Browsing by Subject "sahateollisuus"

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  • Selby, J. Ashley (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1989)
    A theoretical and philosophical examination of the ways in which behaviour of entrepreneurs relates to the business environment, with an empirical case study of the business attitudes, perceived business environments and ability to use business-related information of small sawmill entrepreneurs.
  • Laine, M. Minna (Finnish Environment Institute, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 9
  • Lantta, Marja-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Increasing societal demands are driving forest industry companies to evaluate the impacts of their business activities more comprehensively. Corporate responsibility (CR) is not a new phenomenon to the industry sector as environmental considerations have been on the agenda of the firms for decades through the use of forest resources. Globalization and relocations of operations overseas have increased the general public's awareness of the societal effects of business. CR of major forest industry corporations has been studied extensively but a research gap was identified in the case of CR in small and medium-sized (SME) Finnish forest industry companies. The significance of SMEs is expected to grow within Finnish forest industry in the future as mechanical forest industry increases its relative importance. Based on literature this study suggests that SMEs should approach CR as a strategic issue, i.e., they should evaluate which aspects of this multidimensional phenomenon can affect the firm's ability to reach its objectives. The relatively limited resources of the firm should be allocated to those strategic CR issues. Empirical primary data was collected by interviewing the line managers of medium-sized Finnish sawmills. The managers were asked to identify sources of competitive advantage within the company, to give their definitions of CR and to discuss the potential of CR as a source of competitive advantage. The findings were congruent with earlier studies on SMEs in other industry fields. The firms often execute CR without identifying it and relate to CR through their key stakeholders (employees, community, customers). The interviewed line managers did not generally perceive CR to have potential as a source of CA. If CR is to be promoted amongst Finnish forest industry SMEs, robust business cases have to be presented to demonstrate the measurable benefits of CR. Practical examples of what CR incorporates in the smaller firm are required. Consumer studies are necessary to discover the value of CR stewardship perceived by the customers.
  • Paatela, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    At present the operating environment of sawmills in Europe is changing and there are uncertainties related in raw material supply in many countries. The changes in the operating environment of roundwood markets and the effects followed by these changes have brought up several interesting issues from the viewpoint of research. Lately new factors have been influencing the roundwood markets, such as increasing interest towards wood-based energy and implementation of new energy policies as well as changes in wood trade flows that affect the domestic markets in many countries. This Master’s thesis studies the adaptation ability of Finnish roundwood markets in a changing operating environment, aiming to produce an up-to-date analysis considering new development trends. The study concentrates on the roundwood markets from the viewpoint of sawmill industry since the industry is dependent on the functioning of the markets and sawmills are highly affected by the changes on the roundwood markets. To facilitate international comparison, the study is implemented by comparing Finnish and Austrian roundwood markets and analysing changes happening in the two countries. Finland and Austria share rather similar characteristics in the roundwood market structures, forest resources and forest ownership as well as production of roundwood and sawnwood. In addition they both are big exporters of forest industry products. In this study changes in the operating environment of sawmill industry both in Finland as well as in Austria are compared to each other aiming to recognise the main similarities and differences between the countries. In addition both development possibilities as well as challenges followed by the changes are discussed. The aim of the study is to define the main challenges and possibilities confronted by the actors on the markets and also to find new perspectives to approach these. The study is implemented as a qualitative study. The theoretical framework of the study describes the operating environment of wood markets from the viewpoint of the sawmill industry and represents the effects of supply and demand on the wood markets. The primary research material of the study was gathered by interviewing high level experts of forestry and sawmill industry in both Finland and Austria. The aim was to receive as extensive country specific viewpoint from the markets as possible, hence interviewees represented different parties of the markets. After creating country-specific profiles based on the theoretical framework a cross-country comparison was implemented. As a consequence the main similarities and differences in the operating environment and on the roundwood markets of Finland and Austria were recognized. In addition the main challenges and possibilites were identified. The results of the study offer a wide analysis regarding the main similarities and differences of the wood markets of Finland and Austria and their operating environments as well as concerning challenges and possibilities faced on the markets.
  • Hartikainen, Timo (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1997)
    The methods of secondary wood processing are assumed to evolve over time and to affect the requirements set for the wood material and its suppliers. The study aimed at analysing the industrial operating modes applied by joinery and furniture manufacturers as sawnwood users. Industrial operating mode was defined as a pattern of important decisions and actions taken by a company which describes the company's level of adjustment in the late-industrial transition. A non-probabilistic sample of 127 companies was interviewed, including companies from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland. Fifty-two of the firms were furniture manufacturers and the other 75 were producing windows and doors. Variables related to business philosophy, production operations, and supplier choice criteria were measured and used as a basis for a customer typology; variables related to wood usage and perceived sawmill performance were measured to be used to profile the customer types. Factor analysis was used to determine the latent dimensions of industrial operating mode. Canonical correlations analysis was applied in developing the final base for classifying the observations. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was employed to build a five-group typology of secondary wood processing firms; these ranged from traditional mass producers to late-industrial flexible manufacturers. There is a clear connection between the amount of late-industrial elements in a company and the share of special and customised sawnwood it uses. Those joinery or furniture manufacturers that are more late-industrial also are likely to use more component-type wood material and to appreciate customer-oriented technical precision. The results show that the change is towards the use of late-industrial sawnwood materials and late-industrial supplier relationships.
  • Niemelä, Juha S. (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1993)
    The objectives of this study are both theoretical and empirical. On the theoretical level strategy concept, its operationalization and measurement are analyzed and clarified. On the empirical level marketing strategies and competitive strategies are described by country, and the study also identifies the strategic marketing decisions characterizing different countries or competitive strategies. Furthermore, the relationships between strategies and marketing structures and functions are analyzed. The connections between marketing strategy and competitive strategy are analyzed on both the theoretical and empirical level. The data of the study consists of personal interviews of 102 large sawmills. The data is collected from Finland, Western USA and British Columbia, Canada and is divided fairly equally between these three countries. On the theoretical level the strategy concept is analyzed by classifying the concepts used in strategy research into five different types. The data of the study makes it possible to empirically compare two different strategy concepts and three countries. Marketing strategy is analyzed in terms of decisions concerning products, customers, market areas and marketing competences. The Finnish sawmills differ from the Western North American sawmills with a more advanced marketing strategy emphasizing specialty- and custom-made products and few customers and market areas. The Finnish sawmills are also applying more advanced competitive strategies. Hypotheses concerning the relationships between marketing strategy and competitive strategy gain support from the empirical findings. Connections between marketing strategy and marketing structures and functions were found to exist, which provides validation for the used operationalization of the marketing strategy concept.
  • Cotroux, Veronika (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The Master’s thesis provides a multiregional equilibrium analysis on the Russian sawmill market. The main objective of the thesis is to establish a partial equilibrium model on the Russian sawmill market and define the amount by which production, consumption, imports, exports, prices for roundwood and sawnwood may change over a period of time as a response to the following external factors: economic growth, changes in tariffs for roundwood after Russia’s accession to WTO, exchange rates, increased supply of the Russian sawlog, increased consumer preference for sawnwood in Russian and EU. The model includes 20 Russian regions and 5 export regions. The base year of the model is 2009. The partial equilibrium model has been constructed using GAMS software. After establishing an equilibrium model of supply and demand, 9 scenario variations have been run to answer the research questions. The results suggest that increased demand in CIS and China has a positive impact on the Russian sawnwood production. Increased supply of sawlogs in Russia could reduce prices for raw material on the local market and stimulate production of sawnwood in Russia. Changed consumer preference towards sawnwood could also stipulate the development of the sawmill sector, which highlights the importance of national programs to promote wood in construction. However, it was discovered that introduction of export tariffs for sawlogs does not stipulate production of sawnwood in Russia substantially, but reduces prices for sawnwood on the domestic market and decreases harvest of sawlogs. Increased dollar rate against ruble improves the profitability of the sawmill industry. However, devaluation of ruble may also lead to lower incomes of the Russian population in comparison to the EU and the US.
  • Hakala, Herman (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1992)
    The influence was examined of log characteristics (diameter, length, taper, volume, density and quality), sawing pattern, yield, sawing efficacy, stoppages and consumption of electricity on the profitability of sawing pine [Pinus sylvestris] logs. The costs (raw material, capital, labour, energy and other) and revenues (sawn timber, chips, sawdust and bark) were also studied. The study was based on tests using conventional sawing patterns of 1606 logs at the Teuva sawmill (owned by Botnia Wood Oy), Finland, in 1985. A sawing simulator was used to (i) calculate the yield of by-products and (ii) examine the influence of other sawing patterns on yield and sawing result. Profitability increased as log diameter increased. The absolute price difference between the smallest diameter class (133-152 mm) and the largest diameter class was M 99.1/msuperscript 3 over bark. Revenue (mainly from sawn timber) accounted for M 66/msuperscript 3 and costs (mainly of raw materials) for M 33.1 msuperscript 3 of this difference. Diameter, yield and sawing efficacy had a greater influence on costs and revenues than did stoppages.
  • Rytkönen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Finnish sawmill industry's competitiveness has recently been poor due to the worsen economic situation, collapsed demand and the inactivity on the timber market. The sawmill industry has attempted to operate as domestic business by creating a long-term welfare for the Finnish society. However, this attempt requires, that the domestic sawmilling industry can operate in conditions, which is enabling profitable business. The market share of Finnish sawmill industry in Europe and the world is so small that it has no practical ability to determine the level of prices in international markets. Therefore it must adapt to the prevailing world market prices and demand fluctuations. Sawmill industry is in a turning point, which led to the examination of the current state and industry-related perspectives. The theoretical framework bases on McGahan (2004) book How Industries Evolve. It is a descriptive framework for the trajectory of industry change. The descriptive framework is combined with Porter's Diamond model (1990), which he introduced in his book “The Competitive Advantage of Nations” (Porter 1990). The aim of the Diamond is to describe the business environment, where the Finnish sawmilling industry is operating in. Resource based view by Barney (Barney 1991) will describe the corporate environment and resources of the sawmilling companies. SWOT analysis was used to evaluate the results. The study was conducted as a qualitative work. Primarydata was acquired by expert interviews and secondarydata consists of the literature, publications and internet sources. According to the results in order to improve the competitiveness of Finnish sawmilling industry a common understanding needed of a number of related changes. Attempts to improve the competitiveness should be implemented so that all the factor conditions are effective and try to regenerate. When the factor conditions are functioning, there is demand for wood products, prices are adequate and wood markets operate in balance. It is noteworthy that it was the sawmill industry pays more than 70% of the income for private forest owners, which is ensuring employment for the rural localities and creating economic welfare. Globalization will also modify business environment of the Finnish sawmilling industry therefore the state as a legislator needs to influence the industry's changing needs. Political decisions should be encouraging the industry to create new production possibilities so that industry can maintain their competitiveness in relation to other competing countries. The use of forests and wood can respond to the many challenges in the future. Finnish sawmilling will be supporting the targets of the Finnish government as well as the EU's priority areas: sustainable development, climate change adaptation and welfare development of the rural areas.
  • Uusitalo, Jori (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1997)
    To enhance the utilization of the wood, the sawmills are forced to place more emphasis on planning to master the whole production chain from the forest to the end product. One significant obstacle to integrating the forest-sawmill-market production chain is the lack of appropriate information about forest stands. Since the wood procurement point of view in forest planning systems has been almost totally disregarded there has been a great need to develop an easy and efficient pre-harvest measurement method, allowing separate measurement of stands prior to harvesting. The main purpose of this study was to develop a measurement method for pine stands which forest managers could use in describing the properties of the standing trees for sawing production planning. Study materials were collected from ten Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris) located in North Häme and South Pohjanmaa, in southern Finland. The data comprise test sawing data on 314 pine stems, dbh and height measures of all trees and measures of the quality parameters of pine sawlog stems in all ten study stands as well as the locations of all trees in six stands. The study was divided into four sub-studies which deal with pine quality prediction, construction of diameter and dead branch height distributions, sampling designs and applying height and crown height models. The final proposal for the pre-harvest measurement method is a synthesis of the individual sub-studies. Quality analysis resulted in choosing dbh, distance from stump height to the first dead branch (dead branch height), crown height and tree height as the most appropriate quality characteristics of Scots pine. Dbh and dead branch height are measured from each pine sample tree while height and crown height are derived from dbh measures by aid of mixed height and crown height models. Pine and spruce diameter distribution as well as dead branch height distribution are most effectively predicted by the kernel function. Roughly 25 sample trees seems to be appropriate in pure pine stands. In mixed stands the number of sample trees needs to be increased in proportion to the intensity of pines in order to attain the same level of accuracy.
  • Heikinheimo, Lauri (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1954)
  • Mäkelä, Matias (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Availability of raw material is a key issue for the future of the wood pellet industry. Wood pellet production primarily uses dry by-products of the mechanical wood processing industry, but increasing demand forces to use even more wet sawdust of the sawmill industry. This study examined the procurement of wet sawdust as a raw material for four pellet mills. As a research method, a model based on linear optimization was created about the Finnish sawdust market. To form a market model, the research compiled a database of demand and supply of sawdust. The demand database was collected on 7 expert interviews, and the ability to pay of each actor was determined by reference fuel. The supply database was composed by gathering the industrial size sawmills in Finland. The production capacity of sawmills determined an estimate of the by-product sawdust. With this model, three different raw material procurement scenarios were created for the year 2021, based on the different production volumes of the sawmill industry, compared with the year 2017. In the base scenario, the utilization rate will remain at the 2017 level, the minimum scenario will decrease by 10% and in the maximum scenario will increase by 10%. In each scenario, raw material procurement of factories was examined at 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum capacity of factories. In the first step of optimization, the profit margin of sawmills was maximized, by delivering items to the most profitable user. In the second step, the raw material costs of pellet mills were minimized by utilizing the results of the first stage optimization. The results show that the production volume of the sawmill industry has a significant impact on the raw material costs of pellet mills due to changes in supply. In the minimum scenario, the raw material costs of four factories were 10,1 to 10,4 percent higher, in the base scenario, 6,0 to 7,6 percent higher and in the maximum scenario, costs fell 0,7 to 0,8 percent compared with the year 2017. According to the results, the price of the sawdust may rise due to increased demand. Increasing raw material costs will affect the profitability of the pellet industry and the demand for the end-product negatively.
  • Ervasti, Seppo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1964)
  • Rautanen, Martti (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Suomen sahateollisuus elää pitkästä ja hienosta historiastaan huolimatta vuonna 2009 vaikeaa aikaa. Maailman-talouden taantumaan johdosta vientivetoinen teollisuus joutuu leikkaamaan tuotantoaan huippuvuosiin verrattuna lähes puolella. Sahatavaran kysyntä on romahtanut uudisrakentamisen pysähdyttyä kuin seinään. Lisäksi tilannetta on hankaloittanut sahatavaran ylituotanto muualla Euroopassa ja Itä-Euroopan maiden sahateollisuuden kasvu. Kotimaassa tuontipuun hinnat karkasivat liian korkeiksi Venäjän asettamien puun tuontitullien myötä, jonka johdosta myös muun metsäteollisuuden rakennemuutos on saanut uutta vauhtia. Selluteollisuuden siirtyessä kiihtyvällä tahdilla halvempien kuituraaka-aineiden lähteille ja vanhojen tehtaiden sulkeutuessa myös kotimaisen puukaupan tasapaino on järkkynyt. Perinteisen sahateollisuuden tulevaisuus näyttää synkältä, jonka vuoksi sen tulevaisuutta on päätettyä tutkia mm. tässä työssä. Painotus on ollut sahateollisuuden kysynnän ja asiakasrakenteen tulevaisuuden skenaarioissa. Tutkimusta lähdettiin toteuttamaan kvalitatiivisena työnä, jonka primaaridata hankittiin asiantuntijateemahaastatteluin joissa asiantuntijoina toimivat sahateollisuudessa tai alaan liittyvissä työtehtävissä toimivat henkilöt. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena viite-kehyksenä toimi Nordin (2005) sahateollisuuden arvoketjusta muokattu kehys, johon yhdistettiin PESTEK-analyysi. Nordin arvoketjun valittujen osien tutkiminen PESTEK-analyysillä ja teemahaastatteluilla synnyttivät kolme sahateollisuuden skenaarioita vuoteen 2020 asti. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin myös sovellettua delfoi-menetelmää muun muassa hankkimalla skenaarioiden dataa kahdessa vaiheessa. Ensin asiantuntijahaastatteluin ja myöhemmin skenaarioista saatiin palautetta Helsingin yliopiston, Metsäntutkimuslaitoksen ja Euroopan metsäinstituutin järjestämässä skenaariotyöpajassa. Useamman menetelmän käyttämisellä eli triangulaatiolla pyrittiin parantamaan tutkimuksen validiteettia. Tutkimuksen tuloksena syntyi sekä sahateollisuuden nykytilan kuvaus, että sahateollisuuden kolme tulevaisuuden skenaariota. Nykytilan kuvaus tarvittiin, jotta tiedettäisiin lähtökohta skenaarioille. Skenaariot kuvaavat sahateollisuuden kolmea erilaista tulevaisuutta riippuen sen toimijoiden oletetuista toimintamalleista lähtötilanteessa ja matkalla kohti vuotta 2020. Ensimmäisessä skenaariossa sahateollisuuden kehittyminen rajoittuu kovaan hintakilpailuun perustuotteissa ja toiminta on vahvasti markkinoiden syklisyyden armoilla. Toisessa skenaariossa osa sahateollisuuden toimijoista on lähtenyt kehittämään yhteistyötä puunjalostusteollisuuden kanssa vertikaalisen integraation voimin. Tuotteet ovat pitkälle jalostettuja ja markkinat pääosin kotimaassa ja lähialueilla. Kolmannessa ja viimeisessä skenaariossa sahateollisuus hakee ketteryyttä toimintaansa horisontaalisella integraatiolla bioenergiaklusterin kanssa. Tuotannossa jalosteet ovat aiempaa suuremmassa roolissa perustuotteiden rinnalla ja monialaosaamisella taistellaan markkinoiden syklisyyttä vastaan. Vaikeasta tilanteesta huolimatta suomalaisella sahateollisuudella on mahdollisuudet selvitä, mutta se voi vaatia yksittäisten yritysten kohdalla perusteellisia muutoksia liiketoimintamalleihin ja ajattelutapoihin.
  • Saari, Eino (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1932)
  • Unknown author (Helsingfors, 1860)
    [Komitébetänkande; 1860:3