Browsing by Subject "riskit"

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  • Vähänen, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The objective of this research was to determine what sorts of risks pre-adolescent children are able to recognize on social media and how they act once they have acknowledged these dangers. Additionally, the goal was to study the effects of school and media education on the preadolescents’ social media behavior. In this research social media has mostly been de-fined according to previous studies, as applications favored by children and adolescents. One class of fifth graders from the Helsinki metropolitan area participated in the research. The material was collected through themed small-group interviews. There were a total of 21 participants and seven interview groups. The data was categorized and analyzed by using the content analysis method. Four different content types were identified from the material, and were categorized as social media risks recognized by the pre-adolescents. These labelled risks were bullying, personal information, hoaxes and unpleasant content. Bullying on social media was brought up the most often. The adolescents had been taught media education at school, but they still would have preferred to receive further education especially on the subject of social media har-assment. Some of them felt they were already familiar with the content of the media educa-tion curriculum beforehand, and had not learned any new useful information. The pre-adolescents’ behavior on social media aligned with the risks they had identified and the media education they had received. They valued their own privacy on social media, but were not able to react to bullying otherwise than by blocking the harassers. The pre-adolescents con-sidered bullying to be a substantial part of social media, without any possible solutions.
  • Sorvari, Jaana (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 37
    Land contamination is a significant environmental problem requiring systematic management actions. Defining the type and scale of the actions requires information on the risks involved. The numerous methods available for conducting risk assessment (RA) vary in terms of complexity, level of detail, conservatism, and outcomes. Thus, selecting suitable methods requires information on their applicability in Finnish conditions and at the specific site. On the other hand, it is generally accepted that current contaminated land management (CLM) should not only focus on minimizing site-specific risks, but should also consider overall environmental effects and socio-cultural and socio-economic aspects. Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) could then be used as a tool for integrating multidimensional data and generating aggregated information on the consequences of different risk management (RM) options, such as environmental, social, and economic impacts. Nonetheless, such approaches have very seldom been applied in CLM in Finland, probably partly due to a lack of tools specifically developed or modified for Finnish conditions.This research studied the application and suitability of different RA methods for assessing risks and identifying RM needs at some typical contaminated sites in Finland and demonstrated the use of MCA, the emphasis being on soil contamination. The studied RA approaches comprised qualitative rating and quantitative methods that were based on using environmental benchmarks, uptake and exposure models, and multimedia software. To derive estimates of ecological risks, the so-called TRIAD procedure that uses chemical studies, bioassays, and ecological studies was also applied and combined with MCA in order to account for the performance of the study methods, i.e. their ability to depict ecological risks at a study site. Qualitative rating and the statistical Monte Carlo technique provided additional means for uncertainty analysis. A separate study applying the Metaplan technique, interviews, a questionnaire, and a literature survey showed that a lack of suitable assessment tools was one of the key barriers to eco-efficient CLM in Finland. An MCA-based decision support tool (DST) adapting the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) was therefore developed for case-by-case determination of the preferred RM option and tested with some typical Finnish contaminated sites.Many of the conclusions of the research are overarching and applicable to RA methods in general. Fistly, it appered that care must be taken in applying different models and software tools in site-specific RA, since some of their components are not straightforwardly suitable for Finnish conditions or for certain contaminants. These problems often relate to specific contaminant transport pathways. Moreover, the lack of verified data on the parameter values representative of Finnish conditions is an issue. The prevailing practice of using complicated software programs with ample data demands as the first and primary tools in human health risk assessment is not supported by this research, since it appeared that even simple tools and calculations can often provide adequate information on risks for decision-making. In ecological risk assessment (ERA), the usefulness of the approach founded on uptake and exposure models is reduced by the high uncertainties involved, particularly since the applicability of these models in Finnish conditions could not be verified. The accuracy and reliability of ecological risk estimates can be enhanced by applying the TRIAD methodology, although the procedure includes some pitfalls that need to be acknowledged. Combining TRIAD with MCA proved to be a feasible means to quantitatively study the performance of separate ERA methods. MCA thereby complements mechanical statistical analysis, such as Monte Carlo simulation, and increases the reliability of the final integrated risk estimates. In practice, a lack of data on the statistics of the input variables can restrict the use of statistical tools. The MAVT-based DST turned out to be efficient in facilitating discussion between different interest groups and experts and in identifying the preferred RM option in the common situation where risks are not the only factors relevant in decision-making. In practice, additional factors, such as the temporal scope of RM actions and some sustainability components that were not comprehensively included in the DST, might need to be considered.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Helle, Inari; Kostamo, Kirsi; Kuikka, Sakari; Törnroos, Anna; Nygård, Henrik; Venesjärvi, Riikka; Uusitalo, Laura (American Chemical Society, 2021)
    Environmental Science & Technology 55: 13, 8502-8513
    Seabed mining is approaching the commercial mining phase across the world’s oceans. This rapid industrialization of seabed resource use is introducing new pressures to marine environments. The environmental impacts of such pressures should be carefully evaluated prior to permitting new activities, yet observational data is mostly missing. Here, we examine the environmental risks of seabed mining using a causal, probabilistic network approach. Drawing on a series of interviews with a multidisciplinary group of experts, we outline the cause-effect pathways related to seabed mining activities to inform quantitative risk assessments. The approach consists of (1) iterative model building with experts to identify the causal connections between seabed mining activities and the affected ecosystem components, and (2) quantitative probabilistic modelling to provide estimates of mortality of benthic fauna in the Baltic Sea. The model is used to evaluate alternative mining scenarios, offering a quantitative means to highlight the uncertainties around the impacts of mining. We further outline requirements for operationalizing quantitative risk assessments, highlighting the importance of a cross-disciplinary approach to risk identification. The model can be used to support permitting processes by providing a more comprehensive description of the potential environmental impacts of seabed resource use, allowing iterative updating of the model as new information becomes available.
  • Walta, Veikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The determinants of FDI have been a topic of interest in economics since the 1980s and this paper aims to contribute to this field. This study aims to measure how associated FDI is with the political risk as well as to see the extent of this relationship in Turkey in the years 1996–2017. The political risk is measured as a change in indexes that are provided by the World Bank, Freedom House, and Transparency International. These political indicators are Political Rights, Civil Liberties, the Corruption Perceptions Index, Regulatory Quality, Voice and Accountability, Rule of Law, Government Effectiveness, Control of Corruption, and Political Stability. The earlier literature on FDI and political risks is mostly empirical and there has not been much theoretical research. Chakrabarti analyzed the past studies on FDI and its determinants in 2001 and found out that in the earlier research, almost every explanatory variable of FDI except the market size was sensitive to small changes in the conditioning information set, casting doubt on the robustness of the results. There have also been conducted studies that address political risk or equivalent concepts. The 2005 research of Busse and Hefeker had the same topic as this paper but their data consisted of many countries and they employed two different panel models. One was a fixed-effects panel analysis while the other utilized a generalized method of moments estimator. I selected three model specifications for the time-series regression analysis. All three specifications have market size as a control variable and the other two also have the economy’s growth rate and trade openness. The third has the inflation rate as the final control variable. The data have a small number of observations which limits the options available for the empirical part of the study. Out of the nine political indicators, Regulatory Quality is the only political indicator that is not associated with FDI, while the results on the Corruption Perceptions Index and Control of Corruption are inconclusive. The rest six are associated with FDI. The Rule of Law index has the highest estimated coefficient value of the World Bank indicators and the Political Rights index has the highest estimated coefficient value of the Freedom House’s indicators.
  • Kylä-Harakka-Ruonala, Tellervo (National Board of Waters and Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 2
    Yhteenveto: Kemikaalien teollisesta käsittelystä vesieliöille aiheutuvien riskien arviointi mallin avulla.
  • Assmuth, Timo; Lyytimäki, Jari (Elsevier, 2015)
    Environmental Science and Policy 51 (2015), pages 338-350
    Ongoing complex global ecological and societal transitions pose challenges of including actors with different knowledge. We focus on approaches to gaining shared understanding and acting on it in the converging fields of environment, health care and environmental health. Starting from similarities between these fields with regard to knowledge and actor inclusion, we rethink ‘knowledge’, ‘brokering’ and ‘science–policy interfaces’. Using conceptual models, we structure and characterize the multi-dimensional and interactive co-production and application of types of knowledge (scientific and other) in governance contexts shaped by institutions, political agency and policies (sectorial and integrative). We investigate cases of knowledge brokering, representing different types from formal to informal, international to national, and research-centered to action-oriented. We find both shared and isolated problems and solutions in the studied sectors and settings regarding knowledge brokering, for instance with respect to precaution, reflecting the dynamics in environmental and health care and their contexts. Methodologically, our analyses show the importance of heuristic and participatory approaches to explicating interpretations and dealing with disagreements about knowledge, values and premises for actions.
  • Maack, Gerd; Äystö, Lauri; Carere, Mario; Clausen, Henning; James, Alice; Junghans, Marion; Junttila, Ville; Hollender, Juliane; Marinov, Dimitar; Stroomberg, Gerard; Triebskorn, Rita; Verbruggen, Eric; Lettieri, Teresa (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Environmental Sciences Europe
    Leverett et al. commented on the Environmental quality standard (EQS) for diclofenac derived under the European Water Framework Directive [Leverett et al. (2021) Environ Sci Eur 33: 133 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-021-00574-z]. They postulated that the derivation of the EQS value for diclofenac is not conducted according to the EQS Technical Guidance, but rather using data of poor reliability and relevance. Consequently, the authors suggested using their alternative derived value instead. It is to be noted that the process for the EQS derivation for diclofenac is still ongoing and not finalized, and that as a consequence, any critical analysis is very premature. In general, within the current European Commission process, EQS values proposals are derived by expert groups led by the Joint Research Centre. In the specific case for diclofenac, Leverett et al. have also been actively involved as experts. This response to Leverett et al. (2021) aims to clarify the reasoning behind the proposal from a scientific point of view and to express our concern for the lack of transparency of their position in the statement of competing interests. Indeed, the authors did not disclose their participation in the expert group for deriving the diclofenac EQS value, nor that they have direct and indirect ties to a company that markets diclofenac in Europe, Glaxo Smith & Kline plc (GSK). This amounts to a significant conflict of interest and leads to disinformation to the reader.
  • Häkkinen, Piia (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 14/2010
    There are a wide variety of different chemicals used in common articles. Many hazardous substances are being spread to the environment besides from the use of articles, also from their production and disposal. Management of chemicals in articles is included in EU legislation concerning product safety, waste management, product design and chemicals. There are also other instruments for the management of chemicals in articles, e.g. environmental labelling, international co-operation, industry initiatives, work of the non-governmental organizations as well as national programmes and registers. According to the recommendations of the National Programme on Dangerous Chemicals, more information is needed about chemicals in articles. The aim of this preliminary report is to review how hazards and risks from chemicals in articles could be controlled, through out the life cycles of the articles. This report describes the current legislative situation and voluntary management measures, as well as their possible need for further development. Articles are regarded as e.g. textiles, toys, electrical and electronic equipment, batteries and accumulators as well as packaging. Cosmetics are also included in this report, because they present possible significant source of chemical releases to the environment. On the basis of this preliminary report, the legislation concerning chemicals in articles is very scattered, targeted to certain product groups and substances. EU’s new chemicals regulation, REACH, is the most comprehensive legislation on chemicals in articles, because it is applied to all chemicals. There is a general lack of information on the content of chemicals in articles as well as the environmental effects and risks of those chemicals. The lack of labelling requirement is affecting to the consumers’, manufacturers’ and importers’ level of knowledge about chemicals in articles. The surveillance by the authorities is based on notifications of dangerous articles and spot checks. These however only reveal a small proportion of articles on the market containing hazardous chemicals. The management of chemicals in articles could be enhanced e.g. by adding more restricted chemicals or product groups to individual legislation, by including more environmental aspects in product safety legislation or by adding more restrictions concerning chemicals in articles to the REACH Regulation. In order to supervise the compliance with chemicals legislation, more resources are needed, especially on imported articles coming outside EU. The new Waste Framework Directive and the reform of national waste legislation will enhance the control of chemicals in articles, but the collection, recycling and re-use should be further developed. Information on chemicals in articles could be increased by e.g. developing information systems covering the whole supply chain. The role of product design should be highlighted in the future when aiming to substitute the current use of hazardous chemicals in articles.
  • Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2008)
    4/2008
    The drive for risk-based food safety management, systems and control has spread world-wide in recent decades. Since the term is still internationally undefined, its use and implementation vary, producing different realizations. In this Ph.D. thesis, microbiological risk assessment (MRA) was investigated as a basis for risk-based food safety management, which was defined as ‘food safety management based on risk assessment in order to achieve an appropriate level of protection (ALOP)’. Governments are responsible for commissioning MRAs and also for setting food safety targets up to a certain point, but the practical management measures that need to be in place in order to achieve the targets are to be addressed by the operators. On the plant level, food safety is usually managed through regulation, quality assurance systems and a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) programme with its prerequisites. In Finland, food safety management on the food plant level is implemented through an HACCP-like regulated system termed an ownchecking (OC) programme. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted on salmonella in the beef production chain according to the official standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex Alimentarius), and utilized in determining the food safety metrics for beef production. The Finnish Salmonella Control Programme (FSCP) and the main official interventions due to it were examined in the light of risk-based food safety management. The targets set for beef processing plants by the government were converted into quantitative limits, and the results of salmonella monitoring included in the FSCP were examined by the QMRA. The goal of the FSCP was declared in 1994 to ‘maintain the present salmonella situation’, which was considered to refer to the salmonella incidence in humans at that time, and also the de facto ALOP. The requirement for a maximum salmonella prevalence of 1% at defined stages of the beef production chain was embodied in the FSCP. This statement was considered to convey performance objectives (PO) for the aforementioned stages. According to the QMRA, the de facto ALOP was achieved in the referred year 1999, and even the true prevalence levels in the FSCP were estimated to be clearly under the set PO limits with 95% credibility. However, the PO limits were set too high for the de facto ALOP to be maintained in practice. If the salmonella prevalence reached the PO limit of 1% or values near it, the public health risk would increase and overrun the de facto ALOP. The QMRA produced in this work has for the first time provided the possibility to quantitatively asses the relationships between targets set in the FSCP and their impact on public health. At present, imports of beef and beef-derived foods may impose on Finnish consumers a significantly greater exposure than domestic products. If their salmonella prevalence or their share of the foods consumed in Finland increase, the number of human cases could rapidly rise. The models for the QMRA were mainly Bayesian hierarchical models using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, which was found to be a flexible and appropriate method for this type of complex modelling. The resulting distributions were also regarded as an advantage compared to the results from models developed with the deterministic approach, because the presentation of results included the extent of the uncertainty, and also in this manner better illustrated the actual operational environment. Based on an inquiry, the personnel in food processing plants had a positive attitude towards food safety management systems, but the knowledge, training and involvement of those employees directly operating on the site with these systems were discovered to be deficient. Therefore, a generic semi-quantitative hygiene risk assessment model, Hygram®, was developed for small and medium-sized food enterprises to offer assistance in understanding, training, and, first of all, detecting the critical steps of the processes, and thereby to contribute to the development of their own-checking systems towards risk-based food safety management. Hygram® was not considered a risk-based tool as such, but whenever the critical limits of the process have been defined as equal to a risk assessment, Hygram® can be used as a risk-based management tool. It can also serve as a tool for systematic hazard analysis and CCP detection when establishing a food safety management system. To conclude, the development of risk-based food safety management is a process in which risk assessment is an essential tool. Scientific, technical, psychological and resource-bound barriers need to be overcome in order to put risk-based management systems into practice. This study showed that QMRA can be valuable in national risk management decision making, although few QMRAs are currently available. Appropriate tools for practical risk management decision making on the industrial level, such as Hygram®, need to be further developed.
  • Kasvi, Elina; Lotsari, Eliisa; Kumpumäki, Miia; Dubrovin, Tanja; Veijalainen, Noora (MDPI, 2019)
    Water 2019, 11, 1827
    We investigated how hydro-climatological changes would affect fluvial forces and inundated area during a typical high-flow situation (MHQ, mean high discharge), and how adaptive regulation could attenuate the climate change impacts in a low-relief river of the Southern Boreal climate area. We used hydrologically modeled data as input for 2D hydraulic modeling. Our results show that, even though the MHQ will increase in the future (2050–2079), the erosional power of the flow will decrease on the study area. This can be attributed to the change of timing in floods from spring to autumn and winter, when the sea levels during flood peaks is higher, causing backwater effect. Even though the mean depth will not increase notably (from 1.14 m to 1.25 m) during MHQ, compared to the control period (1985–2014), the inundated area will expand by 15% due to the flat terrain. The increase in flooding may be restrained by adaptive regulations: strategies favoring ecologically sustainable and recreationally desirable lake water levels were modeled. The demands of environment, society, and hydropower are not necessarily contradictory in terms of climate change adaptation, and regulation could provide an adaptive practice in the areas of increased flooding.
  • Stjerna, Reetta; Sahlström, Leena; Lyytikäinen, Tapani (Evira, 2015)
    4/2015
    Import of animal by-products (ABP) category 2 may cause health risks for cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and fish farms. ABP may, depending on their origin, contain pathogens causing problems for production animals. Therefore ABPs must be treated before use so as not to cause danger. ABPs are imported to Finland mainly for use in feed for fur animals and in fertilisers. In 2013 approximately 4.6 million kg of ABP category 2 were imported to Finland. The risk of pathogen introduction with ABPs is highest during summer and fall when fur animal feed consumption peaks resulting in a peak in ABP imports. The import, treatment and use of ABPs in Finland are investigated in the report. ABPs may contain pathogens if the treatment is inefficient, fails or recontamination occurs after treatment. No untreated ABPs were imported to Finland during the study period. Information about treatment facilities and treatment abroad is unavailable. In treatment plants in Finland some deficiencies have been observed. Direct contact between ABPs and production animals is most likely on farms with both fur and food producing animals. In Finland there are only 30 such farms. However, indirect contact is also possible through vector animals, fomites, water and wind.
  • Koskinen, Mirja (Lounais-Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristö 12/2008
    Pori on Suomen merkittävimpiä tulvauhka-alueita, jossa Kokemäenjoki tulviessaan voi aiheuttaa merkittävät taloudelliset vahingot ja uhattuna on jopa 10 000 – 15 000 ihmistä. Viranomaisten saumattoman toiminnan varmistamiseksi suurtulvatilanteessa on laadittu erityissuunnitelma Kokemäenjoen tulviin varautumisesta Porissa Satakunnan pelastuslaitoksen, Porin kaupungin ja Lounais-Suomen ympäristökeskuksen yhteistyöhankkeena. Tiedottaminen on tulvauhka- ja tulvatilanteissa keskeisessä asemassa sekä vahinkojen pienentämisen (teollisuuden ja asukkaiden omatoiminen varautuminen) että väestön turvallisuuden kannalta. Tulvatietoisuuden lisäämiseksi on suunnitelmasta keskusteltu laajasti viranomaisten, kaupungin eri hallintokuntien ja muiden keskeisten toimijoiden kanssa. Porissa on tarve jakaa asukkaille täsmällistä tietoa tulvauhasta ja tulviin varautumisesta. Suunnittelutyön aikana on korostunut aloitetun Porin tulvasuojeluhankkeen toteuttamisen sekä tulvatilanteen ennakoinnin ja ennakkotorjunnan merkitys. Pelastustoimitilanteessa viranomaisten mahdollisuudet suojata rakennuksia rajoittuvat merkittävimpiin kohteisiin ja tarvittaessa tulvauhka-alueen väestön evakuointiin. Väliaikaisten siirrettävien tulvasuojarakenteiden käyttö Porissa on hankalaa, koska suojaustarvetta on kilometreittäin. Tällä hetkellä paras tulvasuojelukeino on hätätilanteessa keksittyä vahvistamaan olemassa olevia tulvapenkereitä.
  • Mäki, Jasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Genetically modified (GM) crops are subject to fierce debates. The scientific controversy and novelty of the technology raise concerns over possible adverse effects. On the other side, promoters of the technology argue for the safety and economic benefits. These debates take place within the public sphere, where meanings about GM crops are socially constructed. This research describes the national debates over GM crops in the newspapers of the United States and Spain. Six newspapers were searched giving a final sample of 244 articles, of which 152 were further analysed. The articles were coded following the method of political claim-making to find out who discusses GM crops and how. The theoretical framework combines framing theory with the theory of discursive opportunity structure (DOS). The results are six opposing frames about agrobiotechnoloy: economic benefits and costs, biosafety and risk, and progress and critique. Though issues and contexts vary greatly in the two countries, the arguments are influenced by the transnational discursive opportunity structure, meaning the international treaties that govern GM agriculture. Those establish scientific risk assessments over human health and environment as the base for decisions about GM agriculture. The second part of the analysis examines the influence of the transnational DOS on how social movements frame GM crops as risks. The way mass media interprets DOS influences on how it restricts or enables strategic arguing by social movements. The analysis reveals that movements apply environmental and health risk frames and use scientific arguments to influence in GM politics. However, the success of the movements depends on various national components of the DOS and the support from other actors. In Spain, movements state unknown risks, relying on the precautionary principle applied in the European Union. In the U.S., many risks have already materialized and movements centre on demanding corrective measures, since it is difficult to challenge the dominant agricultural model. National policy discourses and political cultures explain the differences between the countries. In the U.S., movements manage to make labeling a big issue, turning the discussion to a matter of individual choice and consumer rights.
  • Paavola, Jouni; Primmer, Eeva (Elsevier, 2019)
    Ecological Economics
    Ecosystems can buffer against adverse events, such as storms or pest outbreaks by reducing the probability of harm and magnitude of losses. We conceptualise factors involved in the governance of insurance value provision, drawing on the notions of protection and insurance, exogeneity and endogeneity, and allocation of rights and responsibilities. Using riverine floods and forest pest outbreaks as examples, we explore the challenges of governing ecosystem-based risk management. We suggest that such governance should build on existing institutions, because insurance value is jointly produced with provisioning ecosystem services and the governance arrangements for them importantly shape insurance value provision. However, existing institutional arrangements do not acknowledge involved actors' rights and responsibilities and they do not facilitate landscape level management of risks. While PES schemes and other market-like solutions may govern the provision of insurance value when transaction costs and trade-offs between the provision of insurance value and private goods are low, regulation or public provision is needed when transaction costs and trade-offs are high. The complexity of challenges in governing the provision of insurance value highlights the need for polycentric governance involving collaboration, knowledge creation and dissemination and the funding of activities needed for them.
  • Lehtoranta, Virpi; Väisänen, Sari; Rytkönen, Anne-Mari (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2016)
  • Assmuth, Timo; Dubrovin, Tanja; Lyytimäki, Jari (Springer Nature, 2020)
    Environment Systems and Decisions
    Human health risks in dealing with floods in a river basin in South-Western Finland are analysed as an example of scientific and practical challenges in systemic adaptation to climate change and in integrated governance of water resources. The analysis is based on case reports and plans, on literature studies and on conceptual models of risks and risk management. Flood risks in the Northern European study area are aggravated by melt- and storm-water runoff, ice jams and coastal flooding. Flood risk assessment is linked with management plans based on EU directives as applied in the case area. National risk management policies and procedures of increasing scope and depth have been devised for climate change, water resources and overall safety, but an integrated approach to health risks is still largely missing. The same is true of surveys of perceived flood risks, and participatory deliberation and collaborative planning procedures for flood risk management in the case area, specifically for adaptive lake regulation. Health impacts, risks and benefits, socio-economic and systemic risks, and over-arching prevention, adaptation and compensation measures are not fully included. We propose a systematic framework for these extensions. Particular attention needs to be given to health risks due to flooding, e.g. from water contamination, moist buildings, mental stress and infrastructure damage and also from management actions. Uncertainties and ambiguities about risks present continuing challenges. It is concluded that health aspects of flooding are complex and need to be better included in assessment and control, to develop more integrated and adaptive systemic risk governance.
  • Rytkönen, Anne-Mari; Mustajoki, Jyri; Marttunen, Mika (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2017)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 9/2017
    Tässä tutkimuksessa kuvataan, miten vesistöjen erityispiirteet, säännöstelyn tavoitteet sekä vesistösäännöstelijän henkilökohtaiset riskiasenteet ja mahdolliset ajattelun vinoumat vaikuttavat vesistöjen säännöstelyn toteuttamiseen. Tulokset pohjautuvat kansainväliseen tutkimuskirjallisuuteen ja 19 Suomessa tehtyyn vesistösäännöstelijän haastatteluun. Säännöstelyn suunnitteluun ja juoksutuspäätösten tekoon vaikuttavat etenkin säännöstelylupa sekä järven ja valuma-alueen koko. Säännöstelypäätösten teko poikkeaa myös eri organisaatioissa. Juoksutuspäätöksiin liittyviä riskejä voivat olla esimerkiksi luparajojen rikkomukset tai haitallisten vedenkorkeuksien ja virtaamien aiheuttaminen. Mitä vakavampia ovat päätösten mahdolliset seuraukset, sitä riskiä karttavampia säännöstelijät ovat päätöksenteossaan. Säännöstelijät tunnistivat toiminnassaan mahdollisia ajattelun vinoumia, etenkin taipumuksen painottaa vastikään koettuja vesitilanteita. Säännöstelyjen etäohjauksen lisääntymisen arvioitiin lisäävän säännöstelypäätösten tekoa liiaksi malleihin ja automaattihavaintoihin luottaen. Mahdollisten päätöksenteon vinoumien tunnistaminen edesauttaa päätöksenteon käytäntöjen kehittämistä.
  • Lavikainen, Tiina; Karlström, Ulla; Bäckman, Christina; Hirvonen, Tero (Evira, 2007)
    Eviran tutkimuksia 2/2007
    Liver is a good source of many nutrients, but safety of liver consumption during pregnancy has long plagued the minds of both consumers and healthcare personnel. Liver contains a lot of vitamin A in retinoid form, which can increase the risk of foetal malformations and miscarriages if ingested in large amounts. Liver may also contain high amounts of potentially toxic heavy metals like cadmium and lead. Therefore, it is recommended that pregnant women should not eat liver. There has been no assessment of the true risk, if any, of maintaining liver in the diet of a woman while pregnant, and the need of avoiding liver during pregnancy in present day is regularly discussed. To re-evaluate current recommendations, the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira made a risk assessment of retinoid intake from liver foods among Finnish women of fertile age. The objectives of the risk assessment were to estimate the risk of intolerably high retinoid intake if all or some liver products were maintained in the diet of women during pregnancy. The effects of scenarios other than diet restriction to lower the retinoid intake were also studied. In addition, the intake of cadmium and lead via liver foods was estimated. Risk assessment was based on liver food consumption data (FINDIET 2002 study, KTL), obtained recipe information and recent results of vitamin A, cadmium and lead in liver. To estimate intake, a mathematic simulation model was designed. Intake was estimated as an average daily intake and for retinoids also as an intake from single liver meal. The simulation model results were compared with intake recommendations and upper intake limits. Based on risk assessment, the following conclusions were made 1. Liver consumption may predispose women to retinoid intakes higher than what is considered safe during pregnancy. However, the risk seems to pertain mainly to liver foods eaten as a main course (i.e., liver casserole, liver patties and liver stew). Safety thresholds are not likely to be exceeded if only liver sausage or pâté is eaten in moderate amounts. 2. The most effi cient way to manage the risk is for women to avoid main course liver foods during pregnancy. The effect of the other scenarios examined was notably smaller. Exclusion of sow livers from food production would have only a minor effect on retinoid intakes from liver foods. If effects similar to a restricted consumption scenario (no main course liver foods) were tried to achieve by reducing liver retinoid contents, the retinoid content of livers should be less than 25% of the present level. 3. When considering the total daily vitamin A intake from the nutritional point of view, liver consumption has a positive effect. In addition to vitamin A, liver contains also other benefi cial nutritional elements like folic acid and iron. However, the benefi ts of eating liver can probably be substituted by a well-balanced diet with plenty of vegetables and a reasonable amount of meat without the risk of an excess intake of retinoids. 4. Cadmium and lead exposure from liver foods is relatively low when compared with other dietary sources. The high iron content of liver may reduce the absorption of cadmium and lead from liver foods.
  • Assmuth, Timo; Simola, Antti; Pitkänen, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Huttula, Timo (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2016)
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12(1): 160-173
    Integrated assessment and management of water resources for the supply of potable water is increasingly important in light of projected water scarcity in many parts of the world. This article develops frameworks for regional-level waterborne human health risk assessment of chemical and microbiological contamination to aid water management, incorporating economic aspects of health risks. Managed aquifer recharge with surface water from a river in Southern Finland is used as an illustrative case. With a starting point in watershed governance, stakeholder concerns, and value-at-risk concepts, we merge common methods for integrative health risk analysis of contaminants to describe risks and impacts dynamically and broadly. This involves structuring analyses along the risk chain: sources—releases—environmental transport and fate—exposures—health effects—socio-economic impacts—management responses. Risks attributed to contaminants are embedded in other risks, such as contaminants from other sources, and related to benefits from improved water quality. A set of models along this risk chain in the case is presented. Fundamental issues in the assessment are identified, including 1) framing of risks, scenarios, and choices; 2) interaction of models and empirical information; 3) time dimension; 4) distributions of risks and benefits; and 5) uncertainties about risks and controls. We find that all these combine objective and subjective aspects, and involve value judgments and policy choices. We conclude with proposals for overcoming conceptual and functional divides and lock-ins to improve modeling, assessment, and management of complex water supply schemes, especially by reflective solution-oriented interdisciplinary and multi-actor deliberation.