Browsing by Subject "sauna"

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  • Kriikku, Pirkko; Ojanpera, Ilkka; Lunetta, Philippe (2020)
    We present a case of an accidental fatal fentanyl overdose caused by increased uptake of the drug from a transdermal patch while experiencing the heat of a sauna. The transdermal patch administers fentanyl at a relatively constant rate through the skin. However, in the subcutaneous tissue, blood circulation greatly influences the rate of this drug's systemic intake. In the present case, an elderly woman with multiple health conditions was prescribed fentanyl patches but was unaware of the risks associated with external heat sources when one wears the patch. She was found dead in the sauna with a postmortem femoral blood concentration of fentanyl that was elevated (15 mu g/L). The cause of death was determined to be fatal poisoning by fentanyl with the contributing factor of external heat from the sauna. Risks associated with transdermal administration of a potent opioid-like fentanyl are widely described in the scientific literature and described in the manufacturer's summary of product characteristics. Physicians and pharmacists should take particular care to ensure that patients understand these risks.
  • Tissari, Jarkko; Väätäinen, Sampsa; Leskinen, Jani; Savolahti, Mikko; Lamberg, Heikki; Kortelainen, Miika; Karvosenoja, Niko; Sippula, Olli (MDPI, 2019)
    Atmosphere 2019; 10(12):775
    Sauna Stoves (SS) are simple wood combustion appliances used mainly in Nordic countries. They generate emissions that have an impact on air quality and climate. In this study, a new measurement concept for comparing the operation, thermal efficiency, and real-life fine particle and gaseous emissions of SS was utilized. In addition, a novel, simple, and universal emission calculation procedure for the determination of nominal emission factors was developed for which the equations are presented for the first time. Fine particle and gaseous concentrations from 10 different types of SS were investigated. It was found that each SS model was an individual in relation to stove performance: stove heating time, air-to-fuel ratio, thermal efficiency, and emissions. Nine-fold differences in fine particle mass (PM1) concentrations, and about 90-fold differences in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were found between the SS, when dry (11% moisture content) birch wood was used. By using moist (18%) wood, particle number and carbon monoxide concentrations increased, but interestingly, PM1, PAH, and black carbon (BC) concentrations clearly decreased, when comparing to dry wood. E.g., PAH concentrations were 5.5–9.6 times higher with dry wood than with moist wood. Between wood species, 2–3-fold maximum differences in the emissions were found, whereas about 1.5-fold differences were observed between bark-containing and debarked wood logs. On average, the emissions measured in this study were considerably lower than in previous studies and emission inventories. This suggests that overall the designs of sauna stoves available on the market have improved during the 2010s. The findings of this study were used to update the calculation scheme behind the inventories, causing the estimates for total PM emissions from SS in Finland to decrease. However, wood-fired sauna stoves are still estimated to be the highest individual emission source of fine particles and black carbon in Finland.