Browsing by Subject "rypsi"

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  • Termonen, Tytti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tämän maisterintutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää härkäpapu-vehnäsäilörehun vaikutus lypsylehmän maitotuotokseen ja aineenvaihduntaan, kun puolet nurmisäilörehun kuiva-aineesta korvataan härkäpapu-kevätvehnäsäilörehulla. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli selvittää väkirehun valkuaistason vaikutus lisättäessä rypsirehun määrää ruokinnassa. Koe suoritettiin Viikin opetus- ja tutkimustilan navetassa keväällä 2014. Kokeessa oli mukana kahdeksan vähintään kaksi kertaa poikinutta ay-lehmää, joiden poikimisesta oli kulunut kokeen alkaessa keskimäärin 100 päivää. Koemallina oli rinnakkain toistettu 4x4 latinalainen neliö. Koekäsittelyinä olivat nurmisäilörehu (D-arvo 678 g/kg ka) täydennettynä väkirehulla, jossa oli raakavalkuaista joko 175 g/kg ka tai 200 g/kg ka, sekä härkäpapu-vehnäsäilörehun ja nurmisäilörehun seos (1:1) (D-arvo 642 g/kg ka) täydennettynä edellä mainituilla väkirehun valkuaistasoilla. Molemmat säilörehut olivat käymislaadultaan hyviä. Syönnissä ja maitotuotoksessa ei havaittu merkitsevää eroa säilörehujen tai väkirehun valkuaistasojen välillä. Kuidun sulavuudessa havaittiin yhdysvaikutus säilörehun kasvilajikoostumuksen ja väkirehun valkuaispitoisuuden välillä. Härkäpapu-vehnäsäilörehua sisältävällä ruokinnalla kuidun sulavuus parani rypsimäärän lisääntyessä, mutta nurmisäilörehuruokinnalla sulavuus heikkeni. Kuidun sulavuus oli parempi nurmisäilörehuruokinnalla kuin härkäpapu-vehnäsäilörehua sisältävällä ruokinnalla. Väkirehun valkuaispitoisuuden suurentuessa maidon rasvapitoisuus ja rasvatuotos pienenivät, jolloin myös energiakorjattu maitotuotos pieneni. Typen hyväksikäyttö maidontuotantoon heikkeni väkirehun valkuaispitoisuuden suurentuessa. Plasman vapaiden rasvahappojen ja haaraketjuisten aminohappojen pitoisuus plasmassa oli merkitsevästi suurempi härkäpapu-vehnäsäilörehua sisältävillä ruokinnoilla kuin nurmisäilörehuruokinnoilla. Plasman insuliinipitoisuus suureni väkirehun valkuaispitoisuuden suurentuessa molemmilla säilörehuruokinnoilla. Tulosten perusteella ensimmäisen sadon nurmisäilörehun korvaaminen härkäpapu-vehnäsäilörehulla ei aiheuta tuotannon heikkenemistä, kun nurmisäilörehusta korvataan puolet härkäpapu-vehnäsäilörehulla. Siten härkäpapu-vehnäsäilörehu osana karkearehua sopii hyvin lypsylehmien ruokintaan. Väkirehun raakavalkuaispitoisuuden lisääminen 175 g:sta/kg ka 200 g:n/kg ka ei lisännyt maitotuotosta, mutta vähensi maidon rasvapitoisuutta molempia säilörehuja käytettäessä.
  • Hämäläinen, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tämän maisterintutkielman tavoitteena oli tutkia, miten härkäpavun kaksi eri annostustasoa vaikuttavat lypsylehmien maitotuotokseen rypsirouheeseen verrattuna, kun karkearehuna käytetään heinäkasvisäilörehua. Koe tehtiin keväällä 2013 Viikin opetus- ja tutkimustilan navetassa osana Kotipalko-hanketta. Kokeessa oli 12 ayrshire-lehmää, joista kuusi oli poikinut vähintään kaksi kertaa ja loput olivat ensimmäisen kerran poikineita hiehoja. Lehmien poikimisesta oli kulunut keskimäärin 115 päivää kokeen alussa. Koe järjestettiin cyclic change over –koemallin mukaisesti. Kokeessa oli kaksi blokkia, joista toisen blokin muodostivat vähintään kaksi kertaa poikineet lehmät ja toisen blokin ensimmäisen kerran poikineet hiehot. Kokeen väkirehuista muodostettiin kuusi erilaista koekäsittelyä 2x3 faktoriaalisen asetelman mukaisesti. Kokeessa oli väkirehun raakavalkuaistasoina 154 g/kg ka ja 190 g/kg ka ja valkuaislähteinä rypsi, rypsin ja härkäpavun seos ja härkäpapu, niin että raakavalkuaisen saanti oli yhtä suuri kaikista vaihtoehdoista. Karkearehuna käytettiin 1.sadon timoteinurminatasäilörehua. Lehmien säilörehun syönti vähentyi, kun rypsiä korvattiin härkäpavulla ja syönti vähentyi enemmän, kun valkuaisrehujen määrä oli suurempi ruokinnassa. Orgaanisen aineen, NDF:n ja raakavalkuaisen saannit vähentyivät myös, kun rypsiä korvattiin härkäpavulla. Raakavalkuaisen saanti ja pötsin valkuaistase lisääntyivät, kun ruokinnan raakavalkuaispitoisuutta lisättiin. Ohutsuolesta imeytyvän valkuaisen hyväksikäyttö heikkeni, kun ruokinnan raaka-valkuaispitoisuus oli 190 g/kg ka. Myös lehmien maito-, valkuais- ja laktoosituotokset vähentyivät, kun rypsiä korvattiin härkäpavulla. Maidon ureapitoisuus ja virtsassa erittyvän typen määrä lisääntyivät, kun rypsiä korvattiin härkäpavulla ja ruokinnan raakavalkuaispitoisuus lisääntyi. Tulosten perusteella rypsiä ei voi korvata härkäpavulla ilman lehmien rehun syönnin ja maitotuotoksen vähentymistä. Osa rypsistä voidaan korvata härkäpavulla ilman, että lehmien rehun syönti tai maitotuotos vähentyvät niin paljon kuin rypsin korvaamisella kokonaan härkäpavulla. Rypsin ja härkäpavun seoksella voidaan myös varmistaa paremmin lehmien riittävä aminohappojen saanti kuin pelkällä härkäpavulla.
  • Kontkanen, Tiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The present experiment was conducted to study feed intake, growth and carcass characteristics of growing dairy bulls offered diets based on whole-crop barley silage with or without protein supplementation relative to a grass silage-based diet. A feeding experiment was conducted in the experimental barn of MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki starting in January 2012 and ending in February 2013. Four feeding treatments comprised in 28 Finnish Ayrshire and 8 Holstein bulls. The bulls were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. For feeding groups 1 – 3 TMR included whole-crop barley silage [600 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and rolled barley (400 g/kg DM). The bulls in group 1 (KV) were fed without protein supplementation. Group 2 (KVR) got rapeseed-based concentrate 620 g/animal/d. Group 3 (KVRU) got rapeseed plus urea –based concentrate 480 g/animal/d. Group 4 (N) were fed a TMR which included grass silage (600 g/kg DM) and rolled barley (400 g/kg DM) but no protein supplementation. In order that concentrate proportions were same in all treatments, groups 1 and 4 got in addition 500 g rolled barley/animal/d. Protein supplementation in KVR and KVRU treatments was balanced so that the total amount of the crude protein in the diet was equal in both treatments, and the protein balance in the rumen fulfilled the Finnish recommendation which is above -10 g/kg DM for growing cattle above 200 kg live weight. The whole-crop barley silage and grass silage used in the present experiment included 623 and 678 g digestible organic matter in kg DM, respectively. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS MIXED procedure. Differences between the dietary treatments were tested using three orthogonal contrasts: 1) N vs. others, 2) KV vs. KVR + KVRU, and 3) KVR vs. KVRU. The bulls were fed the experimental diets from 217 days of age to slaughter at 562 days of age. There were no significant differences in the total DM intake (kg DM/d) between treatments. Due to higher energy intake, the live weight gain g/d and carcass gain g/d of the bulls were faster in the N diet compared to the whole-crop diets (p<0,07 and p<0,03). Protein supplementation had no effects on growth performance among the whole-crop treatments even though in the KV diet PBV was below the Finnish recommendation. Treatments had no significant effect on the dressing proportion but the carcass conformation score and fat score of the N bulls were higher (p<0,06 and p<0,003) compared to the whole-crop bulls. There were no differences in the carcass traits among the whole-crop barley diets. The feed conversion rate (DM intake kg/live weight or carcass gain) of the bulls was better in the N diet than in the whole-crop diets, but protein supplementation had no effects on feed conversion rates. It can be concluded that replacing well digestible grass silage with whole-crop barley silage decreased the carcass gain of the bulls due to lower energy intake and poorer feed conversion rate. However, the fairly high carcass gain (618 g/d) of the wholecrop bulls indicates that grass silage could be totally replaced by whole-crop barley in the diet of dairy bulls. Protein supplementation had no effects on animal performance among the whole-crop treatments even though in the KV diet PBV was below the Finnish recommendation. This indicates that recommended PBV for growing cattle above 200 kg live weight could even be reduced without adverse effects on gain.
  • Heino, Fanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Finding a hybrid breeding method for turnip rape (Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (DC.) Metzg.) would allow the breeding of semi-dwarf cultivars that usually tend to lodge less and have a higher yield index. Some dwarf genes can shorten not only stem but also root which is not optimal for water and nutrient uptake. The effects of the dwarf gene BREIZH (Bzh) on turnip rape have not been reported earlier. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the Bzh gene on the structure of shoot and root of turnip rape and estimate if Bzh could be used in breeding semi-dwarf turnip rape cultivars. The research was organized in Viikki Greenhouse in Helsinki, and four turnip rape F2-lines were used in research. The progeny was presumed to distribute according to Bzh gene 1 : 2 : 1 (dwarfs : semi-dwarfs : wild types). Also field experiment was organized but it had to be discarded because of damages caused by geese. In the greenhouse the genotype was estimated twice according to length of hypocotyl. The starting and finishing time of flowering was recorded. After flowering the stems were cut from root and the height of stem and also the heights to the lowest and the highest branches were measured. The number of branches and nodes were counted as well. The roots were washed and the length of the main root and the dry weight of the root were measured. The correctness of the genotype estimate that was formatted by estimated hypocotyl length and measured stem length was evaluated by High Resolution Melting analysis. The control samples were sequenced in order to get information about the base sequence in mutation area. The Bzh gene shortened the stem by shortening the internode length. Also height to the lowest branch was significantly lower in semi-dwarfs. Usually these features together cause the better lodging resistance of the semi-dwarf cultivar. The gene also increased the amount of branches but didn’t affect the amount of nodes. Bzh didn’t affect the length of the main root but slightly decreased the dry weight of the root. There was a large variety in the appearances of the roots. Bzh also delayed flowering and decreased duration of it by one day. HRM analysis is a quick method for determining the Bzh genotype in turnip rape. Estimating genotype by phenotype of the plant is only directional. The Bzh mutation is a mutation of two single nucleotides (G-->A) and it is similar on both turnip rape and oilseed rape. According to the effects on structure, the Bzh gene seems to be suitable for breeding semi-dwarf turnip rape cultivars in future.
  • Ahjos, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Finland's latest government program outlines Finland's role as an ecologically sustainable leader in mitigating climate change and safeguarding biodiversity. In addition, the aim is to support investments promoting nutrient recycling and to improve Finland's protein self-sufficiency, which is currently only about 15%. The aim of this study is to explore the suitability of meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) for organic rapeseed farming. Rape and rapeseed are the most important protein crops grown in Finland, excluding cereals and grass. In addition, this study explores the effects of three different undergrowth plants on the quantity and quality of rapeseeds harvest. Undergrowth plants play an important role in organic farming, since they may improve soil nutrient management, combat weeds, and promote biological nitrogen fixation if pulses are used. The undergrowth plant is sown on the parcel at the same time as the main crop and is often left to grow after the harvest of the main crop. In addition, this study aims to explore which undergrowth plant would be best suited for use with MBM fertilizers. Rapeseed (Brassica rapa, oleifera group) is a cruciferous oil plant and a subspecies of turnip. Rapeseed is used as a raw material for edible oil and for animal protein feed. Like oil plants in general, rapeseed is a nutrient-demanding plant. Organic rapeseed is sown in early June, when the soil temperature is 15-20 degrees celsius. At that time the seedlings start to grow so strongly that the fleas do not have time to destroy them. Organic rapeseed can be fertilized using livestock manure or other organic fertilizers such as MBM. MBM is a highly nutrient-containing by-product of the slaughtering industry. It contains nitrogen and phosphorus and is rich in trace elements and therefore has a good fertilizing effect. The experimental part of the study explored the fertilizer properties of MBM and MBM product in terms of yield and quality of spring rapeseed. Slurry and non-fertilized screens were used as reference data. In addition, the experiment explored the effects of different undergrowth plants. The undergrowths used in this study were Italian ryegrass, white clover and Persian clover. The experimental part consisted of two randomized quadratic tests, conducted in 2006 and 2007 at MTT's Research Center in Karila, Mikkeli. I have received the research data ready for analysis. I have analyzed both years crop yield amount (in 9% humidity), the amount of oil, the amount of nitrogen and protein production, as well as in concentrations as in total amounts (kg/ha), so that the explanatory variables are fertilizers and undergrowth plants. Particularly the MBM product obtained the highest qualitative yields in both the year 2006 and 2007 tests for all criteria, excluding the oil content. However, in 2006 the oil content exceeded the criteria for edible oil. There were no statistically significant differences found in total yields between different fertilizers in 2006. In the 2007 trial, MBM fertilizers proved to be at least better than the non-fertilized screen, but the difference compared to slurry was not statistically significant. Based on these results, it can be said that MBM and MBM product are good fertilization alternatives for organic rapeseed, at least if the rapeseed is used for feed. No interactions with the undergrowth plants were found for MBM and MBM product. From the 2007 trial it can be concluded that Italian ryegrass is not suitable for undergrowth of rapeseed as it reduces both the quantity and the quality of the crop. No other statistically significant observations were made for other undergrowth plants.
  • Mäkinen, Henna-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In order to increase protein self-sufficiency and food production, it is necessary to study new protein feeds. Faba bean (Vicia faba) is a nitrogen-fixing plant, and thereby a good choice for versatile rotation of crops. Faba beans contain less crude protein and considerably more starch than rapeseed meal. Most of the faba bean protein degrades in rumen and it contains less methionine than rapeseed meal protein. Microalgae contain plenty of crude protein and their production requires less surface area than cultivation of field crops. Microalgae can also be grown in harsh climate conditions. However, microalgae have, in some of the earlier studies, reduced palatability of the diet. Aim of this Master’s Thesis was to compare rapeseed meal, faba bean seeds and Spirulina microalgae effects on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Hypothesis were decreased feed intake when Spirulina was added to the diet; lower milk production with faba bean diet than with rapeseed diet; and increased milk production when a part of faba bean protein was replaced with Spirulina protein. The study was conducted at Viikki research farm at Helsinki during the spring of 2015. Eight multiparous ayrshire dairy cows were used. At the beginning of the study, on average 113 days were passed since calving of the cows. The study design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Cows of the other square were rumen fistulated. Treatments (rapeseed, rapeseed + Spirulina, faba bean, faba bean + Spirulina) were isonitrogenous. In microalgae treatments protein from Spirulina was used to substitute half of the protein from rapeseed or faba bean. Total mixed ration (TMR) included in addition to protein feeds grass silage, barley, molassed sugar beet pulp and vitamins and minerals. Cows received TMR ad libitum. There were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI) between rapeseed and faba bean treatments. According to the hypothesis, DMI was decreased with Spirulina diets. Hypothesis regarding milk production were also realised. Milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein and lactose yields were lower with faba bean than with rapeseed treatments. Adding Spirulina to diet increased milk yield in faba bean treatment, but decreased it in rapeseed treatment. Adding Spirulina to diet did not affect energy-corrected milk yield significantly. Spirulina did not affect fat yields, and it lowered the protein and lactose yields in rapeseed treatment, and increased them in faba bean treatment. Based on the findings of the study, faba bean and Spirulina are inferior protein feeds compared to rapeseed meal in grass silage and grain based diets. Faba bean protein’s high rumen degradability and low methionine concentration probably limit milk production. Spirulina and faba bean combined meet dairy cow’s amino acid needs better than faba bean alone. However, Spirulina’s negative impact on DMI may restrict its usage as a protein feed for dairy cows.
  • Rissanen, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of supplementary protein feeding of dairy cattle is to increase dry matter intake and milk yield. In Finland, rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. oleifera, Brassica napus L. oleifera) is commonly used protein feed in animal nutrition. However, low self-sufficiency of supplemental protein and a changing climate increase the need to find alternatives for conventional protein feeds. Micro algae might be potential protein feed for dairy cattle. The aim of the study was to evaluate if protein feeding and replacing rapeseed meal by micro algae Spirulina platensis as a protein supplement affect feed intake, milk production and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. The study was conducted in the Viikki research farm of the University of Helsinki. Eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (186 d in milk on average) were used in balanced, replicated 4x4 Latin square with 21-d periods. There were four experimental concentrate feedings (12 kg/d). The control treatment was negative control without a protein supplement. Three other treatments were supplemented isonitrogenously with rapeseed meal, Spirulina or a mixture of rapeseed meal and Spirulina (1:1 on the crude protein basis). Cows were offered 2nd cut grass silage (D-value 656 g/kg dry matter) ad libitum and concentrates were given separately. In the study, protein supplementation tended to increase silage intake compared to control feeding. However, treatment had no effect on total dry matter intake. The substitution of the rapeseed meal by Spirulina decreased concentrate intake and it also tended to decrease milk protein yield. There was no difference in milk, ECM or milk fat yield between the treatments. In milk production, lack of response to protein feeding might be explained by a shortage of energy in the rumen due to low D-value of the silage. Because the diets were low in fat, there were only minor changes in milk fatty acid composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition reflected the differences in the fatty acid composition of the protein feeds. Substitution of the rapeseed meal by Spirulina decreased stearic acid (end-product of oleic acid ruminal biohydrogenation) but increased palmitic and γ-linolenic acid proportion in milk fat. Spirulina lipid contains γ-linolenic acid more than conventional animal feeds. According to this study, it is possible to replace rapeseed meal by Spirulina partly or completely without a decrease in total dry matter intake or milk yield on separate feeding. However, in this study protein supplementation did not increase dry matter intake or milk yield of dairy cattle in mid-lactation.
  • Nurmi, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The literature review examined structures and functionalities of two major canola proteins, cruciferin and napin. In addition, fundamental functional properties of proteins and the impact of high intensity ultrasound on functionality of other proteins were reviewed. Ultrasound treatment has been successfully used to improve several functional properties of other proteins such as soy, pea and egg white proteins. However, research on high intensity ultrasound treatment for improving canola protein functionality is limited. The aim of the experimental part was to improve solubility, rheological and emulsification properties of canola proteins using high intensity (20 kHz) ultrasound. The effects of ultrasound treatment on protein structures were also examined. Canola samples were first preheated (95 °C, 5 min) and then treated with ultrasound at different power intensity levels (200 and 400 W) and durations (10 and 30 min). Albumin fractions were obtained by water extraction (pH 7.3) and NaCl extraction (1 M, pH 6.3) was used to obtain globulin fractions. The soluble protein concentration was determined using DC Protein Assay (Bio-Rad, USA), free sulfhydryl content was measured according to Ellman’s procedure and electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed for the determination of protein composition. Emulsifying ability, creaming index, average particle size, viscosity, storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G’’) were determined from the heat-induced emulsion gels. Solubility and emulsion stability of ultrasound treated canola samples were improved compared to control samples. In addition, ultrasound treatment reduced the average particle size. However, the electrophoretic profiles of the control and ultrasound treated canola protein samples did not differ significantly. Based on the rheological measurements, all the emulsion gels were shear thinning and indicated elastic properties (G’>G’’). These results suggest that high intensity ultrasound treatment modified the structures of canola proteins enabling increased molecular interaction and enhancing particularly emulsion gel stability.
  • Heikkilä, Andreas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    From the beginning of 2013, the European Commission restricted the use of neonicotinoid based insecticides on honeybee attracting plants, such as Brassica oilseeds. This was done because neonicotinoids were believed to cause the death of honeybees. The initiative for this study came from the need to adapt to the change in insecticide use on oilseed crops. Adaptation had to happen at a time when the environmental effects of chemical control agents are evaluated from all sides. The aim of the study was to investigate if there was a correlation between seedling stage trichome abundance, or seed glucosinolate content, and flea beetle damage in Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera. The usability of trichomes and seed glucosinolates in increasing plant resistance against flea beetles was evaluated according to the results. The significance of seedling stage trichome density on the amount of flea beetle damage was investigated in field assays at Jokioinen 2015, and Loimaa 2016. Total glucosinolate content of different lines was determined from crushed seeds. Leaf trichome density, or seed total glucosinolate content, didn´t have a statistically significant effect on the formation of flea beetle damage. However, there is a multitude of scientific literature repeatedly suggesting that leaf trichomes can decrease flea beetle damage. This raises a question about the purposefulness of the methods used in exploring the phenomenon. Despite of this, the study revealed lines which suffered little beetle damage, because of an unknown reason. In the case of future research focus should be aimed at determining the resistance mechanisms in these lines. The role of glucosinolates, and their various hydrolysis products, as flea beetle repelling agents should be examined one compound at a time. This is because of their varied effects on flea beetle behaviour. Repelling substances are needed especially at the early seedling stage, because plants are most vulnerable to flea beetle damage at this growth stage. To maintain good nutritional and feed value, glucosinolates appearing in the seed should be avoided.
  • Mattlar, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The literature review introduces the rapeseed chemical composition, the rapeseed protein isolate as a novel food ingredient, and protein oxidation. Rapeseed is an economically important oilseed crop since it is one of the largest sources of vegetable oil in the world. Rapeseed expeller is a protein-rich by-product of canola oil extraction. The main use of this protein-rich by-product is animal feed. However, it could be potentially utilized in the food industry, for example, as a source of protein in plant protein products, as a texture-improving ingredient in bakery products or as an alternative for animal proteins. We need more protein for human nutrition, and thus it is important to find new plants that can be used as protein sources. This way we can reduce environmental stress. Because the production process of rapeseed protein expeller already exists, it is a good new potential protein source. Protein and lipid oxidation are significant factors when food and nutrition quality are examined. The objective of this study was to optimize the protein extraction method and to examine the oxidation of rapeseed proteins and the lipid oxidation in two different rapeseed expellers. A few parameters, including extraction solvent (0.1 M and 1 M NaCl), pH (8 and 10), extraction time (4 h and overnight) and the removal of oil, were tested and the parameters that gave the biggest acquisition of soluble proteins were chosen for the experiment. The oxidation of rapeseed protein expeller was measured based on the loss of tryptophan fluorescence and the formation of carbonyls and dityrosine by using fluorescence spectrometry and based on the formation of hexanal by using the headspace gas chromatography method. Protein oxidation was measured in two different ways: in the rapeseed protein expeller during three months and in the extracted protein solution during seven days. The chosen extraction parameters were pH 8, 0.1 M NaCl solution and overnight extraction. The soluble protein amounts of the two rapeseed expeller samples were different after extraction, but this could be explained by the batches’ slightly different chemical compositions, especially their different cruciferin and napin ratios. During both the 7-day and 3-month oxidations, the tryptophan fluorescence decreased. During the 3-month oxidation, the formation of carbonyls increased and no hexanal was detected in any of the rapeseed expeller samples which were measured with headspace gas chromatography. The temperature and preservation time had a considerable effect on the protein oxidation in both the 7-day and 3-month oxidation tests, when only the loss of tryptophan was considered as an oxidation marker. The results revealed that fluorescence spectroscopy is a potential method for investigating the protein oxidation in the rapeseed protein expeller by using the loss of tryptophan and the formation of carbonyls as oxidation markers.
  • Virkki, Säde (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Increasing crop yield is one of the objectives of plant breeding to turnip rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera), which could be achieved with hybrid breeding method. Most promising method for turnip rape is the Ogu-INRA cms / Rf hybrid seed production method, which transferred from Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to rapeseed (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera). The hybrid breeding method for turnip rape still lacks a fertility restorer paternal line and solution has been sought through interspecific crosses between turnip rape and rapeseed. Turnip rape, rapeseed and radish contain similar regions in their genetic material, which allows the transfer of radish’s fertil-ity restoring PPR-gene region from rapeseed to turnip rape. The aim of this Master’s thesis was to develop an SNP-tool for the identification of R9 chromo-some regions and using SNP-tool to identify turnip rape F1 hybrid offsprings, which have fertility restoring PPR-B gene region, integrated from radish extra chromosome into the turnip rape ge-nome. Earlier in the project PPR-gene was located to the R9 chromosome with BAC64-clone, therefore work focused solely on identifying R9 chromosome regions. For the development of the SNP-tool, objective was to search for a database and select species-specific SNP-markers with in silico-method. B.rapa databases were selected for the work and SNP-markers species specificity tested in the laboratory. The developed SNP-tool consisted of species-specific 28 radish SNP-markers and 48 turnip rape SNP-markers. The results showed amplification of four radish SNP-markers in fertile indi-viduals of turnip rape offspring, which located closest to the PPR-B gene region that restores fertility on the R9 chromosome. However, the SNP-tool could not determine whether integration occurred in fertile individuals of F1 hybrid offsprings, or whether the fertility restoring PPR-B gene region was unintegrated radish chromosome, as all SNP-tools turnip rape SNP-markers am-plified in the turnip rape offsprings. The SNP tool cannot be utilized to develop turnip rape hybrid breeding method, because screening of integration would done to turnip rape F1 hybrids. In fertile individuals amplificated radish SNP-markers could be used as DNA selection markers to identify the individuals with the PPR-B gene region, that restores fertility in F1 hybrids. In addition, the SNP-tool revealed, that the excess of extra radish chromosome is not complete in the genome. This research is part of a research project of the development of a hybrid breeding method for turnip rape, which is studying the utilization of cross breeding between closely related plant spe-cies in the breeding to turnip rape in cooperation with Boreal Plant Breeding Ltd.