Browsing by Subject "rhetoric"

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  • Tandefelt, Henrika (2014)
    This article sets out to study the entanglement of different political, ideological and moral ideals and traditions in the Kingship of Gustav III, King of Sweden 1772–1792. Political thinking and practice in Eighteenth-Century Europe offered many elements and examples that different monarchs could apply in their own particular circumstances. Gustav III was one of the European Kings that openly supported the French enlightened thinkers fashioning himself as a Reformer-King. He was also very influenced by the French culture over all, and the culture of the traditional royal court in particular. In addition the Swedish political history with a fifty-year period of decreased royal power before the coup d’état of Gustav III in 1772 influenced how the European trends and traditions were put into practice. The article pursues to understand the way different elements were bound up together and put to action by the King in his coup d’état 1772, his law reforms in the 1770s and in the establishment of a court of appeal in the town Vasa in Ostrobothnia in 1776 and the ceremonial, pictorial and architectural projects linked to this.
  • Raatikainen, Mari (2003)
    Tiivistelmä ) Refe~at ) Abstract This is an analysis of international rhetoric against war rapes. By this rhetoric is meant the academic studiesand other reports and documents through which concepts and theories of war rapes and strategies of prevention are being produced. In this study, the focus is on central concepts, ideas and arguments and their assumptions on women and their position in the prevention of war rapes. The central assumptions of the rhetoric against war rapes are critically reviewed in the light of Inger Skjelsæk's three theoretical approaches to women and war rapes, as well as feminist epistemologies formulated and utilised by other international politics scholars. The purpose of this study is to answer to the question whether there is an additional or alternative and, crucially, a non-essentialist approach to women and war rape prevention in the rhetoric against war rapes. The tool of the analysis is Perelman's approach to the study of rhetoric. The material of analysis, which represents the rhetoric against war rapes, consists of a number of academic analyses, studies and other material produced within the international organisations, as well as a few international resolutions. The analysis shows that many values, concepts and arguments can still be seen promoting stereotypical and essentialist assumptions on women's role in war rapes and war rape prevention; women are seen as passive victims who are dependent on male protection, and are associated with peace and non-violence as agents. In the light of two critical approaches, women are seen as capable of and, partly, responsible for the prevention of rapes through individual or collective self-defence techniques. This view can be seen as alternative non-essentialist and alternative essentialist approach.
  • Hämäläinen, Lasse; Lahti, Emmi (2021)
    Aims: In October 2019, a citizens' initiative to decriminalise cannabis use started a large debate about drug policy in Finland. This study examines online discussions about the initiative to supplement the current knowledge about citizens' drug opinions. The focus is especially on argumentation techniques that are used to support or object to the decriminalisation. Design: Methodologically, the study is based on discourse studies, new rhetoric, and argumentation analysis. The data of 1,092 messages were collected from a popular Finnish anonymous discussion forum Ylilauta. Results: Online discussions about the legal status of cannabis are highly polarised. Decriminalisation is often both supported and resisted in a strong and affective manner, and even hate speech is not rare in the data. Statements made by both discussion parties often lack any argumentation or are based on fallacies, especially ad hominem arguments. Some discussants refer to scientific studies and expert statements, even though such references are usually inaccurate. Cannabis is compared to alcohol more often than to other illegal drugs. Conclusions: The emotional responses and inadequate argumentation might be partially explained by the general nature of online discussions and the culture of the investigated website, but also by the powerful stigma related to illegal drugs and insufficient knowledge on the subject. A future objective is to create a societal atmosphere where the complex question of the legal status of cannabis could be discussed more neutrally and rationally.
  • Leino, Hannu-Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This study examines the leader’s speeches given by Prime Minister Theresa May during the years 2016–2018 after the result of the Brexit referendum on 23 June 2016. The study aims to answer questions concerning what kinds of speech acts, pronouns, and rhetorical devices May uses to refer to Brexit, what are the intended meanings conveyed in her utterances related to Brexit, and how the rhetoric concerning Brexit has changed over time. All utterances in the speeches that have their meaning related to Brexit were selected for the analysis. The identification of speech acts is based on Searle’s (1979) taxonomy for types of illocutionary acts. The most common speech act used by May in relation to Brexit is an indirect commissive. In the 2016 speech, all but one of the commissives are made indirectly. The speech in 2017 focuses on making direct assertive statements instead, whereas the 2018 speech contains both direct assertives and indirect commissives more equally. May’s use of pronouns and rhetorical devices varies between the three speeches. While all speeches contain the devices of lexical choice and repetition, these are not used similarly and to the same extent in all of them. Only the speech in 2016 makes use of the device of metaphor. Repetition is often linked to the use of pronouns across the speeches. Comparison of the findings reveals that the rhetoric concerning Brexit has changed over the years. May’s role as the Prime Minister heavily influenced her choices of rhetoric. In the speeches in 2016 and 2018, May employed indirect speech acts as a strategy in making promises, and she used the rhetorical device of repetition in both speeches to provide emphasis in semantically connected groups of utterances. Throughout both speeches, May remained dedicated to realizing Brexit and her stance did not change. Her use of the personal pronoun we is linked to her stance, and she used the pronoun as means of persuasion to inclusively refer to the Conservative Party, her government and the British people. However, May’s strategy for persuasion changed over the years. She connected Brexit with patriotic ideas in the speech in 2016, but she no longer used similar rhetoric in the two later speeches. The 2017 speech contains few references to Brexit and May appears to have been avoiding discussion on the topic. Brexit is again a central topic in the speech in 2018, and May’s focus was on convincing the audience on her approach to Brexit and the importance of securing a favourable deal before Britain leaves the European Union. The results of the study provide insight into the ways Theresa May used rhetoric in her role as the leader of the Conservative Party and the Prime Minister of Britain to shape the discussion concerning Brexit during her time in office.
  • Lehtiö, Anu (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tämä tutkimus käsittelee suosittujen suomalaisten äitiysblogien asiantuntijaretoriikkaa kaupallissa yhteistyöpostauksissa. Blogeja käsitellään tilana, jota sävyttää bloggaajien asiantuntijuuden ja kaupallisten tavoitteiden yhdistyminen. Tutkimuksessa kartoitetaan miten bloggaajat hyödyntävät asiantuntijuuttaan osana toimivaa kaupallista yhteistyötä. Bloggaajien asiantuntijuutta lähestytään realistisen asiantuntijuusteorian näkökulmasta. Bloggaajien asiantuntijuus nähdään aitona. Tämä mahdollistaa blogikirjoitusten tutkimisen relevantteina asiantuntijuuden näkökulmasta. Tutkimus sijoittuu blogimarkkinoinnin ja asiantuntijuuden tutkimuksen välimaastoon. Analysoitavat blogit ja kirjoitukset valittiin suosion perusteella. Suosion valinta ainoaksi kriteeriksi perustui kaupallisen viitekehyksen tärkeyteen. Mitä enemmän blogilla on lukijoita sitä todennäköisemmin kaupalliset viestit tavoittavat laajan yleisön. Äitiysblogien asiantuntijuutta tarkasteltiin retorisena ja kulloiseenkin yhteystyökontekstiin reagoivana. Aineisto koostui 60:stä erillisestä kaupallisesta yhteistyöpostauksesta, joista etsittiin yhdistäviä piirteitä. Asiantuntijuutta ilmaistaan aina suhteessa johonkin näkökulmaan. Bloggaajien käyttämät asiantuntijuuden näkökulmat ilmenivät tekstissä erilaisten positioiden aktivointina.Tyypillisimmät positiot perheblogeissa määrittyivät lapsi-aikuinen, lapsi-äiti, äiti-nainen ja mina-perhe dikotomioiden kautta. Posiot ilmentävät erilaisia tarvetiloja ja identiteettejä, jotka avaavat erilaisia asiantuntijuusretoriikan mahdollisuuksia. Suoraan postauksen aiheeseen, eli myytävään tuotteeseen tai tavaraan, liittyvät positiot nimettiin taitotasoiksi. Bloggaajat ilmensivät asiantuntijuutensa lähtökohtaa suhteessa omaan taitotasoonsa. Tasot ovat asianharrastaja, neutraali ja noviisi. Taitotasoja käytettiin ilmaisemaan myös tunnetilaa suhteessa mainostettuun asiaan. Tasomuutokset ilmensivät tuotteen aikaansaamaa muutosta. Asiantuntijuusretoriikkaan liittettyjä ekspertiisejä arvioitiin realistisen asiantuntijuusteorian käsitteistöllä. Keskeisiksi nousivat interaktiivinen ja reflektiivinen kyvykkyys, sekä perhe-elämään ja bloggaamiseen liittyvät taidot. Interaktiivinen ja reflektiivinen kyvykkyys viittaavat bloggaajan taitoon ilmaista ekspertiisiään ja kykyyn ajatella luovasti oman ekspertiisinsä puitteissa.
  • Hudson, Sarah (2010)
    This research forms a discursive analysis of almost two decades of key statements delivered by Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah, secretary-general of the Lebanese nationalist militia and political party, Hezbollah. The statements, sourced primarily from a translated compilation edited by Nicholas Noe and published by Verso (2007), reflect the continually evolving populist strategies of a party which has, against many odds, gained a large and impressively cross-sectarian support base in Lebanon and the surrounding region. The aim of the study is two-pronged. It hopes to offer an insightful analysis into the pragmatic politicking of a democratically elected, yet demonstrably lethally armed political party which is possessed of the potential to greatly influence peace and conflict in the region. It also seeks to promote an alternative theoretical perspective to research which continually seeks to locate similar such case studies on an ideologically loaded matrix of'terrorism vs. freedom fighter'. The theory outlined in Ernesto Laclau's 'On Populist Reason' (2005) functions as the framework for analysis. This non-pathological theory of populism provides an excellent lens through which to more objectively examine the way in which popular support is mobilized by what may be essentially democratic, yet highly controversial political movements. After analyzing constructions of 'the enemy', 'the people' and the role of the signifier of resistance over three separate chronological time periods, the research concludes that the politicking of Hezbollah has witnessed a significant discursive shift away from the rhetoric of extremism and towards that of political moderation. This analysis is noteworthy at a time when dominant western political discourses proclaim the dangers of openly 'fundamentalist' or extremist discourses as a threat to the ideals of global liberal democracy. It is concluded that political research should not underestimate the intelligence and pragmatism of groups who build, mobilize and maintain their support as powerful, armed and potentially dangerous non-state actors. A theoretical approach which allows for the insightful analysis of discursive phenomena, within the context of important socio-political factors, retains more likelihood of offering genuine insight into the popular political as it relates to a volatile regional and potentially global context.
  • Gilray, Claire (2021)
    This article analyses how specific nodal points of performative control developed and consequently structured the discourse on Aotearoa New Zealand’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It identifies these points by adopting a rhetorical-performative approach to uncover three particular performances of control that articulated the pandemic in Aotearoa New Zealand, from the diagnosis of the first COVID-19 case in the country in February 2020 through to October 2020. This period of analysis covers the emergence, subsequent nationwide lockdown, elimination, and re-emergence of the virus. There are three distinct nodal points that unfold as key to the nation’s ability to control COVID-19: the hegemonic “us”; iwi regionalism; and the rhetoric of kindness. A mixed approach of content analysis of government data, Facebook data, and key imagery is employed to constitute these nodal points’ relevance and how they structured the performative control that threaded through the nation’s initial response as a whole. The article demonstrates how Aotearoa New Zealand, considered by popular assessment to have been successful in its response to COVID-19, managed to eliminate the virus twice in 2020, but not without aspects of the antagonisms that have beset other nations. These include the exacerbation of internal dichotomies and questions about the legality of Government mandates. As the country’s response to COVID-19 is traced, the employment of a rhetorical-performative framework to identify the key nodal points also highlights how the framework could be applied to Aotearoa New Zealand’s continuing response as the pandemic endures.
  • Hakoköngäs, Eemeli; Halmesvaara, Otto; Sakki, Inari (2020)
    This study focuses on the role of Internet memes in the communication of two far-right groups in Finland. The material consists of 426 memes posted by Finland First and the Soldiers of Odin between the years 2015 and 2017 on Facebook. Multimodal discourse analysis was applied to understand the contents, forms, and rhetorical functions communicated via the Internet memes. The analysis shows that the contents of the memes revolve around six themes: history, humor, mythology, symbols, news and mottos. By using Internet memes, the groups aim to construe a heroic imagined past, to lend legitimacy to the nationalist cause, to arouse moral anger and hate toward refugees, and to encourage the movements' followers to fight. We argue that, for the extreme groups, Internet memes are tools to crystallize their arguments in an easily shareable and concise form, which makes the memes useful tools in persuasion and mobilization, as well as attracting new audiences.
  • van Andringa, William (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2016)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences ; 20
    This article examines what the historians have called the “imperial cult” to describe a wide variety of homages celebrated in the imperial era for the emperor and the members of his family. From Augustus, a new religious language was organized around the imperial person on the rhetorical basis of isotheoi timai, of honours equal to those made to the gods. This type of amplified tribute, set up from Actium and exploiting the Caesarian heritage (divus Julius), founded the institutional architecture of the Principate, giving the Emperor a necessarily prominent position. In fact the cults and honours devoted to the emperor belongs to the rhetoric of power and explains in particular the great ambiguity of religious language developed around the imperial figure; it also explains the maintenance of the institution with Constantine and the Christian emperors, who kept the essential meaning of the institution based on an admittedly ambiguous ritual arsenal, but adapted to the celebration of the highest honours that shaped the imperial function.
  • Ahonen, Pertti Pellervo (Routledge, 2016)
    rhetoric, deliberation, persuasion, new public management, higher education
  • Erkama, Niina; Vaara, Eero (Organization Studies, 2009)
    Critical organization scholars have focused increasing attention on industrial and organizational restructurings such as shutdown decisions. However, little is known about the rhetorical strategies used to legitimate or resist plant closures in organizational negotiations. In this article, we draw from New Rhetoric to analyze rhetorical struggles, strategies and dynamics in unfolding organizational negotiations. We focus on the shutdown of the bus body unit of the Sweden-based Volvo Bus Corporation in Finland. We distinguish five types of rhetorical legitimation strategies and dynamics. These include the three classical dynamics of logos (rational arguments), pathos (emotional moral arguments), and ethos (authority-based arguments), but also autopoiesis (autopoietic narratives), and cosmos (cosmological constructions). Our analysis contributes to previous studies on organizational restructuring by providing a more nuanced understanding of how contemporary industrial closures are legitimated and resisted in organizational negotiations. This study also increases theoretical understanding of the role of rhetoric in legitimation more generally.
  • Erkama, Niina; Vaara, Eero (Organizational Studies, forthcoming, 2009/2010, 2009)
    Critical organization scholars have focused increasing attention on industrial and organizational restructurings such as shutdown decisions. However, we know little about the rhetorical strategies used to legitimate or resist plant closures in organizational negotiations. In this paper, we draw from New Rhetoric to analyze rhetorical struggles, strategies and dynamics in unfolding organizational negotiations. We focus on the shutdown of the bus body unit of the Swedish company Volvo in Finland. We distinguish five types of rhetorical legitimation strategies and dynamics. These include the three classical dynamics of logos (rational arguments), pathos (emotional moral arguments), and ethos (authority-based arguments), but also autopoiesis (autopoietic narratives), and cosmos (cosmological constructions). Our analysis adds to the previous studies explaining how organizational restructuring as a phenomenon is legitimated, how this legitimation has changed over time, and how contemporary industrial closures are legitimated in the media. This study also increases our theoretical understanding of the role of rhetoric in legitimation more generally.
  • Vaara, Eero; Tienari, Janne; Kuronen, Marja-Liisa (Volume 12(2): 247–273, 2005)
    Despite the central role of the media in contemporary society, studies examining the rhetorical practices of journalists are rare in organization and management research. We know little of the textual micro strategies and techniques through which journalists convey specific messages to their readers. Partially to fill the gap, this paper outlines a methodological framework that combines three perspectives of text analysis and interpretation: critical discourse analysis, systemic functional grammar and rhetorical structure theory. Using this framework, we engage in a close reading of a single media text (a press article) on a recent case of industrial restructuring in the financial services. In our empirical analysis, we focus on key arguments put forward by the journalists’ rhetorical constructions. We maintain that these arguments—which are not frame-breaking but rather tend to confirm existing presuppositions held by the audience—are an essential part of the legitimization and naturalization of specific management ideas and ideologies.
  • Kainulainen, Jaska (2018)
    The article suggests that by offering education in the studia humanitatis the Jesuits made an important contribution to early modern political culture. The Jesuit education facilitated the establishment of political rule or administration of civic affairs in harmony with Christian virtues, and produced generations of citizens who, while studying under the Jesuits, learned to identify piety with civic values. In educating such citizens the Jesuit pedagogues relied heavily on classical rhetoric as formulated by Cicero (106-43 bc), Quintilian (35-100), and Aristotle (384-322 bc). The article depicts the Jesuits as civic educators and active members of respublica christiana. In so doing, the article emphasizes the importance of Jesuit education to early modern political life.
  • Lehtinen, Sonja (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Every four years, the U.S. presidential elections and the political campaigns are intensely followed by the media both nationally and globally. The primary elections precede the general election and are to determine who the presidential nominee of each party will be. To aid in the selection of the nominee, multiple debates are held for the candidates. This election cycle was perhaps a bit more intriguing than usual, as one of the Republican primary candidates came from outside established politics. This person was businessman Donald Trump, who challenged the political status quo with his often-provocative comments. It became evident that his unconventional style appealed to many: Trump seized the office in January of 2017. Many of the comments the Republican candidates made about immigration gained plenty of media attention. In this thesis, the focus is on the Republican candidates’ immigration-related rhetoric throughout the primary season. The goal to distinguish the discourses immigration is linked with in the debates and examine the rhetorical methods employed by the candidates as they attempt to convince and persuade their audiences on the topic of immigration. The data used in this thesis consists of twelve Republican debates arranged during the primary season. The rhetoric is examined through various rhetorical devices as well as Aristotle’s three modes of persuasion—ethos, pathos and logos. Ethos attempts to make the speaker appear trustworthy and respectable to the audience: pathos is used to appeal to the audiences’ emotions; and logos is used to appeal to the audience’s senses and intellect. The analysis method applied in this thesis is rhetorical discourse analysis. The immigration-based history of the United States, its social, racial, and ethnic composition as well as its ever-changing demographics lay a very interesting backdrop to the entire topic. The U.S. is a country built by immigrants, yet its relationship with immigration has always been difficult. Many newcomers have traditionally been disliked or even feared, be it because of their exotic appearance, their religion, or their unfamiliar language. American nativists have throughout history attempted to keep America white and Christian and rejected those who do not easily fall into these categories. Originally even Catholics were shunned. Whiteness and Christianity are two features that have long prevailed as the most depictive characteristics of the United States, even if the white population is on the decline and soon no racial group will alone form racial majority. The twelve primary debates are analyzed through rhetorical discourse analysis. The goal is to distinguish the central discourses and the rhetoric that the candidates apply when discussing immigration. A total of five discourses were discovered. These are named the problem discourse, the legality discourse, the security discourse, the economic discourse and Americanness as a discourse. The problem discourse as well as Americanness as a discourse can be found within all of the other discourses. Within the problem discourse, immigration is generally depicted as a problem; immigration is portrayed as an issue pertaining to law within the legality discourse: the security discourse is founded on the idea of immigration as a security matter; within the economic discourse, immigration appears an economic problem; and lastly, Americanness as a discourse builds around the age-old discussion on who is American. The economy discourse appears the most dominant, but the security discourse is found to be intensified by candidates Donald Trump and Ted Cruz. The candidates’ rhetoric most often aims to increase their popularity in the race and the audience’s support. This is understandable as the crux of a presidential primary is to select one candidate as the party nominee for the general election. As could be then expected, of Aristotle’s three modes of persuasion—ethos, pathos, and logos—ethos is most commonly used.
  • Kopakkala, Jemina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this paper is to study the ways of linguistic persuasion in the subgenre of online pet adoption advertisements. More precisely, this paper aims to demonstrate of which metadiscourse markers the persuasion of online pet adoption advertisements is made up. Additionally, this paper seeks to illustrate the connection between the discovered markers of metadiscourse and the three Aristotelean appeals of persuasion known as ethos, pathos, and logos. The material of the study consists of 191 online pet adoption advertisements (30,319 words) featuring dogs and cats, collected from the official websites of six non-profit animal welfare organizations based in the United States. The methodology applied in the study is based on the categorization of metadiscourse markers proposed by Hyland (2005), and both quantitative and qualitative approaches are applied in order to analyze the data. Based on the categorization of Hyland (2005), the markers of metadiscourse present in the material are divided into interactive markers, which guide the reader through the text, and interactional markers of stance and engagement, which include the reader as part of the argument. The results of the analysis show that the linguistic choices made by the writer contribute to the persuasiveness of the advertisements via various interpersonal features. These features include, in particular, the frequent use of the interactional stance markers of boosters, attitude markers, and self-mentions, as well as the interactional engagement markers of reader pronouns, directives, personal asides, and questions. Further, in terms of the interactive markers, the defining features of the subgenre relate particularly to the use of transitions, frame markers, and evidentials. The analysis of the discovered metadiscourse features in terms of their connection to the modes of persuasion appealing to ethos, pathos, and logos, in turn shows that while all of the appeals are utilized, a trend exists according to which online pet adoption advertisements primarily seem to utilize the affective appeal of pathos as a way of persuading the reader. All in all, the present study does not only provide a new perspective to the virtually non-existent yet important persuasion research topic of online pet adoption advertisements, but it contributes to the growing pool of research on metadiscourse and rhetoric, as well.