine users versus women consuming little or no caffeine (<100 mg/day). Subgroup analyses were conducted for different levels of caffeine intake: high (>300 mg/day) or moderate (100–300 mg/day). Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis (five cohort and five case-control studies). No statistically significant association was observed between overall caffeine consumption and risk for endometriosis (RR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97–1.28, I2 = 70%) when compared to little or no (<100 mg/day) caffeine intake. When stratified according to level of consumption, high intake was associated with increased risk of endometriosis (RR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04–1.63, I2 = 56%), whereas moderate intake did not reach nominal statistical significance (RR 1.18, 95%CI 0.99–1.40, I2 = 37%). In conclusion, caffeine consumption does not appear to be associated with increased risk for endometriosis. However, further research is needed to elucidate the potential dose-dependent link between caffeine and endometriosis or the probable role of caffeine intake as a measurement of other unidentified biases.
  • Schenck, Hanna; Netti, Eliisa; Teernstra, Onno; De Ridder, Inger; Dings, Jim; Niemelae, Mika; Temel, Yasin; Hoogland, Govert; Haeren, Roel (2021)
    The glycocalyx is an important constituent of blood vessels located between the bloodstream and the endothelium. It plays a pivotal role in intercellular interactions in neuroinflammation, reduction of vascular oxidative stress, and provides a barrier regulating vascular permeability. In the brain, the glycocalyx is closely related to functions of the blood-brain barrier and neurovascular unit, both responsible for adequate neurovascular responses to potential threats to cerebral homeostasis. An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) occurs following rupture of an intracranial aneurysm and leads to immediate brain damage (early brain injury). In some cases, this can result in secondary brain damage, also known as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). DCI is a life-threatening condition that affects up to 30% of all aSAH patients. As such, it is associated with substantial societal and healthcare-related costs. Causes of DCI are multifactorial and thought to involve neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, thrombosis, and neurovascular uncoupling. To date, prediction of DCI is limited, and preventive and effective treatment strategies of DCI are scarce. There is increasing evidence that the glycocalyx is disrupted following an aSAH, and that glycocalyx disruption could precipitate or aggravate DCI. This review explores the potential role of the glycocalyx in the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to DCI following aSAH. Understanding the role of the glycocalyx in DCI could advance the development of improved methods to predict DCI or identify patients at risk for DCI. This knowledge may also alter the methods and timing of preventive and treatment strategies of DCI. To this end, we review the potential and limitations of methods currently used to evaluate the glycocalyx, and strategies to restore or prevent glycocalyx shedding.
  • Moshe, Isaac; Terhorst, Yannik; Cuijpers, Pim; Cristea, Ioana; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Sander, Lasse (2020)
    Background: Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Internet- and computer-based interventions (IBIs) have been shown to provide effective, scalable forms of treatment. More than 100 controlled trials and a growing number of meta-analyses published over the past 30 years have demonstrated the efficacy of IBIs in reducing symptoms in the short and long term. Despite the large body of research, no comprehensive review or meta-analysis has been conducted to date that evaluates how the effectiveness of IBIs has evolved over time. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether there has been a change in the effectiveness of IBIs on the treatment of depression over the past 30 years and to identify potential variables moderating the effect size. Methods: A sensitive search strategy will be executed across the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Data extraction and evaluation will be conducted by two independent researchers. Risk of bias will be assessed. A multilevel meta-regression model will be used to analyze the data and estimate effect size. Results: The search was completed in mid-2019. We expect the results to be submitted for publication in early 2020. Conclusions: The year 2020 will mark 30 years since the first paper was published on the use of IBIs for the treatment of depression. Despite the large and rapidly growing body of research in the field, evaluations of effectiveness to date are missing the temporal dimension. This review will address that gap and provide valuable analysis of how the effectiveness of interventions has evolved over the past three decades; which participant-, intervention-, and study-related variables moderate changes in effectiveness; and where research in the field may benefit from increased focus.
  • Ottelin, Juudit; Ala-Mantila, Sanna; Heinonen, Jukka; Wiedmann, Thomas; Clarke, Jack; Junnila, Seppo (2019)
    Background: Current climate change mitigation policies, including the Paris Agreement, are based on territorial greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting. This neglects the understanding of GHG emissions embodied in trade. As a solution, consumption-based accounting (CBA) that reveals the lifecycle emissions, including transboundary flows, is gaining support as a complementary information tool. CBA is particularly relevant in cities that tend to outsource a large part of their production-based emissions to their hinterlands. While CBA has so far been used relatively little in practical policymaking, it has been used widely by scientists. Methods and design: The purpose of this systematic review, which covers more than 100 studies, is to reflect the policy implications of consumption-based carbon footprint (CBCF) studies at different spatial scales. The review was conducted by reading through the discussion sections of the reviewed studies and systematically collecting the given policy suggestions for different spatial scales. We used both numerical and qualitative methods to organize and interpret the findings of the review. Review results and discussion: The motivation for the review was to investigate whether the unique consumption perspective of CBA leads to similarly unique policy features. We found that various carbon pricing policies are the most widely supported policy instrument in the relevant literature. However, overall, there is a shortage of discussion on policy instruments, since the policy discussions focus on policy outcomes, such as behavioral change or technological solutions. In addition, some policy recommendations are conflicting. Particularly, urban density and compact city policies are supported by some studies and questioned by others. To clarify the issue, we examined how the results regarding the relationship between urban development and the CBCF vary. The review provides a concise starting point for policymakers and future research by summarizing the timely policy implications.
  • Myllyviita, Tanja; Soimakallio, Sampo; Judl, Jáchym; Seppälä, Jyri (Springer, 2021)
    Forest Ecosystems 8: 1
    Background: Replacing non-renewable materials and energy with wood offers a potential strategy to mitigate climate change if the net emissions of ecosystem and technosystem are reduced in a considered time period. Displacement factors (DFs) describe an emission reduction for a wood-based product or fuel which is used in place of a non-wood alternative. The aims of this review were to map and assess DFs from scientific literature and to provide findings on how to harmonise practices behind them and to support coherent application. Results: Most of the reviewed DFs were positive, implying decreasing fossil GHG emissions in the technosystem. The vast majority of the reviewed DFs describe avoided fossil emissions either both in processing and use of wood or only in the latter when wood processing emissions were considered separately. Some of the reviewed DFs included emissions avoided in post-use of harvested wood products (HWPs). Changes in forest and product carbon stocks were not included in DFs except in a few single cases. However, in most of the reviewed studies they were considered separately in a consistent way along with DFs. DFs for wood energy, construction and material substitution were widely available, whereas DFs for packaging products, chemicals and textiles were scarce. More than half of DFs were calculated by the authors of the reviewed articles while the rest of them were adopted from other articles. Conclusions: Most of the reviewed DFs describe the avoided fossil GHG emissions. These DFs may provide insights on the wood-based products with a potential to replace emissions intensive alternatives but they do not reveal the actual climate change mitigation effects of wood use. The way DFs should be applied and interpreted depends on what has been included in them. If the aim of DFs is to describe the overall climate effects of wood use, DFs should include all the relevant GHG flows, including changes in forest and HWP carbon stock and post-use of HWPs, however, based on this literature review this is not a common practice. DFs including only fossil emissions should be applied together with a coherent assessment of changes in forest and HWP carbon stocks, as was the case in most of the reviewed studies. To increase robustness and transparency and to decrease misuse, we recommend that system boundaries and other assumptions behind DFs should be clearly documented.