Browsing by Subject "ruoankulutus"

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  • Helminen, Heidi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Obesity is considered one of the major public health challenges. One way to control obesity is to regulate appetite. Because brain is the primary regulative unit responsible for food intake, the research in this field has now been allocated especially to the central nervous system. The aim of this thesis was to clarify the role of cholinergic projections from pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) to lateral hypothalamus (LH) in food intake. In this study, DREADD-technology (designed receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) based on chemogenetics was utilized with a gene manipulated mouse strain. For the experimental part of this work the mice were divided in three separate groups: one transducted with an activating DREADD-receptor (hM3Dq), one transducted with an inhibiting DREADD-receptor (hM4Di) and one transducted only with a fluorescent protein called m-Cherry. The last group was also defined as a control group of this study. In addition, the gene which coded m-Cherry fluorescent protein was transducted together with hM3Dq- and hM4Di-receptor genes for the first two groups to be able to examine the receptor expression later. At the baseline level, no differences were observed in food intake between the three study groups. The food intake did not differ between the groups while clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), a selective DREADD-receptor ligand, was administered straight into the LH area (0,03 µg/injection) with or without fasting of the animals. While administrating CNO to the mice intraperitoneally (1 mg/kg), the hM3Dq-group mice were observed to consume more food compared to the hM4Di-group or the control group. This difference was detected while food consumption was examined cumulatively during total four measuring hours. When the animals were fasted before the intraperitoneal administration test, however no differences were found between the study groups regarding food intake. As a conclusion of this study, cholinergic projections from pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) to lateral hypothalamus (LH) were not regulating food intake in mice. However, the cholinergic cells in PPT and some of their axons might be involved in the regulation of food intake while the food consumption is studied continuously and long-term. More studies are required to better define the role of the cholinergic projections from pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) to lateral hypothalamus (LH) in food intake.
  • Bäck, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background: The EAT-Lancet Commission proposed a healthy dietary pattern from environmentally sustainable food production systems to guide food system transformation. The EAT-Lancet reference diet comprises mass-based food consumption targets (both point estimates and ranges) for different food groups. Baseline assessments are required to inform the planning of the national food system transformation. Therefore, it is important to identify gaps between the targets and local food consumption. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the current state of Finnish pre-schoolers’ diet by comparison with the reference diet’s food group level targets. Specifically, the Finnish pre-schoolers’ food consumption was estimated in the food groups of the reference diet. Methods: Data from 807 children (3- to 6-year-olds, 48% girls), were collected in the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) cross-sectional survey in 2015–2016. Food records, covering from one up to five complete days, were kept by parents and pre-school personnel. Detailed information on foods, such as ingredients of composite dishes and product names for packed foods were recorded. Food record data were decomposed into ingredients by AivoDiet dietary software. Industrial products, such as sausages and biscuits, were manually decomposed into ingredients by estimating the shares of ingredients using product information available on a retailer’s online database and food manufacturers’ webpages. Formulas were developed to calculate the consumption of added sugars. The consumption of dairy products was converted into milk equivalents using factors from the literature. Finally, the ingredients were manually classified into the reference diet’s food groups. The target amounts were set (separately for two age groups) in grams by proportioning the published target amounts (that assume a 2500 kcal diet) to the children’s average reported energy intake. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) method was used to calculate the daily average food consumption and the proportion of children who met targets in each food group. Results: Compared to the point estimate targets, on average, the daily food consumption for 3- to 4-year-olds (n 462) and 5- to 6-year-olds (n 345) differed for vegetables (60% of the target in both age groups); legumes and nuts (below a tenth of the target); whole grains (less than a third of the target); red meat (approximately 5.5 times the target); dairy foods (approximately 5 times the target); tubers (over 2.5 times the target) and added sugar (close to double of the target). Discussion: To enable comparison with the EAT-Lancet reference diet’s food group level targets, an approach for disaggregating children’s food record data was developed. To achieve a more sustainable diet and comply with the EAT-Lancet targets, the Finnish pre-schoolers would need to consume more plant-based foods i.e. vegetables, legumes and nuts, and whole grains, which should replace the refined grains. The consumption of animal proteins, especially red meat and dairy products, would need to be decreased, as well as the consumption of tubers (mainly potato) and added sugar.
  • Niva, Mari; Peltoniemi, Ari; Aalto, Kristiina (2018)
    Aikaisemman tutkimuksen perusteella kotimaisen ruoan arvostus on noussut 2000-luvun kuluessa ja on hinnan, maun ja terveellisyyden ohella kuluttajille tärkeä tekijä ruokaa koskevissa valinnoissa. Kuluttajat liittävät alkuperään laatuun, turvallisuuteen, eläinten hyvinvointiin ja taloudellisiin olosuhteisiin liittyviä merkityksiä. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastelemme, missä määrin kuluttajat arvostavat kotimaista ruokaa, missä tuoteryhmissä ja mistä syistä. Tutkimus perustuu vuonna 2014 kerättyyn väestöä edustavaan internet-pohjaiseen kuluttajakyselyyn (N=1021), joka kerättiin osana Ruokamarkkinoiden toimivuus ja elintarvikemarkkinoiden hinnanmuodostus -hanketta (2013–2016). Tarkastelemme kuluttajien asenteita liittyen elintarvikkeiden kotimaisuuteen ja selvitämme, miten eri tuoteryhmät eroavat toisistaan siinä, missä määrin kuluttajat suosivat kotimaisia ja ulkomaisia tuotteita. Lisäksi tutkimme varianssianalyysia (ANOVA) käyttäen sukupuolen, iän, elämänvaiheen, asuinpaikan ja koulutuksen sekä syömistä koskevien motivaatiotekijöiden, kuten ruoan edullisuuden ja valmistuksen paikallisuuden, merkitystä kotimaisen ja ulkomaisen ruoan valinnassa. Tulosten mukaan jopa 87% vastaajista ilmoitti ostavansa kotimaista ruokaa hyvin mielellään ja 11% melko mielellään. Yli yhdeksän kymmenestä vastaajasta oli täysin tai melko samaa mieltä siitä, että kotimaista ruokaa ostamalla voi tukea Suomen taloutta, että kotimaista elintarviketuotantoa tarvitaan huoltovarmuuden ylläpitämiseksi kriisitilanteissa ja että suomalaisen ruokakulttuurin ylläpitäminen edellyttää kotimaista ruoantuotantoa. Lähes yhtä moni uskoi, että kotimaista ruokaa kannattaa suosia ympäristösyistä. Kotimaisen ja ulkomaisen ruoan suosiminen vaihteli eri tuoteryhmissä. Vastaajat ilmoittivat ostavansa kotimaisia vaihtoehtoja erityisesti tuoretuotteissa, kuten maidossa, jogurtissa, leivässä, lihassa ja lihatuotteissa, mutta myös margariinissa ja esimerkiksi hiutaleissa. Esimerkiksi hedelmissä, makeisissa ja kekseissä ostettiin usein myös ulkomaisia tuotteita. Valintojen analyysissa löydettiin sosiodemografisten taustatekijöiden perusteella joitakin eroja. Varsinkin yli 60-vuotiaille kuluttajille kotimaisuudella oli suuri merkitys ruoan valinnassa. Samoin naiset, pariskunnat ja pienillä paikkakunnilla asuvat painottivat ruokavalinnoissaan muita enemmän kotimaisuutta. Kotimaista ostavat arvostivat muita enemmän tuotteiden tuttuutta, paikallisuutta, ympäristöystävällisyyttä ja sitä, ettei tuotannossa ole käytetty geenitekniikkaa. Tulokset kertovat, että suomalaiset kuluttajat suosivat kotimaista ruokaa niin asenteellisella kuin valintojen tasolla. Sosioekonomiset erot kertovat siitä, että kotimaisen ja ulkomaisen ruoan arvostus voi olla muuttumassa, sillä nuoret ja kaupungeissa asuvat suhtautuvat ulkomaiseen ruokaan muita myönteisemmin.
  • Juntunen, Iiris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Alternative research methods are needed to complement traditional dietary assessment methods in risk assessment, because traditional methods have bias related to misreporting and a short period of monitoring. The aim was to study whether food purchase data could be used in risk assessment to complement traditional food consumption data to estimate food intake. The study compared statistics from two different Finnish studies. This substudy of LoCard is based on the original grocery purchase data, a subsample provided by consenting retailer loyalty card holders (n=15 756) from 2017. FinDiet 2017 is a national dietary survey with individual level data based on two 24-h-dietary recalls (n=1 655). Four food groups were selected from both data sets: almonds and nuts, bananas, apples, and eggs. Post-stratification weights to correct selection bias for LoCard data were used and the degree of loyalty was taken into account. FinDiet data showed higher consumption of almonds and nuts, and apples than LoCard data. In LoCard data, banana consumption was relatively high compared to FinDiet data. When using post-stratification weights, the magnitude of differences did not change significantly. In conclusion, grocery purchase data cannot be used in risk assessment to estimate food intake as such, because bodyweight information is missing. Thus, consumption estimates per bodyweight cannot be executed. However, when combined with other food consumption data, purchase data have the potential to remediate some limitations of self-reported food consumption, such as misreporting and a short period of monitoring. Food purchase data also add timely information on population consumption and special dietary products. Future studies are needed to evaluate how food purchase data could practically be used in risk assessment process.