Browsing by Subject "sato"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-19 of 19
  • Velling, Pirkko; Tigerstedt, P. M. A. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Lehti, Jasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Couch grass is one of the most common perennial weeds that cause significant yield losses in temperate regions. In conventional farming, glyphosate has been commonly used to control couch grass. As attitudes and regulations are tightening towards the use of herbicides, it is necessary to find effective alternatives to replace herbicides, especially glyphosate. This master’s thesis aimed to examine the efficacy of different mechanical methods to control couch grass. The second aim was to study how these methods affect the spring cereal yield and its quality. The hypothesis was that with mechanical control methods couch grass can be controlled as effectively as with glyphosate. Data was collected from two field trials located in Inkoo and Ruukki in 2020-2021. The study plan included seven treatments: direct drilling, ploughing (in two treatments), tine cultivation, a combination of tine cultivation and ploughing, Kvickfinn cultivator, and fallowing. The coverage of couch grass was visually estimated before tillage and before harvest. Field trials were photographed with drones before harvest. The density of couch grass was defined from direct drilling plots before sowing. Biomass samples of couch grass and barley were collected from every plot for one square meter in Ruukki at harvest timing. Spring barley was harvested, and grain yield and its quality were analyzed. The coverage of couch grass was lower with Kvickfinn and fallowing than with direct drilling in Inkoo. There was no difference in yield and quality between mechanical control methods and direct drilling. In Ruukki the infestation of couch grass was more abundant and more even than in Inkoo. The coverage and biomass of couch grass were highest in direct drilled plots in Ruukki. The yield and quality of spring barley were the lowest and poorest in direct drilled plots. Couch grass was almost totally controlled with fallowing. It has to be taken into account that the results base on the data of only one growing season. Therefore, the long-term effects or the effects of weather are still uncertain. Based on the data, it is possible to conclude that fallowing is the most effective method to control couch grass. It seems that with mechanical control methods, couch grass can be controlled as effectively as with glyphosate. With mechanical control methods the spring cereal yield and quality were better than with direct drilling. It is important to control couch grass because it limits crop growth and yield formation.
  • Karp, Maarit (University of Helsinki, 1996)
  • Amperla, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä – Referent – Abstract Mansikanviljelyn ongelmana Suomessa ovat matalat satotasot. Korotettua viljelypenkkiä käyttämällä on muilla mansikanviljelyalueilla saatu suuremmat sadot ja parempi marjan laatu. Muilla viljelyalueilla menetelmää on käytetty enemmän yksivuotisessa kuin monivuotisessa mansikanviljelyssä. Suomen ilmastossa korotetun avomaanviljelypenkin kuitenkin pelätään aiheuttavan talvivaurioita. Viimeisimmät tulokset korotetun viljelypenkin käytöstä Suomessa ovat kuitenkin rohkaisevia, talvivaurioita ei syntynyt kokeessa käytetyllä lajikkeella. Lisää tutkimusta eri lajikkeiden vasteesta korotettuun viljelypenkkiin pohjoisten olojen monivuotisessa mansikan viljelyssä kuitenkin tarvitaan. Tässä tutkimuksessa tutkittiin kolmen lajikkeen vastetta kahdella penkin korkeudella, 10 ja 20 cm, sekä kahdella maalajilla. Kokeessa käytetyt lajikkeet olivat suositut viljelylajikkeet, ’Honeyoe’ ja ’Polka’ sekä Luonnonvarakeskuksen uusi, aikainen lajike, ’Lumotar’. Tässä kokeessa selvitettiin eri korkeuksien vaikutusta kasvuun, sadon määrään ja laatuun, sekä juurakoiden tärkkelyspitoisuuteen. Marjan laadun mittareina käytettiin liukoisten kuiva-aineiden pitoisuutta sekä titrautuvien happojen määrää. Eri käsittelyt vaikuttivat mitattuihin kasvun ja sadon indikaattoreihin. 20 cm penkin korkeutta käyttämällä saatiin suurempi satopotentiaali ja se myös toteutui paremmin. Tässä tutkimuksessa korkeudella ei kuitenkaan ollut vaikutusta marjan laatuun eikä juurakon tärkkelyspitoisuuteen. Korkeamman penkin korkeuden vaikutusta tuottavuuteen pohjoisissa oloissa onkin kuitenkin edelleen selvitettävä ja lajikkeiden kastelu ja lannoitusvaatimuksia tarkennettava. Näyttää kuitenkin, että korotettu avomaanviljelypenkki kohentaa kasvuoloja molemmilla maalajeilla ja kaikilla kokeessa käytetyillä lajikkeilla mansikalle edulliseen suuntaan. Näin se lisää mansikan kasvua ja suurentaa satoa.
  • Raatikainen, Mikko; Rossi, Esko; Vänninen, Irene (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Rossi, Esko; Raatikainen, Mikko; Huovinen, Jarmo; Koskela, Merja-Leena; Niemelä, Maija (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Jalkanen, Risto; Jalkanen, Esko; Jalkanen, Jyrki; Jalkanen, Marja (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Maula, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Buckwheat yield vary greatly between years, and in some years the seed production fails completely. In general, low yield is a problem in buckwheat farming. Only 10-15 % of buckwheat flowers will develop into seeds, regardless of pollination. The reason for this is thought to be the sterilization of the pistils in the flowers, which could be caused by insufficient growth resources during flowering and seed maturing. In addition, the degree of seed filling in the nutlets can be so low that only half of the gross weight of nutlet yield is suitable for nutrition. Buckwheat has been found to be particularly susceptible to insufficient levels of magnesium during flowering, and it also contain more phosphorus than magnesium. However, buckwheat is considered an unambitious plant in terms of fertilization, and its need for micronutrient fertilization has not been studied intensively. However, magnesium fertilization has been shown to increase yield in some experiments. This study was conducted as a foliar fertilization trial in Tuusula. The goal was to determine the effects of magnesium foliar fertilization on the flowering and yield in buckwheat. The treatments included control, water spraying and two magnesium fertilizations treatments. Magnesium fertilization treatment was applied either at the first stages of flowering orat the first stages of flowering and also during full flowering. Magnesium was applied 1,2 kg per hectare. The effects of magnesium fertilization were not statistically significant to the development rate, height of stem, length of flowering, flower biomass, final nutlet yield, 1000 seed weight, number of hollow nutlets, the percentage of nutlet hull or hectolitre weight. There were indications that magnesium has potential to increase nutlet yield. Flowering lasted 12 weeks, which is a normal length for buckwheat in Finland. Nutlet yield was 878-1236 kg per hectare, which is an average yield for buckwheat in Finland. The nutlets had light weight. The amount of magnesium fertilization may have been too low to have an effect on the development and yield of the trial. The trial field suffered from excess moisture in particular during ripening, which has been found to have an adverse effect on the growth and yield of buckwheat. The study was conducted during one growth season and it is presumable that the heavy rains during the season and the excessive moisture in the trial field had an effect on the results of the study. A second year of field experiments in required to verify the effects of magnesium fertilization on the yield formation of buckwheat.
  • Raatikainen, Mikko; Rossi, Esko; Huovinen, Jarmo; Koskela, Merja-Leena; Niemelä, Maija; Raatikainen, Terttu (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Raatikainen, Mikko; Raatikainen, Terttu (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Rummukainen, Ukko (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1954)
  • Tall, Anna (University of Helsinki, 2007)
    Julkaisuja / Helsingin yliopisto, soveltavan biologian laitos ; 34
  • Kalela, Erkki K. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1946)
  • Sepponen, Pentti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Raatikainen, Mikko (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1978)
  • Mustonen, Arja (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In Finland 90% of all farmers and 95% of cultivated land are committed to the environmental support program of agriculture. One of the goals of this program is to reduce phosphorus (P) runoff from fields to the water system by limiting the amount of P used in cultivation process. Experiments on P rates allowed in environmental support program and practices of P fertilization were conducted at two sites on ley during 2003-2011. The research aimed to define the effects of annual fertilization, incorporated fertilization and the use of liquid manures on ley yield and P status of the soil. Earlier studies have shown that more water soluble P runs off from leys than from cereal fields and that reserved P hasn’t been sufficient for the whole ley rotation. The experiment consisted of seven different fertilization treatments in which phosphorus treatments were done as incorporate fertilization or annual fertilization. Low or high-release mineral fertilizer was used for incorporate fertilization and either mineral fertilizer or at first mineral fertilizer and liquid manures in next rotation for annual fertilization on the surface. P given as liquid manure was used by three members of the experiment group. The experiment included cultivating ley for seven years and cereal forage for two years. The control group used no P fertilization. P given in fertilization treatments had no effect on ley yields compared with control treatment. Negative P balance in all treatments caused the P rate in ploughed layer of the soil to decrease, however the P levels of surface layer fluctuated greatly regardless of the way P treatments were done. The study indicated that using liquid manures for fertilizing ley cultivations does not pose any greater threat to the environment than mineral fertilizers. However, balanced fertilization, sufficient nitrogen and reducing nitrogen loss of liquid manures are required in order to achieve high yields. The results also indicate that it should be made possible to raise the amount of P fertilization of highly productive leys closer to the zero level of the nutrient balance so that productivity of the soil measured by acid ammonium acetate (PAC) would be preserved. Depending on the other qualities of the soil, this can be done when PAC has reached the value nearby 10 mg l-1. More information on controlling P of the surface soil by means of cultivation management is needed.
  • Nummijoki, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Syysmuotoiset kasvi ovat lisänneet suosiotaan viime vuosina. Suurempi sato, työhuippujen tasaaminen sekä positiivinen vaikutus viljelykiertoon ovat tärkeimmät syyt suosion lisääntymiseen. Toisaalta niiden viljelyhalukkuutta rajoittaa riski talvehtimisen onnistumisesta. Ruis on syysmuotoisista viljelykasveista talvenkestävin, mutta myös sillä voi esiintyä merkittäviä talvituhoja. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, miten syksyn ja talven sääolot vaikuttavat rukiin talvehtimiseen. Lisäksi tutkittiin populaatio- ja hybridilajikkeiden välisiä eroja niiden talvenkestävyydessä. Tutkimusaineistona olivat Ylistarossa sekä Hauholla vuosina 2009-2014 tehdyt rukiin lajikekokeet sekä Ilmatieteenlaitoksen sääaineistot. Ruiskokeissa mitattiin talvituhojen määrää sekä sadon määrää eri ruislajikkeilla. Sääaineistosta laskettiin lämpösummakertymä ajanjaksolla kylvöstä karaistumisjakson alkuun, karaistumisjakson lämpösummakertymä, nettolämpösummakertymä karaistumiskaudella sekä huhtikuun lämpösummakertymä. Lisäksi tarkasteltiin lumipeitteen ja roudan syvyyttä ja kestoa talven aikana. Eniten talvituhoja esiintyi vuonna 2012-2013, jolloin myös sadon määrä jäi alhaiseksi. Sadon määrä korreloikin eniten juuri talvituhojen määrän kanssa. Vuonna 2012-2013 routajakso oli pisin verrattuna muihin vuosiin ja huhtikuun lämpösummakertymä oli alhaisin. Nämä tekijät korreloivat eniten talvituhojen määrän kanssa. Sadon määrä korreloi talvituhojen määrän lisäksi myös huhtikuun roudan syvyyden sekä karaistumiskauden pituuden kanssa. Hauholla talvituhoja esiintyi pääsääntöisesti vähemmän verrattuna Ylistaroon, ja Hauholla myös sadot olivat suuremmat kuin Ylistarossa. Ruismuotoja vertailtaessa, huomattiin, että hybridilajikkeilla esiintyi hieman enemmän talvituhoja verrattuna populaatiolajikkeisiin, mutta silti hybridilajikkeiden sadot olivat suuremmat verrattuna populaatiolajikkeisiin. Tutkimuksen perusteella talvituhojen määrään vaikuttavat eniten roudan syvyys sekä lämpösummakertymä huhtikuulla. Sen sijaan suoraa yhteyttä syksyn karaistumisjakson pituuden tai lämpösummakertymän ja talvehtimisen onnistumisella ei havaittu. Sadon määrään vaikutti eniten talvituhojen määrä, mutta myös huhtikuun roudan syvyys, lumettomien routapäivien sekä karaistumiskauden pituus vaikuttivat. Populaatio- ja hybridilajikkeiden talvenkestävyydessä ei havaittu eroja koevuosien aikana.
  • Äijö, Helena; Nurminen, Jyrki; Myllys, Merja; Sikkilä, Markus; Salo, Heidi; Paasonen-Kivekäs, Maija; Turunen, Mika; Koivusalo, Harri; Alakukku, Laura; Puustinen, Markku (Salaojituksen tutkimusyhdistys ry, 2017)
    Salaojituksen tutkimusyhdistys ry:n tiedote
  • Koskinen, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Cropping conditions are changing also at northern areas due the climate change. Extreme weather conditions demand more buffering capability from the soil and adjusting ability from the plants. Crop rotation and tillage system are in essential role while the change proceeds, as they effect to productivity, pest control and soil health. This study studied the effects of crop rotation on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and pests in two tillage methods, plowing and no-till. This long term (2005-2019) field experiment was arranged in Jokionen, southern Finland. In the experiment, there were two cropping systems: barley monoculture and five years crop rotation (pea – spring wheat – oats – turnip rape/rapeseed – spring barley). Both cropping systems were carried out in ploughed and no-till environment. This study examined the years 2009, 2014 and 2019, when the whole experimental area was on spring barley. In our study, crop rotation did not have considerable effect on barley yield, but tillage method had. Yields were bigger in the ploughed system than in the no-till system. Crop rotation reduced weeds in the plowing system and increased them on no-till. Crop rotation reduced the stem and root rot diseases in spring barley. Tillage method and crop rotation had also effect on leaf blotch severity, especially on scald (Rhynchosporium commune). Only a few insect violations appeared during the examination years, so the effects of crop rotation on occurrence of insects could not be evaluated. Long term crop rotation experiments give valuable information about the strengths and weaknesses of different rotations. Role of the diverse crop rotation will increase further in Finland. More attention needs to be paid to interaction between crops and tillage systems, avoiding soil compaction, focusing to improve soil health and structure so the plants would have good opportunities to use their whole yield potential.