Browsing by Subject "scale"

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  • Kangas, Annika; Raty, Minna; Korhonen, Kari T.; Vauhkonen, Jari; Packalen, Tuula (2019)
    Forest information is needed at global, national and local scales. This review aimed at providing insights of potential of national forest inventories (NFIs) as well as challenges they have to cater to those needs. Within NFIs, the authors address the methodological challenges introduced by the multitude of scales the forest data are needed, and the challenges in acknowledging the errors due to the measurements and models in addition to sampling errors. Between NFIs, the challenges related to the different harmonization tasks were reviewed. While a design-based approach is often considered more attractive than a model-based approach as it is guaranteed to provide unbiased results, the model-based approach is needed for downscaling the information to smaller scales and acknowledging the measurement and model errors. However, while a model-based inference is possible in small areas, the unknown random effects introduce biased estimators. The NFIs need to cater for the national information requirements and maintain the existing time series, while at the same time providing comparable information across the countries. In upscaling the NFI information to continental and global information needs, representative samples across the area are of utmost importance. Without representative data, the model-based approaches enable provision of forest information with unknown and indeterminable biases. Both design-based and model-based approaches need to be applied to cater to all information needs. This must be accomplished in a comprehensive way In particular, a need to have standardized quality requirements has been identified, acknowledging the possibility for bias and its implications, for all data used in policy making.
  • Sumiala, Johanna; Tikka, Minttu (2020)
    This article explores what digital media ethnography as a methodological approach can offer to the study of contiguous media events with an unexpected, violent and fluid nature. Emphasising the role of media events in the present organisation of social life, we as digital media anthropologists acknowledge the tendency in the current digital media environment to eventise and spectacularise social life. This development serves the power-related purposes of attention seeking and public recognition in the digital world. The article is structured as follows: first, we provide a brief outline of the field of digital media ethnography in relation to the study of media event; second, we identify what we claim are three key methodological dilemmas in applying digital media ethnography to the study of today’s digitally circulating media events (scale, mobility and agency) and reflect on them in the context of our methodological positioning; third, we conclude this article by considering some epistemological and ontological implications of this methodological endeavour in relation to what can be called the ‘meta-field’ and the related instability in current digital research.
  • Pouta, Pasi; Kulha, Niko; Kuuluvainen, Timo; Aakala, Tuomas (2022)
    The distribution of space among forest trees is linked to the availability of resources, among-tree competition, and hence forest dynamics. We studied partitioning of horizontal space among trees and related spatial structures in an old-growth Picea abies (L.) Karst -dominated forest in northeastern subarctic Fennoscandia, where Betula pubescens (Ehrh.) is an important co-dominant. Specifically, we asked (1) how does growing space occupied by trees vary by tree species and size in an old-growth forest with open canopy structure, and (2) at what scales does the variation in tree growing space occur? We mapped an 8.8 ha forest plot with 4,884 live trees. We used Voronoi polygons to quantify the horizontal space potentially available to each tree. We modeled the Voronoi polygon area as a function of tree size and species by using generalized additive models (GAM). We used i-to-any L-functions to study the scale-dependence of tree densities around focal trees, and mark correlation functions to study the relative sizes of trees close to each other. The GAM models showed that tree growing space increased non-linearly with tree size before saturating, and that overall growing space was larger for B. pubescens than for P. abies. Mean space occupied by trees roughly doubled from the smallest diameter class (0-5 cm) to the largest (>25 cm), from 13.7 to 26.7 m(2). Depending on diameter class, shade-intolerant B. pubescens occupied on average 5-10 m(2) more space than shade-tolerant P. abies. Trees close to each other were smaller than average. Size- and species-dependent differences in local tree densities accumulated mostly at the scale of a few meters but showed also broader-scale variation possibly related to edaphic variation within the study plot. The tree species- and size-related variation in the trees' growing space suggests that among-tree competition, together with clustering of trees, shape the spatial assembly of the forest.
  • Hakanen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The liberal peace paradigm focusing on a top-down approach and implementing Western values in a one-fits-all model dominated the field of peacekeeping and crisis management missions especially from the 1980s onwards. Later, local ownership became a “buzzword” in international interventions after some major failures of peacekeeping missions in the 1990s and early 2000s. Since then highlighting the relevance of the inclusion of local actors and of utilizing local knowledge have become inseparable parts of the major international organizations’ policy documents and strategies dealing with crisis management and peacebuilding. However, the definition of who or where is local has not been adequately addressed. This has led to using the local as a concept referring to almost anything and everything within the borders of a state. The vague conceptualization has been criticized by scholars, as it leaves unanswered many questions about who can represent local interests or which actors should be included in a crisis management process to increase the sustainability of the intervention. This Master’s thesis seeks research on who, what or where the local level is seen to be in the context of the EU’s civilian crisis management. It does it by uncovering and discussing discourses of the local level from a set of the EU’s documents dealing with civilian crisis management or external action more generally. In this thesis the local level is framed as a social construction through the notion of scale and level from human geographical literature. The human geographical literature also highlights the importance of not only looking at the discourses of the local level but also how it relates to other levels to gain a fuller understanding. The thesis also discusses the potential political opportunity structures that follow from these discourses. There are three main discourses found in the documents focusing on who the local level comprises of: authorities and government, civil society and a variety of different actors on different levels within the nation. None of these discourses raises above the others. Instead, they co-exist, leaving the local level vaguely defined. It is argued that this gives the EU an opportunity to pick the local actors to cooperate with case-by-case. This choice can reflect the needs and will of the EU, the host country or both. In addition, two discourses relating to what the local level represents more generally were discovered. These form a dichotomy: the local is seen both as a threat to the security of the EU citizens but simultaneously as a necessity to include in missions to increase the effectiveness of CSDP missions. Overall, the importance of local ownership is highlighted throughout the documents. Considering this, the low level of mentions of local actors is somewhat surprising as well as the vague definition of who or where is local.