Browsing by Subject "ruokavalio"

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  • Peltonen, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background: Preschoolers suffer frequently from infections. Large group sizes and varying hygiene practices may enhance pathogen transmission within preschool settings. Preschool-attributable infections cause economic consequences for society, which is why identifying the related risk factors is of importance. One such may be diet. Appropriate immune defence requires sufficient intakes of energy, protein, polyunsaturated fat, dietary fibre, and numerous micronutrients, whereas excess sugar and saturated fat may be harmful. However, previous nutritional research examining preschoolers’ infections has mainly focused on probiotics. Little research has been done on the role of whole-diet in preschoolers’ susceptibility to infections. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with common colds, gastroenteritis, and antibiotic courses among Finnish preschoolers. Methods: The study sample included 721 children aged 3-6 years attending the cross-sectional DAGIS survey. The parents reported retrospectively how many common colds, gastroenteritis, and antibiotic courses their children had experienced during the past year. Children’s food consumption was recorded using a 47-item food frequency questionnaire filled in by the parents. The parents also reported background factors of their children and family. The following three dietary patterns were identified based on the food consumption frequencies using principal component analysis: 1) sweets-and-treats pattern (high loadings of e.g. biscuits, chocolate, and ice cream); 2) health-conscious pattern (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, and berries); and 3) vegetables-and-processed meats pattern (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, colds cuts, and fruits). Dietary pattern scores were calculated for each child to describe the strength of adherence to each identified dietary pattern. The distributions of the dietary pattern scores were divided into thirds that were labelled low, moderate, and high adherence groups. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine the associations between thirds of the dietary pattern scores and the prevalence of common colds and antibiotic courses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between thirds of the dietary pattern scores and a chance of experiencing at least one gastroenteritis. Results: Prevalence of common colds was lower in moderate and high adherences to the sweets-and-treats pattern compared to low adherence (PR=0.89, 95% CI=0.80-1.00; and PR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79-0.99, respectively) and higher in high adherence to the health-conscious pattern compared to low adherence (PR=1.13, 95% CI=1.01-1.27) after adjusting for age, sex, number of children living in the same household, frequency of preschool attendance, probiotic use, and the highest educational level in the family. Moderate adherence to the sweets-and-treats pattern was associated with a lower chance of at least one gastroenteritis (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.44-0.92) and lower prevalence of antibiotic courses (PR=0.77, 95% CI= 0.59-1.00) compared to low adherence. No significant associations were observed between the vegetables-and-processed meats pattern and the infectious outcomes. Adjustments for the background factors did not modify the associations. Conclusion: The results were unexpected. The associations observed would suggest that favouring unhealthier foods but avoiding healthier foods was linked to better immunity, which is difficult to accept as true. Parents who were most health-conscious of their children’s diet might also have been more conscious of their children’s illness conditions than less health-conscious parents, which may explain the results. Further research with longitudinal designs is needed to determine whether dietary habits play a role in preschoolers’ susceptibility to infections.
  • Valsta, Liisa M.; Tapanainen, Heli; Kortetmäki, Teea; Sares-Jäske, Laura; Paalanen, Laura; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Haario, Peppi; Kaljonen, Minna (MDPI, 2022)
    Information on dietary adequacy is needed to assess food and nutrition security in a modern society, especially in the transition towards climate-friendly food systems. In this study, differences in the nutritional adequacy of diets among Finnish adults were evaluated in population groups of different education, income and urbanisation levels. The study used data from the FinDiet 2017 Survey (n = 1655, 18–74 years). Modelled usual intakes of foods and nutrients were evaluated relative to food-based dietary guidelines issued by the National Nutrition Council of Finland (FNNC) and with respect to nutrient adequacy following the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations and FNNC. For about half of the nutrients studied, intakes were found to be adequate. Intakes of protein, fat, saturated fatty acids and salt were estimated to be high. By contrast, inadequate intakes were seen in folate and vitamins A, D, B1, B2 and C in almost all groups studied. Groups with a higher education and income, groups that lived in urban areas and, in particular, women adhered more closely to recommended food consumption and nutrient intakes than others. However, major challenges posed by the Finnish diet are common to all groups studied, and only certain dietary features evaluated in view of nutritional adequacy are associated with socioeconomic differences.
  • Aapio, Fanny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Food literacy is a noteworthy topic to be studied due to food’s considerable environmental and health effects. When food literacy and its characteristics are known, food literacy can be used as a tool to improve people’s health and the condition of the environment. Thus, this thesis aims to reveal the extent of food literacy among Finnish upper secondary school students. In this context, food literacy emphasises food-related environmental and health knowledge. Environmental knowledge is understanding of the global environmental impact of food. Health knowledge, on the other hand, is the familiarity with the relationship between excessive meat consumption and Finnish common diseases along with beliefs regarding diets and food products as a source of protein. This thesis also aims to identify to what extent does the food literacy differ based on gender, study year and living area. This study was performed as a quantitative sample survey and the data was collected using an online Typeform -questionnaire. The questionnaire reached respondents from many different Finnish localities, mainly from cities. The final data consisted of 1320 individuals and it was analysed using IMB SPSS Statistics 24 software. The following methods were used to analyse data: frequency analysis, an Independent Samples t Test, a One-way ANOVA, and a Post-hoc LSD test. Gender, study year and living area were used as grouping variables to examine the differences between groups. The results show that the students named school as the main source of food literacy. Moreover, the results indicate that awareness regarding food production, dietary health and proteins increase significantly from the first to the third study year. The students acknowledged food production causing environmental problems and that the share of food in the consumer’s climatic impact is considerable. Nevertheless, the students underestimated the climatic impact of cheese and they were unaware of the more specific characteristics of food’s environmental impacts. They also had food-related environmental misconceptions considering packaging, transportation and meat consumption. Moreover, approximately half or more of the students were aware of the connection between excessive meat consumption and the increased risk of distinct common diseases. Most of the students acknowledged a versatile vegetarian diet as being a healthy choice. The study also reveals that female students had notably higher dietary health knowledge than male students. This Master’s thesis study mainly supports the findings of previous studies on food-related knowledge. The results elucidate the extent, characteristics, gaps and misconceptions of students’ food literacy. These findings may be utilized to improve school education on food literacy, alter misconceptions and fill the gaps of knowledge in pursuit of improving the health of people and the condition of the environment.
  • Kaljonen, Minna; Salo, Marja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Furman, Eeva (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2020)
    British Food Journal 122 (11), 3313-3329
    Purpose The critical role of diet in climate change mitigation has raised behavioural approaches to the top of the agenda. In this paper, the authors take a critical look at these behavioural approaches and call for a more dynamic, practice-oriented understanding of long-term changes in sustainable food consumption and supply. Design/methodology/approach This approach is based on the experiences from a long-term experiment promoting sustainable eating in a workplace lunch restaurant using a series of informational and nudging techniques. In the experiment, the authors found that focussing solely on eating behaviours did not help to capture the multi-level change processes mobilised. The authors therefore propose a more dynamic, practice-oriented methodology for examining long-term changes in sustainable eating. The emprical data of the experiment are based on qualitative and quantitative data, consisting of customer survey, customer and kitchen personnel focus group discussions and monitoring data on the use of food items in the restaurant and their climate impacts. Findings The results draw attention to a series of practical challenges restaurants face when promoting sustainable eating. Directing analytical attention to tinkering helped to reveal the tensions brought about by labelling and nudging in menu planning and recipe development. The results show how tinkering required attentiveness to customers' wishes in both cases. Nudging offered more freedom for the restaurant to develop menus and recipes. In the case scrutinised, however, nudging customers towards tastier and more satiating vegetarian dishes included the use of dairy. This partly watered down the climate benefits gained from reduced meat consumption. Originality/value Rather than looking separately at changes in consumer behaviour and in the supply of food, the authors show how we need analytical concepts that enable the evaluation of their mutual evolution. Tinkering can assist us in this endeavour. Its adaptive, adjustive character, however, calls for caution. The development of praxis in food services and catering requires critical companions from the transdisciplinary research community. Research can provide systematic knowledge on the impacts of labels and nudges on kitchen praxis. However, research itself also needs to tinker and learn from experiments. This necessitates long-term speculative research strategies.
  • Kivimaa, Paula; Huttunen, Suvi; Hildén, Mikael; Laturi, Jani; Lehtonen, Heikki; Pohjola, Johanna; Uusivuori, Jussi; Virtanen, Yrjö (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2012)
    Suomen ympäristö 34/2012
    Politiikkaristiriitojen vähentämiseksi ja synergioiden luomiseksi tarvitaan tietoa siitä, miten politiikkatoimet eri sektoreilla ja sektorit ylittävästi vaikuttavat kasvihuonekaasupäästöjen rajoittamiseen ja ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutumiseen: Missä määrin politiikkasektorit ovat ilmastopolitiikan kanssa koherentteja? Tässä tutkimuksessa ilmastopolitiikan koherenssia tarkasteltiin suhteessa metsäbioenergiaan ja elintarvikeketjuihin liittyviin politiikkatoimiin toimien ja toimijoiden näkökulmasta. Tarkastelu perustui kvantitatiivisiin malleihin, politiikka–analyysiin, toimijahaastatteluihin ja työpajoihin. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin puutteita ristiriitojen tunnistamisessa ja tunnustamisessa. Metsäbioenergian osalta tämä ilmeni päällekkäisinä metsien käytön tavoitteina ilman selkeää tietoa siitä, mikä on ilmastotavoitteiden suhde muihin metsienkäytön tavoitteisiin. Toimijat kokivat ongelmat politiikkakeinojen nopeina muutoksina ja eroina erilaisten bioenergiaketjujen huomioinnissa. Mallilaskelmat nostivat esiin epäsuoria ja sektoreiden välisiä vaikutuksia. Esimerkiksi puuenergian lisääntyvä käyttö nostaa energiapuun hintaa ja kuljetuskustannuksia. Tämä vaikuttaa puun ja turpeen hintasuhteeseen ja siten energialaitosten polttoainevalintaan. Markkinavaikutukset tulee ottaa huomioon esimerkiksi asetettaessa päästöoikeuden hintaan sidottuja ohjauskeinoja. Energiakäytön aiheuttama kuitupuun hinnan nousu on esimerkki ristiriidasta ilmastopolitiikan ja teollisuuspolitiikan välillä. Elintarvikeketjujen osalta ravitsemussuositukset ovat ilmastopolitiikan kanssa yhtenevät: ravitsemussuositusten mukainen kulutus vähentäisi ilmastopäästöjä. Toisaalta suositusten mukainen kulutus ei suoraan johda kotimaisen maataloustuotannon ja sen tuottamien kasvihuonekaasupäästöjen merkittävään vähenemiseen, vaan vaikutus on pikemminkin globaali. Kansallisen tason päästövähennyksiä voidaan tukea maatalouspolitiikalla. Esimerkkinä tarkasteltiin maankäytön muutoksia. Pellonraivauksen todettiin aiheutuvan vesiensuojelun ja maatalouspolitiikan yhdistelmästä, joka tilakoon kasvun ja kotieläintuotannon alueellisen keskittymisen vuoksi kannustaa pellonraivaukseen myös alueilla, joilla peltomaan raivauksesta aiheutuu suhteessa suuremmat päästöt. Koherenssin lisääminen edellyttää koherenssiongelmien parempaa tunnistamista. Tämä vaatii politiikkatoimien ja niiden vaikutusten yksityiskohtaista tarkastelua. Käytännössä tarvitaan eri tavoitteiden välisten ristiriitojen avoimempaa käsittelyä sekä tavoitteiden selkeää priorisointia.
  • Punttila, Eliisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this master’s thesis was to quantify the net benefits when 7 % of Finnish adults shift from their average diet to a low carbohydrate diet (VHH), a very low carbohydrate diet (EVHH) or a diet based on Finnish nutrition recommendations (SUOSITUS). The low carbohydrate diets were based on 84 food diaries that were collected by an online survey. The diet shifts were conducted by social cost-benefit-analysis (CBA) including environmental and health impacts in monetary values. The environmental impacts included changes in greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient emissions into Baltic sea while the health impacts included changes in myocardial infarction and stroke incidence related on consumption of fruits and vegetables, and in colorectal cancer incidence related on red and processed meat. The net benefits were quantified also in a scenario when the energy intake in VHH, EVHH and SUOSITUS were lower and the diets lead to 15 kilograms weight reduction and to normal weight. In the weight loss scenario the changes in colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes incidence related on overweight were included in addition to other impacts. In the non-weight loss scenario when 7 % of Finnish adults shift to VHH, EVHH or SUOSITUS diet, the total net benefits were respectively -3,7 million, -10,8 million and 7,3 million euros per year. The net benefits of environmental impacts dominated: in VHH, EVHH and SUOSITUS cases they were -6,5 million, -12,9 million and 3,3 million euros. The largest difference between diets resulted from consumption of meat and milk products. In weight loss scenario, the net benefits from VHH, EVHH and SUOSITUS cases were 11,2 million, 5,8 million and 20,6 million euros per year and the benefits of reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes dominated: in all cases they were 10,0 million euros. In conclusion, the sift to the diet based on Finnish nutrient recommendations resulted in the highest positive net benefit. The net benefits of sifting to the VHH and EVHH diets were positive only if when these lead to significant weight loss. However, many potential impacts and factors (e.g. saturated fat, dietary fiber) were not included in this study. Further research is needed.
  • Maijala, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkielmassa selvitetään suomalaisen ravitsemusvalistuksen muutosta Yleisradion tv-kanavilla vuosina 1955-2014. Aineistona on Kansallisen audiovisuaalisen instituutin arkiston ja Ylen Elävän arkiston ravitsemusta ja valistusta käsittelevät ohjelmat. Ravitsemus ja erilaiset ruokavaliot ovat viime vuosina olleet paljon esillä mediassa, ja tutkimuksen tavoitteena on ollut havainnoida muutosta valistamisen tavoissa käyttämällä apuna retorista diskurssiivianalyysia, valistuksen toimiessa teoreettisena viitekehyksenä. Myös ravitsemusvalistuksen sisällön muutos on tarkastelussa, joskaan sen analysoiminen yksityiskohtaisesti ei ole tutkimuksen rajoissa mahdollista. Keskeisimpiä havaintoja on ravitsemusvalistuksen painopisteen siirtyminen erilaisten puutostiloista ja aliravitsemuksesta elintasosairauksien ehkäisemiseen, sekä yleisestä, kaikille suunnatusta ruokavaliomallista yksilöllisempään valistukseen ja vaihtoehtoisiin ruokavalioihin. Ravitsemusvalistuksessa 1950-luvulta 1970-luvun lopulle on näkyvissä yhteiskuntarakenteiden murros ja kaupungistuminen, ja television tehtävä oli tässä muuttuvassa ympäristössä osaltaan ylläpitää yhtenäiskulttuuria. Suomessa laadittiin ensimmäiset viralliset yleiset ravitsemussuositukset ja ”me” oli vahvasti läsnä puheessa. 1960-80-luvuilla ajoittuu myös useita moniosaisia ravitsemusta käsittelevää tv-sarjaa. Valistamisen sävy oli mustavalkoinen; asiat olivat joko oikein tai väärin, hyviä tai huonoja. Tehosteena käytettiin pelottelua ja uhkakuvia. 1980-luvulla televisioon alkoi ilmestyä enenevissä määrin tutkivaa journalismia edustavia ohjelmia, joissa käytiin keskustelua ravitsemuksen eri osa-alueista. Huoli teollistuvasta ruokaympäristöstä ja lisäaineista näkyävät selvästi ohjelmissa. Ruokasuositukset ja valistamisen tapa ovat melko samanlaiset kuin aiempina vuosikymmeninä, joskin voi-margariinikiista jakaa myös asiantuntijoita. 1990-luvun uutena teemana esiin nousi kasvisruokailu ja kuvaustekniikka alkoi parantua. 2000-luvulla erilaiset ruokavaliot, ruokavalintojen yksilöllisyys ja teknologian kehittyminen näkyvät ohjelmakirjossa entistä selvemmin. Kokemusasiantuntijat saavat enemmän näkyvyyttä ja virallisia ravistemussuosituksia haastamaan nousevat muun muassa karppaus eli vähähiilihydraatinen ruokavalio sekä kivikautinen ruokavalio. Kuvaustekniikka on selkeäti kehittyneempi, mikä näkyy esimerkiksi nopeina leikkauksina, kuvanlaadun parantumisena ja erilaisina erikoistehosteina.
  • Peltonen, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Milk is a significant part of Finnish food culture and milk has received media publicity in the 2010s. The discussion has mainly focused on milk fat, but recently the talk has turned to the health effects and environmental impacts of milk. Total milk consumption has been declining for decades and consumption decreased by nearly 30 litres per person between 2012 and 2016. At the same time, plant-based drinks have entered the market to replace dairy products. Objectives. The study examines the factors that consumers use to justify reducing milk consumption in their diet. The study identifies the diets the consumers follow. The analysis focuses on how milk is perceived and how the preferences affect daily consumption of milk. Additionally, interviewees’ attitudes towards plant-based drinks are studied. Little research has been done about the reasons that lead to reducing milk consumption and especially Finnish research is needed. The theoretical framework of the study is based on research into milk and milk alternatives and on the paradigm of health and environmental factors of food. Methods. The research method was qualitative. The data were collected by interviewing 14 people living in Helsinki metropolitan area and in Joensuu region. The interviews were done by using a semi-structured interview. The questions were divided into three themes, which were diet, milk and plant-based drinks. The data was subsequently analysed by using inductive content analysis. Thematising was also used in the data analysis. Results and conclusions. The study shows that the main factor for reducing milk consumptions was that milk was not considered to be nutritionally important for adults. Additionally, ethical reasons, such as the welfare of animals, and diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome and lactose intolerance, have reduced milk consumption. Milk was considered to play a significant role in Finnish food culture and in the official nutrition guide, which were also criticized. Plant-based drinks were mostly seen as a positive thing, but the reactions varied depending on the ingredients, i.e. the plant, of the drink. Oat was seen as familiar and locally produced, whereas soy and rice were seen far produced and therefore unethical.
  • Ruuth, Maija; Lahelma, Mari; Luukkonen, Panu K.; Lorey, Martina B.; Qadri, Sami; Sädevirta, Sanja; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Kovanen, Petri T.; Hodson, Leanne; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Öörni, Katariina (2021)
    OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that measurement of the susceptibility of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) to aggregation is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. We now wished to compare effects of overfeeding different dietary macronutrients on LDL aggregation, proteoglycan-binding of plasma lipoproteins, and on the concentration of oxidized LDL in plasma, 3 in vitro parameters consistent with increased atherogenicity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The participants (36 subjects; age, 48±10 years; body mass index, 30.9±6.2 kg/m2) were randomized to consume an extra 1000 kcal/day of either unsaturated fat, saturated fat, or simple sugars (CARB) for 3 weeks. We measured plasma proatherogenic properties (susceptibility of LDL to aggregation, proteoglycan-binding, oxidized LDL) and concentrations and composition of plasma lipoproteins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and in LDL using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, before and after the overfeeding diets. LDL aggregation increased in the saturated fat but not the other groups. This change was associated with increased sphingolipid and saturated triacylglycerols in LDL and in plasma and reduction of clusterin on LDL particles. Proteoglycan binding of plasma lipoproteins decreased in the unsaturated fat group relative to the baseline diet. Lipoprotein properties remained unchanged in the CARB group. CONCLUSIONS: The type of fat during 3 weeks of overfeeding is an important determinant of the characteristics and functional properties of plasma lipoproteins in humans.
  • Asikainen, Elena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Parodontiitti eli hampaan kiinnityskudoksen tulehdus on erittäin yleinen koirien suussa esiintyvä sairaus, jolle altistavat plakin ja hammaskiven kertyminen. Plakki on suun bakteerien muodostama biofilmi, joka aiheuttaa tulehdusreaktion ikenissä eli gingiviitin. Ientulehdus voi edetä muihin hampaiden kiinnityskudoksiin, kuten parodontaaliligamentteihin, alveoliluuhun ja hammassementtiin. Parodontiitin oireena ovat ikenien punoitus, turvotus ja verenvuoto sekä hampaiden heiluminen ja irtoaminen kokonaan hammaskuopista tuhoutuneen kiinnityskudoksen takia. Parodontiitin on havaittu aiheuttavan paikallisten oireiden lisäksi myös systeemisiä vaikutuksia koiran elimistöön. Hammaskiven kertymiselle ja parodontiitin kehittymiselle altistavat koiran pieni koko ja korkea ikä. Parodontiitin riskirotuja ovat erityisesti kääpiökoirarodut. Parodontiitin hoito perustuu eläinlääkärin nukutuksessa suorittamaan hammashoitoon sekä omistajan tekemään kotihoitoon. Kotihoidon tavoitteena on vähentää plakin ja hammaskiven muodostumista, jotta parodontiitin kehittymistä voidaan ennaltaehkäistä ja hidastaa sen etenemistä. Parhaan hoitotuloksen saavuttamiseksi omistajat tulisi motivoida koiriensa hampaiden säännölliseen kotihoitoon, sillä eläinlääkärin tekemästä hammaskiven puhdistuksesta on vain hetkellinen hyöty. Tässä kirjallisuuskatsauksessa kootaan tietoa kolmesta koiran suun terveyttä heikentävästä tekijästä eli plakista, hammaskivestä ja parodontiitista. Katsauksen tavoitteena on etsiä tutkimustietoa erilaisten ravitsemuksellisten tekijöiden ja kotihoitotuotteiden vaikutuksesta plakin ja hammaskiven muodostumiseen sekä ientulehduksen ja parodontiitin etenemiseen. Koirille on saatavilla runsaasti erilaisia kotihoitotuotteita suun terveyden edistämiseksi, minkä takia eläinlääkärien tulisi olla tietoisia erilaisista tuotteista saadusta tutkimustiedosta. Kirjallisuuskatsausta voi käyttää apuna löytämään tehokkaimmat kotihoidon keinot vähentämään plakin ja hammaskiven muodostumista ja parodontiitin kehittymistä. Eläinlääkärien tulisi lisätä erityisesti riskirotujen omistajien tietoisuutta parodontiitin haitoista ja koirien suun terveyteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Kirjallisuuskatsaus tuo esiin, että koiran suun terveyteen vaikuttavat tasapainoinen ravinto ja ravinnon rakenne. Hampaiden päivittäinen harjaaminen ja luiden pureskeleminen ovat tehokkaita keinoja vähentää koiran plakin ja hammaskiven määrää.
  • Keränen, Kerttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    There are only few studies about diet of food pantry recipients or quality of their diet. Previous studies have found out that food pantry recipients are elder, more disadvantaged and in lower socioeconomic status compared to general population. The aim of this study was to find out from which food groups the daily diet of food pantry recipients consisted, do there exist different dietary patterns among the food pantry recipients, and are sociodemographic factors, experienced wealth and vulnerability associated with the diet. In addition, experiences about convenience of food donated in food aid for cooking and possibilities to prepare warm meals among food pantry recipients, and association between convenience, possibilities and diet, were studied. This study was a cross-sectional study and the data consisted of participants in the project called From food pantry to participation (Ruokajonosta osallisuuteen -hanke). Diet was studied by using the Diet and lifestyle questionnaire form that included 7-sections - food frequency questionnaire. Closed questions were applied to study experiences about convenience of food donated in food aid, possibilities to prepare meal and economic situation. T-tests and variance analysis were used to study differences between the groups, and regression analysis were used to study associations between diet and background factors. Principal component analysis was used to detect dietary patterns. The study population consisted of 137 participants from different parts of Finland. 114 participants were included in the final analysis. 45 % were men and 78 % were retired. There was a need for improvements in the diet. Less than half of the participants consumed vegetables, berries and fruits daily. Dairy products, dietary fats and grains were eaten daily by every third. 58 % ate fish 1–2 times per week. Eggs and meat were eaten 3–5 times per week by 33 %, and daily by 23 % respectively. 53 % of food pantry recipients felt that food donated in food aid was convenient for cooking. 83 % cooked often or quite often. In this study two dietary patterns were detected; traditional dietary pattern and vegetable-fish -based dietary pattern. The most strongly loaded food groups in the traditional dietary pattern were grains, dairy products, dietary fats, and meat and eggs. Fruits, berries, vegetables and fish were most strongly loaded in the vegetable-fish -based dietary pattern. There was one group that preferred vegetable-fish -based dietary pattern. Factors positively associated with the dietary patterns in this group were older age, female sex, living in an owner-occupied flat, experienced good wealth and low vulnerability, non-smoking and low consumption of alcohol. Convenience of food donated in food aid for cooking and possibilities to prepare a warm meal were not significantly associated with the dietary patterns. The study population represented general food pantry recipients. However, the results cannot be generalized as the population was small. The study indicates that the diet of food pantry recipients needs improvements, and there exist groups with different eating patterns among them. More research is needed to find out if there was an association between the diet of food pantry recipients and the way food aid was implemented in practice. Diet should be studied more precisely in the following studies. Young people and persons having risk of exclusion, and consequences of COVID-19 pandemic for food aid work and food pantry recipients should be studied also.
  • Mäläskä, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Suolistomikrobiston vaikutusta useisiin sairauksiin tutkitaan laajalti. Se saattaa olla yhteydessä Parkinsonin taudin käynnistymiseen vaikuttamalla suoliston hermostoon. Myös ruokavalio voi vaikuttaa suolistoflooran koostumukseen ja sen kautta mahdollisesti sairauksien kehittymiseen. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin kolmen kliinistä Parkinsonin tautia edeltävän etukäteisoireen, masennus, REM-unenaikainen käyttäytymishäiriö ja hyposmia, yhteyksiä ruokavalioon. Saksalaisesta TREND-seurantatutkimuksesta valittiin 740 53-86 vuotiasta tutkittavaa, joilta kerättiin tietoja etukäteisoireista ja ruokavaliosta. Tutkittavien ruokavalioita arvioitiin 12 eri ruoka-aineryhmää käsittävän kyselylomakkeen avulla. Yksittäisten ruoka-aineiden yhteyksiä etukäteisoireisiin arvioitiin Mann-Whitney U-testillä, minkä jälkeen tilastollista analyysiä jatkettiin regressioanalyysillä. Ruokavalion ja prodromaalioireiden väliset yhteydet olivat vähäisiä. Heikentyneen hajuaistin omaavat tutkittavat kuluttivat vähemmän palkokasveja (p = 0,031) ja kasviksia (p = 0,027) kuin oireettomat. Muiden yksittäisten ruoka-aineiden ja etukäteisoireiden yhteydet eivät pysyneet merkitsevinä, kun monimuuttuja-analyysissä huomioitiin sekoittavat tekijät. Etukäteisoireisten ja oireettomien ruokavaliotottumukset olivat samankaltaisia. Tuloksilla on merkitystä jatkossa, kun samassa aineistossa tutkitaan suoliston mikrobiomin koostumuksen yhteyttä prodromaalioireiden esiintyvyyteen ja PD:n ilmaantuvuuteen.
  • Lehtimäki, Juulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. There is research evidence that the food habits of Finnish men aren’t completely consistent with the recommendations – it seems that Finnish men prefer meat courses. Especially in main courses eating red meat is emphasized. In addition, men don’t eat enough vegetable products. Studies also show that family life affects the men’s diets – it entails rush years and busy schedule in which your and your family’s diet should be adapted to. In this study it is observed, what kind of diet men with families have and what kind of things affect their diet. The study also explores ways of improving men's diet and eating less red meat and more vegetarian products. Methods. The research material consists of interviews from eight men with families that have tak-en part in the Miesliesi-project’s course from Marttaliitto. The interviews were conducted as tele-phone interviews in December 2018 and they were carried out as thematic individual inter-views. Analysis method was qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. Family men’s diet is particularly influenced by family life, through which men justify their food choices. The whole family’s preference and often the awareness of being a role model to children would seem to guide what ends up on men’s plate at general mealtimes. At lunch time men have the possibility to make food choices according to their own preferences. However, these decisions are guided by the selection of restaurants and what dishes they offer. The food choices were also justified with the busy everyday life. In the middle of hurry semi-finished food, convenience food and fast food come along. Men like to eat red meat and it is emphasized especially in main courses. Also chicken dishes are preferred and in addition, almost everyone eats at least sometimes fish dishes. Vegetarian prod-ucts such as vegetables, potatoes, pasta and rice are eaten as a main course supplement. Breakfast, snacks and supper complement the diet and at these times berries, fruits and corn products are especially eaten. Dairy products are also eaten, but their use wasn’t emphasized in this study. Although men eat vegetarian products, they could include them more into their diets. Men who live the busy everyday family life don’t always manage or don’t know how to or don’t have the time to invest in food or preparing it. It would be very important to support boys’ and men’s cooking skills and increase knowledge about healthy eating. The third sector is one im-portant facet, that could enlighten and try to strengthen boys’ and men’s healthy and vegetable oriented eating. The Miesliesi-course from Marttaliitto is a good example of how to support and strengthen such eating as well as the everyday skills.
  • Tulenheimo, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2018)
    Raw meat-based diets have gained popularity in recent years amongst dog owners and there is a lot of debate about the effects of raw food on dogs' health. The purpose of this thesis was to study serum mineral concentrations in dogs eating raw meat-based diet or dry diet. The minerals analyzed were copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc. My hypothesis is that when dogs are fed industrial balanced raw or dry food there are no significant differences in the serum mineral concentrations between the two diet groups. In this study there were 41 adult Staffordshire bull terriers of which 25 ate raw food and 16 dry food. 26 of the dogs were atopic, 13 were control dogs and 2 dogs could not be placed to either of the groups. The dogs came to three visits. The first blood sample was taken on either the first or the baseline visit. During the next three to five months the dogs were either on dry food or raw food diet, based on allotment. Itching, skin symptoms, and diet were taken into consideration in the allotment. After the feeding study the dogs came to the end visit where the second blood sample was taken. Based on the results both diets had an effect on some mineral concentrations. Also the health status had an effect on some mineral concentrations and in the atopic dogs the diet had a more pronounced effect on the serum mineral concentrations than in the control dogs. On the basis of these results the hypothesis was incorrect because there were significant differences in the serum mineral concentrations between the two diets. As we do not know the optimal serum concentrations of these minerals in the canine species the clinical significance of these results is somewhat limited but this study lays the foundation for further studies.
  • Patama, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Lihankulutuksen tulevaisuudennäkymiin vaikuttavat kuluttajien mieltymysten muutokset, joita ohjaavat muun muassa lihan suhde terveyteen, ympäristöön, eläinten hyvinvointiin sekä ilmastovaikutukset. Suomalaisten kulutus elintarvikkeiden suhteen on muuttunut vuosikymmenten aikana. Elintarvikkeiden osuus kulutusmenoista on vähentynyt. Lihan kokonaiskulutus on kasvanut vuodesta 1950 lähtien, mutta punaisen lihan osuus kulutuksesta on vähentynyt ja broilerin osuus on sen sijaan kasvanut. Globaalisti lihankulutuksen kasvun ajureita ovat muun muassa väestönkasvu, tulojen kasvu kehitysmaissa, lihan reaalihintojen lasku, kaupan vapautuminen, kaupungistuminen ja ruokajärjestelmän globalisaatio. Tämän Pro Gradu -tutkielman tarkoituksena oli selvittää, kuinka lihan kulutuksen useus on muuttunut vuosien 2009-2019 aikana. Useutta mitattiin likert-asteikolla, jossa vaihtoehtoina oli ”päivittäin tai lähes päivittäin”, ”useamman kerran viikossa”, ”noin kerran viikossa” ”harvemmin”, ”en lainkaan” ja ”en osaa sanoa”. Lisäksi selvitettiin taustatekijöiden, kuten iän, sukupuolen ja sosioekonomisen taustan vaikutusta lihan kulutuksen useuteen. Analysoinnissa hyödynnettiin Excel-taulukkolaskentaohjelmaa sekä IBM SPSS 27.0-ohjelman tilastollisia testejä ja järjestettyä probit-mallia. Probit-mallissa lihankulutuksen järjestysasteikollinen useus oli selitettävänä muuttujana, jota selitettiin eri taustatekijöillä. Aiemmat tutkimukset osoittivat, että lihan kulutuksen kasvu vaihtelee paljon alueiden välillä ja on merkkejä siitä, että joillakin alueilla lihankulutuksen kasvu on taittumassa. Lihan kulutus kasvaa eniten keskituloisissa maissa. Sen sijaan korkeatuloisissa maissa lihankulutus on vakaata tai vähenevää. Matalatuloisissa maissa kulutus on yhä melko vähäistä ja pysyttelee vakaana. Myös kuluttajien keskuudessa on erilaistumista ja mikäli kulutuskäyttäytymistä halutaan ohjata ja kuluttajia halutaan valistaa, erilaisia kuluttajia tulisi lähestyä erilaisella informaation kärjellä. Tässä Pro Gradu -tutkielmassa hyödynnettiin kahta Kantar TNS Agrin toteuttamaa suomalaisten lihankulutusta käsittelevää haastattelututkimusta. Toinen hyödynnetty kyselytutkimus oli osa Lihatiedotus ry:n teettämää Lihankulututusta ohjaavat tekijät -kyselyä. Tästä kokonaisuudesta hyödynnettiin vuosina 2009-2019 toteutettua osuutta. Toinen tutkimuksista oli vuonna 2019 suoritettu poikkileikkaustutkimus lihan kulutuksen useudesta ja lihaan liittyvistä asenteita. Näiden kyselytutkimusten avulla pyrittiin löytämään vastauksia tutkimuskysymyksiin. Pitkittäistutkimuksen mukaan vuosina 2009-2019 kulutuksen ääripäiden osuus on kasvanut ja keskimääräinen kulutus on vähentynyt. ”Ei lainkaan” ja ”usein” lihaa kuluttavien osuudet ovat lievästi kasvaneet, kun taas harvoin lihaa kuluttavien osuus on melko voimakkaasti laskenut. Keskeisiä syitä lihankulutuksen taustalla ovat hyvä maku, proteiinin saanti, lihan kuuluminen ruokavalioon, tottumus, hyvä ravitsemus, helppous ja edullisuus, kun taas eettiset syyt, ympäristösyyt, vegaanisuus ja terveydelliset syyt nousevat esiin syinä, miksi lihaa ei kulutettu. Järjestetyssä probit -mallissa 10 % luottamustasolla merkitsevästi lihankulutusta selittäviä tekijöitä löytyi useista selittävistä muuttujista. Ikä, sukupuoli, tulot, asema ja asuinpaikka selittivät kaikki osaltaan lihankulutuksen useutta. Miehet kuluttivat kyselyiden mukaan lihaa enemmän kuin naiset. Nuorimmat ikäryhmät ilmoittivat kuluttavansa lihaa harvemmin kuin vanhemmat ikäryhmät. Johtavassa asemassa olevat kuluttivat lihaa ja lihatuotteita harvemmin kuin työttömät. Alhaisimmassa tuloluokassa lihaa kulutettiin harvemmin kuin korkeimmissa tuloluokissa. SPSS-tarkastelun mukaan taajaan asutuissa kunnissa kulutettiin lihaa useammin kuin maaseutumaisissa kunnissa. Molemmista taustana käytetyistä kyselytutkimuksista löydettiin lihankulutuksen useutta selittäviä tekijöitä. Erityisesti ikä ja sukupuoli nousivat esiin lihankulutuksen useutta selittävinä tekijöinä. Kattavan kuvan rakentamiseksi tarvitaan lisäksi tietoa esimerkiksi kulutetuista määristä, lihan osuudesta ruokavalion kokonaisuudessa sekä siitä, mitä ja missä muodossa lihaa kulutetaan.