Browsing by Subject "rypsirouhe"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Korhonen, Pirkko (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Kotimaassa viljellyt palkokasvit, joita pystytään hyödyntämään eläinten ruokinnassa, vähentävät riippuvuutta tuontivalkuaisesta. Biologisen typensidonnan ansiosta palkokasvit eivät tarvitse kalliita mineraalityppilannoitteita ja niillä on hyvä esikasviarvo. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin härkäpapu-kevätvehnäkokoviljasäilörehun ja ruokinnan valkuaistäydennyksen vaikutusta maidontuotantoon ja maidon koostumukseen, erityisesti rasvahappokoostumukseen, sekä typen hyväksikäyttöön. Nurmisäilörehuun pohjautuvaa ruokintaa verrattiin härkäpapu-kevätvehnänurmi-säilörehuruokintaan, jossa puolet karkearehun kuiva-aineesta korvattiin härkäpapu-kevätvehnäsäilörehulla. Väkirehutäydennyksen (13 kg/vrk) raakavalkuaispitoisuudet olivat joko 175 g/kg ka (rypsirouheen määrä 2 kg/vrk/lehmä) tai 200 g /kg ka (rypsirouheen määrä 3,5 kg/vrk/lehmä). Lehmät saivat säilörehua vapaasti. Ruokintakoe toteutettiin Helsingin yliopiston opetus- ja tutkimustilan navetassa Viikissä 1.2. – 26.4.2014. Koe-eläiminä oli kahdeksan ayrshire-rotuista lypsylehmää, joista neljä oli pötsifistelöityjä. Ruokintakokeen malli oli kaksinkertainen 4x4 latinalainen neliö. Koejakson pituus oli 21 vrk. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella härkäpapu-kevätvehnäsäilörehulla voi korvata puolet nurmisäilörehusta kuiva-aineen syönnin ja maitotuotoksen kärsimättä, kun molemmat säilörehut ovat hyvälaatuisia. Rypsirouheen määrän lisääminen ei tuonut tässä tutkimuksessa lisämaitolitroja eikä lisännyt maidon pitoisuuksia. Maidon rasvapitoisuus väheni, kun rypsirouheen määrää lisättiin. Myös mikrobitypen muodostuminen oli vähäisempää. Pötsin valkuaistase (PVT) oli kaikilla koeruokinnoilla positiivinen, joten pötsissä hajoavan valkuaisen saanti ei ollut todennäköisesti rajoittava tekijä mikrobitypen synteesissä. Lehmät söivät vähemmän tärkkelystä ja mikrobien käytössä oli täten todennäköisesti vähemmän energiaa, kun rypsin annostaso oli korkea verrattuna matalaan tasoon. Rehutypen hyväksikäyttö maitovalkuaiseksi heikkeni, kun rypsirouheen määrä väkirehussa lisääntyi ja säilörehussa oli härkäpapu-kevätvehnäsäilörehua. Kun karkearehu sisälsi härkäpapu-kevätvehnäsäilörehua, rypsirouheen määrän lisääminen ruokinnassa lisäsi merkittävästi maidon ureapitoisuutta. Alfalinoleenihappo (18:3n-3) siirtyi tehokkaammin rehusta maitoon härkäpapu-kevätvehnäsäilörehua sisältäneissä ruokinnoissa kuin karkearehun ollessa puhdasta nurmisäilörehua. Suurempi osa härkäpapu-kevätvehnäsäilörehun kuin nurmisäilörehun pitkäketjuisista rasvahapoista, etenkin 18:3n-3, säästyi ilmeisesti pötsissä biohydrogenaatiolta. Kun rypsirouheen määrä väkirehussa lisääntyi, maidon rasvatuotos väheni johtuen todennäköisesti palmitiinihapon (16:0) vähäisemmästä de novo –synteesistä maitorauhasessa. Vähäisempää de novo -synteesiä saattaa selittää se, että rypsin annostason nosto lisäsi hieman pitkäketjuisten, tyydyttymättömien rasvahappojen saantia. Plasman etikka- ja voihappopitoisuuksissa ei ollut eroa koeruokintojen välillä, mutta plasman insuliinipitoisuudet suurenivat rypsin annostason noustessa (plasmadata esitetty Termosen tutkielmassa 2015), mistä johtuen maitorasvan esiaineet ovat voineet osin ohjautua maitorauhasen ohi. Härkäpapu-kevätvehnäsäilörehulla voitiin korvata puolet nurmisäilörehusta maitotuotoksen kärsimättä vaikka härkäpapurehun sulavuus oli nurmirehua huonompi. Rypsirouheen määrän lisääminen ei vaikuttanut maitotuotokseen. Se vähensi rasvatuotosta ja heikensi typen hyväksikäyttöä, minkä takia se ei ollut tämän tutkimuksen perusteella järkevää.
  • Pitkänen, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Faba bean (Vicia faba) is considered as promising protein plant for increasing protein self-sufficiency. Still, raw faba bean has not been as good protein feed for dairy cows as rapeseed meal. This experiment was conducted to test industrially heat-treated and dehulled faba bean as replacement for rapeseed meal in dairy cows either alone or with rumen-protected methionine. The experiment was designed as three times repeated 4 × 4 latin square. Cows were fed ad libitum total-mixed-ration, which consisted of timothy and meadow fescue silage, cereal based concentrate, and isonitrogenous protein component. The four feedings were control feeding without protein concentrate, rapeseed meal feeding, faba bean feeding, and faba bean feeding with rumen-protected methionine. Feed and nutrients intake and apparent whole-tract digestibility, milk yield and its composition, ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia, and plasma amino acids and metabolites were measured. Results were statistically analysed using the Mixed-procedur of SAS-program. Protein feeds increased dry matter intake 1.3 kg/d and milk yield 1.2 kg/d compared to control feeding (dry matter intake 22.5 kg/d and milk yield 30.7 kg/d), and they increased milk protein concentration and protein and fat yields compared to control. Substitution of rapeseed with faba bean decreased dry matter intake but milk yield and milk protein and fat concentration remained unchanged. Rumen-protected methionine increased milk protein concentration but did not have any effect on milk, protein or fat yields. Amino acid intake increased when protein feeds were fed, and cows given rapeseed had higher amino acid intake compared to those given faba bean. Essential amino acid concentration in plasma was higher with increased feed protein level but there were no differences between rapeseed and faba bean diets despite difference in amino acid intake. Rumen-protected methionine increased plasma methionine concentration (30.8 mmol/l compared to 18.2 mmol/l) but had no effect on concentrations of other amino acids. According to this study industrially heat-treated faba bean would be comparable protein feed to rapeseed meal but the results should be interpreted cautiously due to low production responses to protein supplementation. Rumen-protected methionine had quite small impact on milk yield, and more information is needed concerning its use to balance amino acid supply on cows fed faba bean.
  • Tarsia, Essi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Lots of protein feeds are imported to Europe. In Finland at most 25 % of all protein feeds used are home-grown. Legumes and single-cell protein are of interest to replace imported protein feeds. The aim of this study was to explore faba bean (Vicia faba) and Spirulina-algae (Spirulina platensis) as protein source for dairy cows. The study design was replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with four diets and four periods of three weeks. The experiment was 2 x 2 factorial. Rapeseed meal and rolled faba bean were compared as protein sources. The partial replacement (half) of rapeseed meal and faba bean protein with Spirulina-algae was also investigated. All the protein supplements were isonitrogenous. In this study, effects of protein supplements on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition, production of microbial protein in the rumen, plasma amino acids and mammary uptake of amino acids and nitrogen partitioning were examined. This study was made at the research farm of the University of Helsinki in 21.2.–15.5.2015. There were eight multiparous Finnish ayrshire dairy cows at mid-lactation. The cows were divided in two blocks the other block having rumen fistulated animals. All the total mixed ratios contained grass silage of good quality, barley, sugar pulp and minerals supplemented with different protein sources. Cows were offered total mixed ratios ad libitum. Replacing rapeseed meal and faba bean with Spirulina-algae reduced dry matter intake. The milk yield was 1,4 kg/d greater on rapeseed meal diets compared with faba bean diets. Mixing Spirulina-algae with faba bean increased milk, protein and lactose yields, but when mixed with rapeseed meal decreased them. Both milk urea and rumen ammonia concentrations were higher in faba bean diets than in rapeseed meal diets. The concentration of several essential amino acids in plasma and mammary uptake of histidine and methionine were lower in faba bean diets than in rapeseed meal diets. Replacing faba bean partially with Spirulina increased AV-difference of essential amino acids. Nitrogen balances were positive in all experimental diets. There were no differences in nitrogen intake. Feeding faba beans reduced nitrogen secretion in milk and faeces compared to rapeseed meal diets. Replacing rapeseed meal and faba bean partially with Spirulina increased the proportion of nitrogen secreted in urine and lowered nitrogen balance. According to this study replacing rapeseed meal completely with faba bean seeds reduce milk and protein yields on diets based on grass silage and cereals. Mixing Spirulina with faba bean increased milk, protein and lactose yields, but decreased them when mixed with rapeseed meal. Protein of faba bean and Spirulina probably completed each others. More research is needed with high levels of micro algae on dry matter intake, animal performance and degradability of microalgal protein in rumen.
  • Päkkilä, Liisa-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of faba bean on amino acid, glucose, NEFA, BHBA, acetate and insulin concentration in plasma. In addition, AV-difference, extraction, and uptake of nutrients by mammary gland was investigated. The primary purpose of this study was to examine suitability of faba bean as protein feed for dairy cows. Firstly, faba bean was compared to grain based control feed, which did not contain any protein supplement, and it was fed with restrictively fermented silage. Secondly, faba bean was compared to rapeseed meal and mixture of rapeseed meal and faba bean as isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Eight multiparous cows in the experiment were divided into two blocks and replicated 4 × 4 latin square design was used. Concentrates were fed at a rate of 14 kg/d and silage was fed ad libitum. Cows were approximately 100 days in milk in the beginning of the experiment. Rapeseed meal did not increase silage intake as much as expected according to results of earlier experiments. When rapeseed meal was replaced with faba bean, milk production, energy corrected milk production, protein production and fat production increased quadratically. When protein content of the concentrate increased, concentration of essential amino acids increased in plasma. When rapeseed meal was replaced with faba bean, concentration of non-essential amino acids increased linearly. Concentration of histidine in plasma was high on all treatments compared to results of earlier experiments. Concentration of methionine in plasma was at the same level as results of earlier experiments. Extraction of methionine was exceptionally high when rapeseed meal was fed, but uptake rate of methionine by mammary gland was bigger than output rate. Concentration of glucose in plasma was high compared to results of earlier experiments on every treatment. Relative and absolute uptake of glucose by mammary gland was especially high when mixed protein feed was fed. Supply of energy and amino acid profile corresponded well to cows needs with mixed protein feed.