Browsing by Subject "riskinarviointi"

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  • Laine, Valtteri; Goerlandt, Floris; Banda, Osiris Valdez; Baldauf, Michael; Koldenhof, Yvonne; Rytkönen, Jorma (Elsevier, 2021)
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 171 (2021), 112724
    Several risk management frameworks have been introduced in the literature for maritime Pollution Preparedness and Response (PPR). However, in light of the actual needs of the competent authorities, there is still a lack of framework that is established on a sound risk conceptual basis, addresses the different risk management decision-making contexts of organizations, and provides tools for various risk management questions of this field. To alleviate the limits of existing approaches, this paper introduces a new risk management framework for this purpose, which was developed in cooperation with the competent authorities and other maritime experts. The framework adopts the risk-informed decision-making strategy and includes three aligned components. The first component provides a unified theoretical risk concept to the framework through an interpretation of the Society for Risk Analysis risk approach. The second consists of four ISO 31000:2018 standard based processes focused on different risk management decision-making contexts of the PPR organizations. The third comprises a set of practical risk assessment tools to generate the needed information. A case study provides an example of the functionality of this framework with integrated data from the northern Baltic Sea. To conclude, a risk concept is provided for the PPR authorities and their stakeholders as well as processes for managing the risk and tools for its assessment.
  • Sorvari, Jaana (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 37
    Land contamination is a significant environmental problem requiring systematic management actions. Defining the type and scale of the actions requires information on the risks involved. The numerous methods available for conducting risk assessment (RA) vary in terms of complexity, level of detail, conservatism, and outcomes. Thus, selecting suitable methods requires information on their applicability in Finnish conditions and at the specific site. On the other hand, it is generally accepted that current contaminated land management (CLM) should not only focus on minimizing site-specific risks, but should also consider overall environmental effects and socio-cultural and socio-economic aspects. Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) could then be used as a tool for integrating multidimensional data and generating aggregated information on the consequences of different risk management (RM) options, such as environmental, social, and economic impacts. Nonetheless, such approaches have very seldom been applied in CLM in Finland, probably partly due to a lack of tools specifically developed or modified for Finnish conditions.This research studied the application and suitability of different RA methods for assessing risks and identifying RM needs at some typical contaminated sites in Finland and demonstrated the use of MCA, the emphasis being on soil contamination. The studied RA approaches comprised qualitative rating and quantitative methods that were based on using environmental benchmarks, uptake and exposure models, and multimedia software. To derive estimates of ecological risks, the so-called TRIAD procedure that uses chemical studies, bioassays, and ecological studies was also applied and combined with MCA in order to account for the performance of the study methods, i.e. their ability to depict ecological risks at a study site. Qualitative rating and the statistical Monte Carlo technique provided additional means for uncertainty analysis. A separate study applying the Metaplan technique, interviews, a questionnaire, and a literature survey showed that a lack of suitable assessment tools was one of the key barriers to eco-efficient CLM in Finland. An MCA-based decision support tool (DST) adapting the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) was therefore developed for case-by-case determination of the preferred RM option and tested with some typical Finnish contaminated sites.Many of the conclusions of the research are overarching and applicable to RA methods in general. Fistly, it appered that care must be taken in applying different models and software tools in site-specific RA, since some of their components are not straightforwardly suitable for Finnish conditions or for certain contaminants. These problems often relate to specific contaminant transport pathways. Moreover, the lack of verified data on the parameter values representative of Finnish conditions is an issue. The prevailing practice of using complicated software programs with ample data demands as the first and primary tools in human health risk assessment is not supported by this research, since it appeared that even simple tools and calculations can often provide adequate information on risks for decision-making. In ecological risk assessment (ERA), the usefulness of the approach founded on uptake and exposure models is reduced by the high uncertainties involved, particularly since the applicability of these models in Finnish conditions could not be verified. The accuracy and reliability of ecological risk estimates can be enhanced by applying the TRIAD methodology, although the procedure includes some pitfalls that need to be acknowledged. Combining TRIAD with MCA proved to be a feasible means to quantitatively study the performance of separate ERA methods. MCA thereby complements mechanical statistical analysis, such as Monte Carlo simulation, and increases the reliability of the final integrated risk estimates. In practice, a lack of data on the statistics of the input variables can restrict the use of statistical tools. The MAVT-based DST turned out to be efficient in facilitating discussion between different interest groups and experts and in identifying the preferred RM option in the common situation where risks are not the only factors relevant in decision-making. In practice, additional factors, such as the temporal scope of RM actions and some sustainability components that were not comprehensively included in the DST, might need to be considered.
  • Unknown author (Miljöministeriet, 17.1)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 4sv/2006
    I anvisningen behandlas arbetarskyddet med avsikt på användning, underhåll och inspektion av snöskotrar och terränghjulingar samt deras utrustning. Ytterligare fäster anvisningen uppmärksamhet på arbetarskyddets ansvarsfrågor på olika nivåer i organisationen. Anvisningen tar också upp den centrala arbetarskyddslagstiftningen.
  • Unknown author (Miljöministeriet, 30.1)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 8sv/2006
    Syftet med anvisningen är att framhäva betydelsen av förhandsplanering och förebyggande arbetarskydd i användningen av snöskoter och terränghjuling. I anvisningen behandlas arbetarskyddet med avsikt på användning, underhåll och inspektion av snöskotrar och terränghjulingar samt deras utrustning. Ytterligare fäster anvisningen uppmärksamhet på arbetarskyddets ansvarsfrågor på olika nivåer i organisationen. Anvisningen tar också upp den centrala arbetarskyddslagstiftningen.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Helle, Inari; Kostamo, Kirsi; Kuikka, Sakari; Törnroos, Anna; Nygård, Henrik; Venesjärvi, Riikka; Uusitalo, Laura (American Chemical Society, 2021)
    Environmental Science & Technology 55: 13, 8502-8513
    Seabed mining is approaching the commercial mining phase across the world’s oceans. This rapid industrialization of seabed resource use is introducing new pressures to marine environments. The environmental impacts of such pressures should be carefully evaluated prior to permitting new activities, yet observational data is mostly missing. Here, we examine the environmental risks of seabed mining using a causal, probabilistic network approach. Drawing on a series of interviews with a multidisciplinary group of experts, we outline the cause-effect pathways related to seabed mining activities to inform quantitative risk assessments. The approach consists of (1) iterative model building with experts to identify the causal connections between seabed mining activities and the affected ecosystem components, and (2) quantitative probabilistic modelling to provide estimates of mortality of benthic fauna in the Baltic Sea. The model is used to evaluate alternative mining scenarios, offering a quantitative means to highlight the uncertainties around the impacts of mining. We further outline requirements for operationalizing quantitative risk assessments, highlighting the importance of a cross-disciplinary approach to risk identification. The model can be used to support permitting processes by providing a more comprehensive description of the potential environmental impacts of seabed resource use, allowing iterative updating of the model as new information becomes available.
  • Kylä-Harakka-Ruonala, Tellervo (National Board of Waters and Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 2
    Yhteenveto: Kemikaalien teollisesta käsittelystä vesieliöille aiheutuvien riskien arviointi mallin avulla.
  • Gonzalez-Moreno, Pablo; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Vila, Montserrat; Preda, Cristina; Adriaens, Tim; Bacher, Sven; Brundu, Giuseppe; Copp, Gordon H.; Essl, Franz; García-Berthou, Emili; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Loennechen Moen, Toril; Lucy, Frances E.; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Roy, Helen E.; Srėbalienė, Greta; Talgø, Venche; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Andjelković, Ana; Arbačiauskas, Kęstutis; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Bae, Mi-Jung; Bariche, Michel; Boets, Pieter; Boieiro, Mário; Borges, Paulo Alexandre; Canning-Clode, João; Cardigos, Federico; Chartosia, Niki; Cottier-Cook, Elizabeth Joanne; Crocetta, Fabio; D'hondt, Bram; Foggi, Bruno; Follak, Swen; Gallardo, Belinda; Gammelmo, Øivind; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Giuliani, Claudia; Fried, Guillaume; Jelaska, Lucija Šerić; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Jover, Miquel; Juárez-Escario, Alejandro; Kalogirou, Stefanos; Kočić, Aleksandra; Kytinou, Eleni; Laverty, Ciaran; Lozano, Vanessa; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Marchante, Elizabete; Marchante, Hélia; Martinou, Angeliki F.; Meyer, Sandro; Minchin, Dan; Montero-Castaño, Ana; Morais, Maria Cristina; Morales-Rodriguez, Carmen; Muhthassim, Naida; Nagy, Zoltán Á.; Ogris, Nikica; Onen, Huseyin; Pergl, Jan; Puntila, Riikka; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ramburn, Triya Tessa; Rego, Carla; Reichenbach, Fabian; Romeralo, Carmen; Saul, Wolf-Christian; Schrader, Gritta; Sheehan, Rory; Simonović, Predrag; Skolka, Marius; Soares, António Onofre; Sundheim, Leif; Tarkan, Ali Serhan; Tomov, Rumen; Tricarico, Elena; Tsiamis, Konstantinos; Uludağ, Ahmet; Valkenburg, Johan van; Verreycken, Hugo; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Vilar, Lluís; Wiig, Øystein; Witzell, Johanna; Zanetta, Andrea; Kenis, Marc (Pensoft, 2019)
    NeoBiota 44: 1-25
    Standardized tools are needed to identify and prioritize the most harmful non-native species (NNS). A plethora of assessment protocols have been developed to evaluate the current and potential impacts of non-native species, but consistency among them has received limited attention. To estimate the consistency across impact assessment protocols, 89 specialists in biological invasions used 11 protocols to screen 57 NNS (2614 assessments). We tested if the consistency in the impact scoring across assessors, quantified as the coefficient of variation (CV), was dependent on the characteristics of the protocol, the taxonomic group and the expertise of the assessor. Mean CV across assessors was 40%, with a maximum of 223%. CV was lower for protocols with a low number of score levels, which demanded high levels of expertise, and when the assessors had greater expertise on the assessed species. The similarity among protocols with respect to the final scores was higher when the protocols considered the same impact types. We conclude that all protocols led to considerable inconsistency among assessors. In order to improve consistency, we highlight the importance of selecting assessors with high expertise, providing clear guidelines and adequate training but also deriving final decisions collaboratively by consensus.
  • Tuominen, Pirkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The drive for risk-based food safety management, systems and control has spread world-wide in recent decades. Since the term is still internationally undefined, its use and implementation vary, producing different realizations. In this Ph.D. thesis, microbiological risk assessment (MRA) was investigated as a basis for risk-based food safety management, which was defined as ‘food safety management based on risk assessment in order to achieve an appropriate level of protection (ALOP)’. Governments are responsible for commissioning MRAs and also for setting food safety targets up to a certain point, but the practical management measures that need to be in place in order to achieve the targets are to be addressed by the operators. On the plant level, food safety is usually managed through regulation, quality assurance systems and a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) programme with its prerequisites. In Finland, food safety management on the food plant level is implemented through an HACCP-like regulated system termed an own-checking (OC) programme. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted on salmonella in the beef production chain according to the official standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex Alimentarius), and utilized in determining the food safety metrics for beef production. The Finnish Salmonella Control Programme (FSCP) and the main official interventions due to it were examined in the light of risk-based food safety management. The targets set for beef processing plants by the government were converted into quantitative limits, and the results of salmonella monitoring included in the FSCP were examined by the QMRA. The goal of the FSCP was declared in 1994 to ‘maintain the present salmonella situation’, which was considered to refer to the salmonella incidence in humans at that time, and also the de facto ALOP. The requirement for a maximum salmonella prevalence of 1% at defined stages of the beef production chain was embodied in the FSCP. This statement was considered to convey performance objectives (PO) for the aforementioned stages. According to the QMRA, the de facto ALOP was achieved in the referred year 1999, and even the true prevalence levels in the FSCP were estimated to be clearly under the set PO limits with 95% credibility. However, the PO limits were set too high for the de facto ALOP to be maintained in practice. If the salmonella prevalence reached the PO limit of 1% or values near it, the public health risk would increase and overrun the de facto ALOP. The QMRA produced in this work has for the first time provided the possibility to quantitatively asses the relationships between targets set in the FSCP and their impact on public health. At present, imports of beef and beef-derived foods may impose on Finnish consumers a significantly greater exposure than domestic products. If their salmonella prevalence or their share of the foods consumed in Finland increase, the number of human cases could rapidly rise. The models for the QMRA were mainly Bayesian hierarchical models using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, which was found to be a flexible and appropriate method for this type of complex modelling. The resulting distributions were also regarded as an advantage compared to the results from models developed with the deterministic approach, because the presentation of results included the extent of the uncertainty, and also in this manner better illustrated the actual operational environment. Based on an inquiry, the personnel in food processing plants had a positive attitude towards food safety management systems, but the knowledge, training and involvement of those employees directly operating on the site with these systems were discovered to be deficient. Therefore, a generic semi-quantitative hygiene risk assessment model, Hygram®, was developed for small and medium-sized food enterprises to offer assistance in understanding, training, and, first of all, detecting the critical steps of the processes, and thereby to contribute to the development of their own-checking systems towards risk-based food safety management. Hygram® was not considered a risk-based tool as such, but whenever the critical limits of the process have been defined as equal to a risk assessment, Hygram® can be used as a risk-based management tool. It can also serve as a tool for systematic hazard analysis and CCP detection when establishing a food safety management system. To conclude, the development of risk-based food safety management is a process in which risk assessment is an essential tool. Scientific, technical, psychological and resource-bound barriers need to be overcome in order to put risk-based management systems into practice. This study showed that QMRA can be valuable in national risk management decision making, although few QMRAs are currently available. Appropriate tools for practical risk management decision making on the industrial level, such as Hygram®, need to be further developed.
  • Tuomisto, Pirkko (Evira, 2009)
    4/2008
    The drive for risk-based food safety management, systems and control has spread world-wide in recent decades. Since the term is still internationally undefined, its use and implementation vary, producing different realizations. In this Ph.D. thesis, microbiological risk assessment (MRA) was investigated as a basis for risk-based food safety management, which was defined as ‘food safety management based on risk assessment in order to achieve an appropriate level of protection (ALOP)’. Governments are responsible for commissioning MRAs and also for setting food safety targets up to a certain point, but the practical management measures that need to be in place in order to achieve the targets are to be addressed by the operators. On the plant level, food safety is usually managed through regulation, quality assurance systems and a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) programme with its prerequisites. In Finland, food safety management on the food plant level is implemented through an HACCP-like regulated system termed an ownchecking (OC) programme. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted on salmonella in the beef production chain according to the official standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex Alimentarius), and utilized in determining the food safety metrics for beef production. The Finnish Salmonella Control Programme (FSCP) and the main official interventions due to it were examined in the light of risk-based food safety management. The targets set for beef processing plants by the government were converted into quantitative limits, and the results of salmonella monitoring included in the FSCP were examined by the QMRA. The goal of the FSCP was declared in 1994 to ‘maintain the present salmonella situation’, which was considered to refer to the salmonella incidence in humans at that time, and also the de facto ALOP. The requirement for a maximum salmonella prevalence of 1% at defined stages of the beef production chain was embodied in the FSCP. This statement was considered to convey performance objectives (PO) for the aforementioned stages. According to the QMRA, the de facto ALOP was achieved in the referred year 1999, and even the true prevalence levels in the FSCP were estimated to be clearly under the set PO limits with 95% credibility. However, the PO limits were set too high for the de facto ALOP to be maintained in practice. If the salmonella prevalence reached the PO limit of 1% or values near it, the public health risk would increase and overrun the de facto ALOP. The QMRA produced in this work has for the first time provided the possibility to quantitatively asses the relationships between targets set in the FSCP and their impact on public health. At present, imports of beef and beef-derived foods may impose on Finnish consumers a significantly greater exposure than domestic products. If their salmonella prevalence or their share of the foods consumed in Finland increase, the number of human cases could rapidly rise. The models for the QMRA were mainly Bayesian hierarchical models using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, which was found to be a flexible and appropriate method for this type of complex modelling. The resulting distributions were also regarded as an advantage compared to the results from models developed with the deterministic approach, because the presentation of results included the extent of the uncertainty, and also in this manner better illustrated the actual operational environment. Based on an inquiry, the personnel in food processing plants had a positive attitude towards food safety management systems, but the knowledge, training and involvement of those employees directly operating on the site with these systems were discovered to be deficient. Therefore, a generic semi-quantitative hygiene risk assessment model, Hygram®, was developed for small and medium-sized food enterprises to offer assistance in understanding, training, and, first of all, detecting the critical steps of the processes, and thereby to contribute to the development of their own-checking systems towards risk-based food safety management. Hygram® was not considered a risk-based tool as such, but whenever the critical limits of the process have been defined as equal to a risk assessment, Hygram® can be used as a risk-based management tool. It can also serve as a tool for systematic hazard analysis and CCP detection when establishing a food safety management system. To conclude, the development of risk-based food safety management is a process in which risk assessment is an essential tool. Scientific, technical, psychological and resource-bound barriers need to be overcome in order to put risk-based management systems into practice. This study showed that QMRA can be valuable in national risk management decision making, although few QMRAs are currently available. Appropriate tools for practical risk management decision making on the industrial level, such as Hygram®, need to be further developed.
  • Juutilainen, Zoja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Merkittävä osa elintarvikeperäisistä mikrobiologisista ja kemiallisista vaaroista kasvaa, leviää tai syntyy kuluttajien kotona. Kuluttajat vaikuttavat ruoan turvallisuuteen käsittely- ja säilytystottumuksillaan, joiden arviointi on nykyisessä riskinarvioinnissa vaikeaa puutteellisen aineiston takia. Jotta riskinarviointi olisi paikkansapitävä, ja sen mukaan luodut ohjeistukset, säädökset ja lait mahdollisimman kohdennettuja, tulee kuluttajien vaaroille altistumisen arviointi olla aiempaa tarkempaa. Tutkimus suoritettiin Ruokaviraston toimeksiantona, ja sen tarkoitus oli luoda valmis kyselypohja riskinarvioinnin tueksi. Kyselylomakkeiden avulla pyrittiin selvittämään kuluttajien kalan ja lihan käsittely- ja säilytystottumuksia kotioloissa, millä on merkittävä vaikutus kemiallisille ja mikrobiologisille vaaroille altistumisessa. Tutkimus koostui kahden kyselylomakkeen luomisesta ja niiden validiuden arvioimisesta yksilöhaastatteluilla (n=30, 18–83 v.). Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että lomakkeet eivät sellaisenaan olleet valmiita käyttöönottoon. Osa kysymyksistä ei soveltunut haluttuun tarkoitukseen, eikä niillä täten saatu kerättyä tarvittavaa aineistoa. Ennen lomakkeiden käyttöönottoa myös kyselyissä käytettyä 7-portaista ankkuroitua asteikkoa tulee muokata numeerisemmaksi, sillä sanalliset ankkurit olivat monitulkintaisia. Tässä tutkimuksessa ehdotettujen muokkausten jälkeen lomakkeiden validiteetti olisi tärkeää tutkia myös seurantatutkimuksen avulla, mutta myös sellaisenaan lomakkeet tuovat tarvittavaa aineistoa kuluttajien kotikäyttäytymisestä.
  • Tuominen, Meri; Schultz, Eija (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 26/2010
    Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies offer great opportunities for almost all sectors of society. New materials and applications are invented all the time. Benefits are obvious in many cases, such as enhanced energy use, improved electronic devices, lighter products, higher hygiene level, or increased storage time. The motive for manufacturing nanomaterials lies in the chemical and physical characteristics, which are different from material in bulk. Due to these new properties environmental effects assessment is challenging. We are only at the beginning of understanding how nanomaterials will behave in actual environmental conditions.
  • von Hellens, Otto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Suurin osa sydämen läppävioista on aorttaläpän vikoja. Vaikean aorttaläppäahtauman hoitona on uuden aorttaläpän asennus, joka voidaan suorittaa joko avoleikkauksessa tai verisuoniteitse. Aorttaläppäahtaumasta kärsivät potilaat ovat usein vanhoja ja monisairaita, jolloin aorttaläpän toimenpiteisiin sisältyy merkittävä riski vakaville komplikaatioille. Leikkauspäätöstä tehdessä tulee toimenpiteen mahdolliset hyödyt ja riskit punnita tarkkaan. Sydänkirurgisten toimenpiteiden riskin arvioimiseksi on kehitetty useita työkaluja, kuten esimerkiksi EuroSCORE II -riskipisteytys. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää EuroSCORE II -riskipisteytyksen sekä muiden tekijöiden yhteyttä isoloidun biologisen aorttaproteesin asennusleikkauksen jälkeiseen kuolleisuuteen erityisesti pitkällä aikavälillä. Tutkimus toteutettiin retrospektiivisena analyysinä käyttäen neljässä suomalaisessa yliopistosairaalassa potilaskertomuksista CAREAVR-projektissa kerättyä aineistoa. Aineisto käsittää 721 potilasta, joista 6,7 vuoden (mediaani) seuranta-aikana menehtyi 293 (40,6 %). Elinaika-analyysiä varten potilaiden EuroSCORE II -pisteet jaettiin neljään ryhmään. Pitkän aikavälin kuolleisuuden kanssa todettiin korreloivan EuroSCORE II -pisteytys, ikä, liikuntakyky, preoperatiivinen munuaisfunktio ja leikkausta edeltävästi todettu krooninen keuhkosairaus sekä diabetes. Lyhyen aikavälin leikkauskuolleisuutta EuroSCORE II -pisteytys ennusti huonosti tutkitussa populaatiossa. EuroSCORE II -pisteytyksen käyttö lyhyen aikavälin leikkausriskin arviointiin ei tutkimuksen perusteella ole perusteltua. Potilaan pitkän aikavälin ennusteen arvioimisessa EuroSCORE II -pisteytys voi olla hyödyllinen työkalu, mutta leikkauspäätöksen tulee jatkossakin perustua potilaan terveydentilan kokonaisvaltaiseen kliiniseen arvioon.
  • Outinen, Okko; Bailey, Sarah A.; Broeg, Katja; Chasse, Joël; Clarke, Stacey; Daigle, Rémi M.; Gollasch, Stephan; Kakkonen, Jenni E.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Normant-Saremba, Monika; Ogilvie, Dawson; Viard, Frederique (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Environmental Management 293 (2021), 112823
    The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) aims to mitigate the introduction risk of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOP) via ships’ ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention has set regulations for ships to utilise exceptions and exemptions from ballast water management under specific circumstances. This study evaluated local and regional case studies to provide clarity for situations, where ships could be excepted or exempted from ballast water management without risking recipient locations to new introductions of HAOP. Ships may be excepted from ballast water management if all ballasting operations are conducted in the same location (Regulation A-3.5 of the BWM Convention). The same location case study determined whether the entire Vuosaari harbour (Helsinki, Finland) should be considered as the same location based on salinity and composition of HAOP between the two harbour terminals. The Vuosaari harbour case study revealed mismatching occurrences of HAOP between the harbour terminals, supporting the recommendation that exceptions based on the same location concept should be limited to the smallest feasible areas within a harbour. The other case studies evaluated whether ballast water exemptions could be granted for ships using two existing risk assessment (RA) methods (Joint Harmonised Procedure [JHP] and Same Risk Area [SRA]), consistent with Regulation A-4 of the BWM Convention. The JHP method compares salinity and presence of target species (TS) between donor and recipient ports to indicate the introduction risk (high or low) attributed to transferring unmanaged ballast water. The SRA method uses a biophysical model to determine whether HAOP could naturally disperse between ports, regardless of their transportation in ballast water. The results of the JHP case study for the Baltic Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean determined that over 97% of shipping routes within these regions resulted in a high-risk indication. The one route assessed in the Gulf of Maine, North America also resulted in a high-risk outcome. The SRA assessment resulted in an overall weak connectivity between all ports assessed within the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, indicating that a SRA-based exemption would not be appropriate for the entire study area. In summary, exceptions and exemptions should not be considered as common alternatives for ballast water management. The availability of recent and detailed species occurrence data was considered the most important factor to conduct a successful and reliable RA. SRA models should include biological factors that influence larval dispersal and recruitment potential (e.g., pelagic larval duration, settlement period) to provide a more realistic estimation of natural dispersal.
  • Bland, Lucie M.; Nicholson, Emily; Miller, Rebecca M.; Andrade, Angela; Carré, Aurélien; Etter, Andres; Herrera, Bernar; Kontula, Tytti; Lindgaard, Arild; Pliscoff, Patricio; Skowno, Andrew; Valderrábano, Marcos; Zager, Irene; Keith, David A. (The Society for Conservation Biology, 2019)
    Conservation Letters 2019; 12: e12666
    In 2014, the International Union for Conservation of Nature adopted the Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) criteria as the global standard for assessing risks to terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. Five years on, it is timely to ask what impact this new initiative has had on ecosystem management and conservation. In this policy perspective, we use an impact evaluation framework to distinguish the outputs, outcomes, and impacts of the RLE since its inception. To date, 2,821 ecosystems in 100 countries have been assessed following the RLE protocol. Systematic assessments are complete or underway in 21 countries and two continental regions (the Americas and Europe). Countries with established ecosystem policy infrastructure have already used the RLE to inform legislation, land-use planning, protected area management, monitoring and reporting, and ecosystem management. Impacts are still emerging due to varying pace and commitment to implementation across different countries. In the future, RLE indices based on systematic assessments have high potential to inform global biodiversity reporting. Expanding the coverage of RLE assessments, building capacity and political will to undertake them, and establishing stronger policy instruments to manage red-listed ecosystems will be key to maximizing conservation impacts over the coming decades.
  • Assmuth, Timo; Simola, Antti; Pitkänen, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Huttula, Timo (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2016)
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12(1): 160-173
    Integrated assessment and management of water resources for the supply of potable water is increasingly important in light of projected water scarcity in many parts of the world. This article develops frameworks for regional-level waterborne human health risk assessment of chemical and microbiological contamination to aid water management, incorporating economic aspects of health risks. Managed aquifer recharge with surface water from a river in Southern Finland is used as an illustrative case. With a starting point in watershed governance, stakeholder concerns, and value-at-risk concepts, we merge common methods for integrative health risk analysis of contaminants to describe risks and impacts dynamically and broadly. This involves structuring analyses along the risk chain: sources—releases—environmental transport and fate—exposures—health effects—socio-economic impacts—management responses. Risks attributed to contaminants are embedded in other risks, such as contaminants from other sources, and related to benefits from improved water quality. A set of models along this risk chain in the case is presented. Fundamental issues in the assessment are identified, including 1) framing of risks, scenarios, and choices; 2) interaction of models and empirical information; 3) time dimension; 4) distributions of risks and benefits; and 5) uncertainties about risks and controls. We find that all these combine objective and subjective aspects, and involve value judgments and policy choices. We conclude with proposals for overcoming conceptual and functional divides and lock-ins to improve modeling, assessment, and management of complex water supply schemes, especially by reflective solution-oriented interdisciplinary and multi-actor deliberation.
  • Unknown author (Ympäristöministeriö, 2006)
    Suomen ympäristö 49/2006
    Vuoden 2003 hallitusohjelmassa edellytettiin, että Suomessa valmistellaan kansallinen vaarallisia kemikaaleja koskeva ohjelma, jossa korostetaan varovaisuusperiaatetta uusien tuotteiden mahdollisten ennakoimattomien haittavaikutusten minimoimiseksi. Ympäristöministeriö asetti ohjelman valmistelua varten ohjausryhmän, jonka työn tavoitteeksi asetettiin muodostaa Suomen oloista lähtevä käsitys kansallisen kemikaalivalvonnan tavoitteista ottaen huomioon Euroopan yhteisön lainsäädäntö, erityisesti kemikaaleja koskevan yhteisötason asetuksen (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals eli REACH-asetus) valmistelu. Kemikaaliohjelman yleinen päämäärä on toteuttaa Johannesburgin kestävän kehityksen huippukokouksessa sovittua tavoitetta siten, että kemikaalit eivät aiheuta Suomessa merkittävää terveys- ja ympäristöhaittaa vuonna 2020. Kansallisessa kemikaaliohjelmassa on otettu huomioon kemikaalien aiheuttama haitta yksittäiselle kuluttajalle, kansanterveydelle, työntekijöiden terveydelle ja ympäristölle kemikaalin koko elinkaaren aikana. Kemikaaliohjelman tavoitteiden saavuttamisen seuranta ja eri toimenpiteiden vaikuttavuuden arviointi suunnitellaan ohjelman väliarvioinnin yhteydessä 2011.
  • Hannunen, Salla; Parkkima, Tiina; Vuorinen, Katariina; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Koikkalainen, Kauko (Evira, 2014)
    Eviran tutkimuksia 1/2014
    This report compiles basic information needed when assessing the pest risk related to different plant species and sectors of plant production, namely information on a) the volume of pathways of entry and b) the value at risk in the sectors of plant production. The report covers all the products that can act as pathways for pest entry into Finland as comprehensively as possible. Also, the volume of traffic into Finland is reported. The amount of goods traded into Finland was estimated mainly based on official statistics. The value of plant production was assessed based on the volume of production and producer prices. The total amount of the goods traded into Finland was estimated to be about 12 billion kg yearly, of which about 92% were wood and wood products, 7% food and raw materials for the food industry, and about 0.2% propagation material. The total amount of propagation material traded into Finland was about 2 900 billion seeds and/or plants for planting per year. The report covers the trade in about 130 plant species or families. The value of plant production was estimated to be in total about 3.5 billion euros per year. Of this, forestry covers about 54%, field crops about 31% and horticultural production about 11%.
  • Koskela, Sirkka; Seppälä, Jyri; Hiltunen, Marja-Riitta; Mattila, Tuomas (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2006)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 5/2006
  • Karttunen, Toni (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Urban forests of Helsinki city are managed in multiple ways and several forest values are taken into account in forest management. Strong forest management actions that change the forest landscape radically have been done quite seldom, which has increased the proportion of old forests. The risk of spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) outbreaks is often evident especially in older Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of low vitality. In the winter of 2011 to 2012 storms caused windfalls in some areas of the urban forests in Helsinki city, which increased the risk of spruce bark beetle outbreaks even more. The objective of this study was to assessment the risk of spruce bark beetle outbreaks in the urban forest of Helsinki city and present future forest management recommendations to control the spruce bark beetle damage. Monitoring with pheromone baited traps was used as the main investigation method. Results were compared with spruce bark beetle risk estimates found in literature. Other factors affecting the risk of spruce bark beetle, for example the amount of living Norway spruces infested with the spruce bark beetle, were observed as well. Monitoring with pheromone traps was carried out with 36 traps in three regions in Helsinki Central Park and in one region in Herttoniemi between 6th of May and 4th of July in 2013. Pheromone trap model, WitaTrap Multi Funnel, and pheromone bait Ipsowit® Standard were manufactured by Witasek company. Altogether 79 210 spruce bark beetles were trapped. According to the monitoring results the risk of spruce bark beetle can be high in one region in Central Park area. Living Norway spruces infested by the spruce bark beetle were found in two regions and also in one area outside the investigation area. Based on the results the areas with greatest risk to spruce bark beetle damage were the neighboring areas of previous damage as well as forests with suitable breeding material for the spruce bark beetle. The risk can also be high in Norway spruce forests of low vitality and in recently formed, sun-exposed forest edges dominated by Norway spruce. Forest management recommendations in short time interval to control the spruce bark beetle risk are as follows 1) forest monitoring and removal of spruce bark beetle infested live Norway spruces before Midsummer, 2) observation of storm damage and removal of large diameter Norway spruce windfalls as a rule, 3) monitoring the weather conditions and 4) following national announcements related to the spruce bark beetle risk status. Forest management recommendations for longer time interval are phased regeneration fellings of risk prone Norway spruce forests and changing the forest structures more resistant to spruce bark beetle damage in the future.