Browsing by Subject "schizophrenia"

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  • Mäntylä, Teemu; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Rikandi, Eva; Lindgren, Maija; Kieseppä, Tuula; Hari, Riitta; Suvisaari, Jaana; Raij, Tuukka T. (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychotic disorders have reported both hypoactivity and hyperactivity in numerous brain regions. In line with the dysconnection hypothesis, these regions include cortical integrative hub regions. However, most earlier studies focused on a single cognitive function at a time, assessed by delivering artificial stimuli to patients with chronic psychosis. Thus, it remains unresolved whether these findings are present already in early psychosis and whether they translate to real-life-like conditions that require multisensory processing and integration. METHODS: Scenes from the movie Alice in Wonderland (2010) were shown to 51 patients with first-episode psychosis (16 women) and 32 community-based control subjects (17 women) during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared intersubject correlation, a measure of similarity of brain signal time courses in each voxel, between the groups. We also quantified the hubness as the number of connections each region has. RESULTS: Intersubject correlation was significantly lower in patients with first-episode psychosis than in control subjects in the medial and lateral prefrontal, cingulate, precuneal, and parietotemporal regions, including the default mode network. Regional magnitude of between-group difference in intersubject correlation was associated with the hubness. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide novel evidence for the dysconnection hypothesis by showing that during complex real-life-like stimulation, the most prominent functional alterations in psychotic disorders relate to integrative brain functions. Presence of such abnormalities in first-episode psychosis rules out long-term effects of illness or medication. These methods can be used in further studies to map widespread hub alterations in a single functional magnetic resonance imaging session and link them to potential downstream and upstream pathways.
  • Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Tiihonen, Jari; Burkin, Mark; Joffe, Grigori (2017)
    Aim: Sexual dysfunction, common in schizophrenia, may be further exaggerated by antipsychotics, especially those of First Generation (FGAs), and antidepressants, such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRs). Mirtazapine, an antidepressant characterized by its different action mechanism compared with that of the majority of other antidepressants, may improve SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in patients with depression. It is unknown, however, whether mirtazapine improves sexual functioning in schizophrenia.Methods: This study randomly assigned FGA-treated patients with schizophrenia to receive either an add-on mirtazapine (n=20) or a placebo (n=19) for 6 weeks. Sexual functioning was prospectively measured using five relevant items from the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side-effect rating scale (UKU-SERS).Results: Orgasmic function improved with statistical significance in the mirtazapine group (p=.03), with no changes in any other sexual functions in either group.Conclusion: Add-on mirtazapine appears to relieve orgasmic dysfunction in FGA-treated patients with schizophrenia.
  • Mäkipelto, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims: Schizophrenia is characterized by cognitive impairment that associates with many problems in everyday life and functioning. Earlier research has hypothesized that antidepressant medication may associate with better cognitive functioning among schizophrenia patients, but empirical results are mixed. This study explored the profile of schizophrenia patients that use antidepressants and asked whether there is an association between antidepressant use and cognitive performance in a clinical patient sample. Because of effects on the central nervous system, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic medications were also considered. Methods: Study participants were drawn from the SUPER-Finland cohort, which was collected among patients with psychotic illnesses in 2016–2018 from all university hospital districts across Finland (n=10474). The analysis included working-age (18–70) patients with a schizophrenia diagnosis (F20) and complete results from the brief cognitive assessment (n=3411). Information about regular medications and psychosocial factors were gathered through questionnaire and interview. Cognition was assessed with CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery), out of which the subtests measuring reaction time (RTI) and visual learning (PAL) were included. The association of antidepressants on cognition was examined using both pooled antidepressants and various antidepressant groups as predictors in linear regression models. Gender, age, age of diagnosis, living status, relationship, education, and psychological distress were controlled in the models. Results: Over 35% of schizophrenia patients regularly used at least one antidepressant. On average, schizophrenia patients using antidepressants experienced lower well-being and more psychological distress than patients without antidepressants. The use of antidepressants was not generally associated with better or poorer cognitive performance. However, the use of SNRI antidepressants was associated with a significantly faster reaction time. The use of benzodiazepines was associated with poorer cognitive performance in both reaction time and visual learning. Conclusions: The results support the conclusion that there is generally no meaningful association between antidepressants and better cognitive performance in schizophrenia. However, the association of SNRI-medicines with a slightly faster reaction time is promising and warrants further research. Several psychosocial factors were associated with the cognitive performance of schizophrenia patients, which underlines the need for supporting psychosocial well-being in cognitive rehabilitation.
  • Laine, Anna; Välimäki, Maritta; Pekurinen, Virve; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Marttunen, Mauri; Anttila, Minna (2019)
    Background: Web-based interventions are promising tools for increasing the understanding of illness and treatment among patients with serious mental disorders. Objective: This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based patient education intervention using a quasi-experimental cluster design to report feedback on patient education sessions and the website used and to report preliminary evidence of the intervention's impact on patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Methods: A single-blind, parallel, quasi-experimental cluster study over a 6-month period comparing Web-based education (n=33) with a nonequivalent control group (treatment as usual, n=24) for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder was conducted. Participants (N=57) were recruited from one psychiatric hospital (6 wards). Feasibility was assessed by participants' commitment (refusal rate, dropout rate) to the study. Acceptability was assessed as participants' commitment to the intervention. Patient education sessions and website feedback were assessed by the patients and health care professionals. The preliminary impact of the sessions on patients' self-efficacy, self-esteem, illness cognition, and knowledge level was measured at baseline and follow-ups (8 weeks, 6 months) with self-rated questionnaires. Results: The refusal rate among patients was high with no statistically significant difference (69% [74/107] in the intervention group, 76% [76/100] in the control group; P =.21). The same result was found for the dropout rates (48% [16/33] vs 58% [14/24]; P=. 46). The acceptability of the intervention was good; 31 participants out of 33 (94%) completed all five sessions. Feedback on the intervention was mainly positive; three out of four subscales of session were rated above the midpoint of 4.0. Feedback on the website was also positive, with a grade of good for content (69%, 20/29 patients; 75%, 21/28 professionals), layout (62%, 18/29 patients; 61%, 17/28 professionals), and usability (62%, 18/29 patients; and 68%, 19/28 professionals). The patients using the intervention had significantly higher scores 6 months after the sessions in self-efficacy (baseline mean 26.12, SD 5.64 vs 6-month mean 29.24, SD 6.05; P=.003) and regarding knowledge level about schizophrenia (mean 11.39, SD 4.65 vs 6-month mean 15.06, SD 5.26; P=. 002), and lower scores in the subscale of helplessness in illness cognition (mean 2.26, SD 0.96 vs 6-month mean 1.85, SD 0.59; P=.03). Differences from the control group were not significant. No differences were found in patients' self-esteem or other subscales in illness cognition. Conclusions: The patients were reluctant to participate in the study and tended to drop out before the follow-ups. Once they had participated, their acceptance of the intervention was high. A more effective recruitment strategy and monitoring method will be needed in future studies. To assess the impact of the intervention, a more rigorous study design with an adequately powered sample size will be used in cooperation with outpatient mental health services.
  • Hartung, Henrike; Cichon, Nicole; De Feo, Vito; Riemann, Stephanie; Schildt, Sandra; Lindemann, Christoph; Mulert, Christoph; Gogos, Joseph A.; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L. (2016)
    Cognitive deficits represent a major burden of neuropsychiatric disorders and result in part from abnormal communication within hippocampal-prefrontal circuits. While it has been hypothesized that this network dysfunction arises during development, long before the first clinical symptoms, experimental evidence is still missing. Here, we show that pre-juvenile mice mimicking genetic and environmental risk factors of disease (dual-hit GE mice) have poorer recognition memory that correlates with augmented coupling by synchrony and stronger directed interactions between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The network dysfunction emerges already during neonatal development, yet it initially consists in a diminished hippocampal theta drive and consequently, a weaker and disorganized entrainment of local prefrontal circuits in discontinuous oscillatory activity in dual-hit GE mice when compared with controls. Thus, impaired maturation of functional communication within hippocampal-prefrontal networks switching from hypo- to hyper-coupling may represent a mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders.
  • Komulainen, Emilia; Zdrojewska, Justyna; Freemantle, Erika; Mohammad, Hasan; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Deshpande, Prasannakumar; Marchisella, Francesca; Mysore, Raghavendra; Hollos, Patrik; Michelsen, Kimmo A.; Magard, Mats; Rauvala, Heikki; James, Peter; Coffey, Eleanor T. (2014)
  • Holi, Matti M.; Eronen, Markku; Toivonen, Kari; Toivonen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri; Naukkarinen, Hannu (2004)
    In a double-blind, controlled study, we examined the therapeutic effects of high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on schizophrenia symptoms. A total of 22 chronic hospitalized schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to 2 weeks (10 sessions) of real or sham rTMS. rTMS was given with the following parameters: 20 trains of 5-second 10-Hz stimulation at 100 percent motor threshold, 30 seconds apart. Effects on positive and negative symptoms, self-reported symptoms, rough neuropsychological functioning, and hormones were assessed. Although there was a significant improvement in both groups in most of the symptom measures, no real differences were found between the groups. A decrease of more than 20 percent in the total PANSS score was found in 7 control subjects but only 1 subject from the real rTMS group. There was no change in hormone levels or neuropsychological functioning, measured by the MMSE, in either group. Left prefrontal rTMS (with the used parameters) seems to produce a significant nonspecific effect of the treatment procedure but no therapeutic effect in the most chronic and severely ill schizophrenia patients.
  • Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina (Kela, 2018)
    Studies in social security and health 152
    Mental disorders are the leading cause of work disability among young adults. This study examined the background of young adults who were granted temporary work disability pension due to mental disorders in Finland, their clinical profile, the interventions targeted at them, and employment outcomes over five years. The data comprised people aged 18–34 (n = 1,163) who were granted a fixed-term work disability pension in 2008 due to a mental disorder (ICD-10 codes F10–69, F80–99) by an occupational pension institute. The data included patients’ pension applications and attached medical certifications, which were linked to employment data from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. The most common diagnoses were depressive mood disorders (39%), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (34%), and mania or bipolar disorder (14%). Half of the young adults were attached to the labour market or education prior to the granted pension. Three clinical profiles were identified: ‘Childhood (including adolescence) adversity’, associated with depressive disorders; ‘Comorbidity’, associated with bipolar disorder; and ‘Undefined’, associated with psychotic disorders. Half of the non-student young adults had received work-oriented interventions or had them in their treatment and rehabilitation plan. Forty per cent had received psychotherapy or had a plan for it. A total of 22% of the sample were employed at the end of the 5.6-year follow-up, whereas 48% had been employed at some time during this period. Having planned psychotherapeutic intervention or rehabilitative courses and training at baseline was associated with quicker entry into the labour market. Having both planned psychotherapeutic and work-oriented interventions was associated with being employed at the end of the follow-up. Both psychotherapy and work-oriented interventions are likely to be beneficial for the future employment of young adults on disability pension.
  • Robinson, Rachel; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Schnitzlein, Daniel; Voit, Falk; Girchenko, Polina; Wolke, Dieter; Lemola, Sakari; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri (2020)
    Preterm birth research is poised to explore the mental health of adults born very preterm(VP;1970) included VP/VLBW individuals with controls born at term(≥37+0 weeks) or with normal birth weight(NBW; ≥2500g). Thirteen studies were included. Studies consistently showed an increased risk for psychotropic medication use for VP/VLBW adults in comparison to NBW/term controls, but whether VP/VLBW adults have an increased risk for mental health disorders or symptoms appearing in adulthood remains uncertain. The quality of the evidence was moderate (65.8%) to high (34.2%). Further research in larger samples is needed.
  • M-RESIST Grp; Seppala, Jussi; De Vita, Ilaria; Miettunen, Jouko; Isohanni, Matti; Rubinstein, Katya; Feldman, Yoram; Grasa, Eva; Corripio, Iluminada; Berdun, Jesus; D'Amico, Enrico; Bulgheroni, Maria (2019)
    Background: Mobile Therapeutic Attention for Patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia (m-RESIST) is an EU Horizon 2020-funded project aimed at designing and validating an innovative therapeutic program for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The program exploits information from mobile phones and wearable sensors for behavioral tracking to support intervention administration. Objective: To systematically review original studies on sensor-based mHealth apps aimed at uncovering associations between sensor data and symptoms of psychiatric disorders in order to support the m-RESIST approach to assess effectiveness of behavioral monitoring in therapy. Methods: A systematic review of the English-language literature, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, was performed through Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Studies published between September 1, 2009, and September 30, 2018, were selected. Boolean search operators with an iterative combination of search terms were applied. Results: Studies reporting quantitative information on data collected from mobile use and/or wearable sensors, and where that information was associated with clinical outcomes, were included. A total of 35 studies were identified; most of them investigated bipolar disorders, depression, depression symptoms, stress, and symptoms of stress, while only a few studies addressed persons with schizophrenia. The data from sensors were associated with symptoms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and depression. Conclusions: Although the data from sensors demonstrated an association with the symptoms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and depression, their usability in clinical settings to support therapeutic intervention is not yet fully assessed and needs to be scrutinized more thoroughly.
  • Aitta-aho, Teemu (Helsingfors universitet, 2003)
    Epidemiological data suggest an important role of perinatal viral infections in the etiology of schizophrenia. In this thesis the connection between neonatal viral brain infection and its consequences to the development of central nervous system was studied. In schizophrenia the symptoms are divided into three categories as positive, negative and cognitive ones. Positive symptoms refer to hallucinations and delusions, negative symptoms are defined as social withdrawal, apathy and poor motivation and cognitive symptoms include deficits in abstraction and paying attention into subjects. Symptoms suggest that in schizophrenia the received information can not be filtered properly in central nervous system, but comes into patients senses in excess i.e. there are defects in sensorimotor gating. Sensorimotor gating was studied by prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle -phenomenon. Prepulse inhibition refers to the inhibition of the startle reflex by weak prepulse presented before the startling stimulus. In schizophrenic patients prepulse inhibition is decreased and in addition to that psychotomimetic drugs disrupt prepulse inhibition in humans as well as in experimental animals. Sensorimotor gating ability is developed under neuronal development and it can be affected by several neurodevelopmental disturbances. In the present study rats were infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus at neonatal age and later challenged to dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. Results show controversial data of effects on prepulse inhibition, still some attenuation can be seen. Challenge studies did not show clear and persistent effect either in dopaminergic or glutamatergic tests. Corticosterone, naturally occurring hormone in rats, was administered to rat mothers under gestation until weaning in terms to clarify its effects to neuronal development. Administration was carried out by implanted pellet as well as by drinking water. The latter was found to work out better as it releases corticosterone in pulsatile manner. Corticosterone was administered also in acute test to drug naïve animals. This test showed significant decrease on prepulse inhibition. The same could not be repeated in corticosterone challenge test after perinatal treatments. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA was administered to neonates under days 5-9 after partus. This was supposed to prevent neonates from neurodevelopmental disturbances affected by virus and corticosterone. Despite various dose levels used, any clear effect could not be seen. In summary, the studies show some effect of treatments on neuronal development and sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition. In the test groups inspected many treatments showed effect at first, but those effects disappeared at later tests as rats grew up. This might be an outcome of the potential compensatory mechanisms of the central nervous system to counteract harmful neurodevelopmental events.
  • Castrén, Eero (2014)
    Increasing number of studies has during the last decade linked neurotrophic factors with the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and with the mechanisms of action of drugs used for the treatment of these disorders. In particular, brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF and its receptor TrkB have been connected with the pathophysiology in mood disorders and there is strong evidence that BDNF signaling is critically involved in the recovery from depression with both pharmacological and psychological means. Neurotrophins play a central role in neuronal plasticity and network connectivity in developing and adult brain and recent evidence links plasticity and network rewiring with mood disorders and their treatment. Therefore, neurotrophins should not be seen as happiness factors, but as critical tools in the process where brain networks are optimally tuned to environment and it is against this background that the effects of neurotrophins on neuropsychiatric disorders should be looked at.
  • Savolainen, Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Neuronal nicotinic receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain and they facilitate fast synaptic neurotransmission. They are also involved in regulation of the release of other neurotransmitters like GABA, dopamine and glutamate. The most common subtypes are alfa4beta2 and alfa7 subunits containing receptors. Neuronal nicotinic receptors are involved in nicotine addiction but also in many neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The cholinergic stimulation enhances cognition in vivo and in human. There is not many drugs on the market that act via nicotinic receptors but many drug companies have new nicotinic agonists and antagonist under clinical research. When using nicotinic receptor agonists the problem is desensitization, which occurs in alfa7 nicotinic receptor rapidly after agonist exposure. When desensitized the receptor no longer responds to agonist even if it is there available to bind to receptor. The desensitization may lead to tachyphylaxis and losing of the clinical effect. Conventional agonists, like acetylcholine, bind to the binding site located in the extracellular part on nicotinic receptor subunit. There is also some other binding sites, which are called allosteric binding sites. It has been found out, that allosterically binding ligands, for example PNU-120596, can cause potentiation of agonist induced responses and/or prevent desensitization of receptor. These kinds of agents are called positive allosteric modulators and they are considered to be a new therapeutic option for CNS diseases containing cholinergic deficits. The mechanism of action of positive allosteric modulators is so far unclear. The purpose of my study was to characterize positive allosteric modulators on alfa7 nicotinic receptor. It had been found out earlier in the Millar laboratory that mutation L247T in the transmembrane domain converts positive allosteric modulators to agonists. The aim was to use site-directed mutagenesis to generate mutation in the agonist-binding site of alfa7 and alfa7L247T receptors and see how it effects on the ability of PNU-120596 to act as an agonist on the receptor. Second aim was to generate a mutation in the transmembrane part of the receptor to an assumed binding site of allosteric potentiators' and test how it effects on allosteric potentiator's ability to act as an agonist on the alfa7L247T. Mutated receptors were expressed on oocytes by microinjeting the mRNA into oocyte. The function of receptors was studied with electrophysiology using two-electrode voltageclamp technique. All the mutations were successfully inserted in nicotinic receptor alfa7 and alfa7L247T. Mutation in orthosteric agonist binding site had a very profound effect on wild type alfa7 receptor; it had an effect on either acetylcholine binding or receptor gating. It was not possible to record any proper responses neither with acetylcholine nor with PNU-120596. In the double-mutated receptor alfa7W149M/L247T the W149M mutation had a much greater effect on dose-response curves than it had on PNU-120596 curves compared with alfa7L247T. The transmembrane domain mutation M253L did not have much effect on PNU-120596's ability to act as an agonist to alfa7L247T and either it did not effect on acetylcholine dose-response curves. The results from this study support the previous results that the binding site of positive allosteric modulators is located in the transmembrane domain of the alfa7 receptor. The results are little controversial with the M253L mutation but because the L247T mutation has so profound effect on the function on alfa7 receptor it might be that it masks the other mutation which is located quite close to it. On the other hand it might be so that the amino acid M253 has only effect on the receptor's ability to be potentiated not the allosteric binding.
  • Latvala, Reetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objective. Based on previous studies, foster care adolescents placed due to behavioral problems have an elevated risk to psychosis. In this large register based longitudinal study we aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychosis among Finnish reform school adolescents compared to matched peers in general population. We also intended to assess the possible differences in psychosis liability among five cohorts of reform school adolescents and examined the possible correlation between instability of out-of-home placements or the age at the time of first out-of-home placement with later psychosis. It was hypothesized that reform school adolescents had greater risk for psychosis, the number of adolescents with psychosis in reform schools was increasing and that instability of placements and early age at the time of fist out-of-home placement would be associated with an elevated risk for psychosis. Methods. The subjects (N=1159, M/F=749/410) were chosen from the Finnish welfare registry by status "placement in reform school" the last day of the years 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006 or (/and?) 2011. A control group (N=5676) matched on age, gender and place of birth was obtained from the Population Register Centre, Finland. The information about child's involvement in child welfare services and out-of-home placements was collected from the Finnish welfare register, and the data from schizophrenia spectrum disorders was collected from the Finnish hospital discharge register. Results. Prevalence of psychosis among reform adolescents was 7.1%, which was significantly higher than among general population controls (0.8%) (χ² = 205.550, df =1, P<.000). After controlling for gender and cohort, reform school adolescents had a 9.44 fold risk for psychosis compared to controls (OR=9.440, p<.000). There was no difference in psychosis liability between the five study cohorts after controlling for the difference in cohorts' follow-up times. The instability of out-of-home placements and the age at the time of first out-of-home placement were not associated with an elevated risk to psychosis. Conclusions. Results of this study show clearly that psychosis is a common problem among reform school adolescents, and indicates that reform school adolescents are a population, where the identification of early psychosis should be readily and reliable accessible. Only by recognizing early psychotic symptoms it is possible to offer intervention procedures, which in turn might prevent psychosis from becoming a chronic illness, decrease other mental health and substance abuse problems and thus enhance the overall functioning and quality of life of reform school adolescents.
  • Mazumder, Atiqul Haq; Barnett, Jennifer; Lindberg, Nina; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Lähteenvuo, Markku; Lahdensuo, Kaisla; Kerkelä, Martta; Hietala, Jarmo; Isometsä, Erkki Tapio; Kampman, Olli; Kieseppä, Tuula; Jukuri, Tuomas; Häkkinen, Katja; Cederlöf, Erik; Haaki, Willehard; Kajanne, Risto; Wegelius, Asko; Männynsalo, Teemu; Niemi-Pynttäri, Jussi; Suokas, Kimmo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Niemelä, Solja; Tiihonen, Jari; Paunio, Tiina; Palotie, Aarno; Suvisaari, Jaana; Veijola, Juha (2021)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between cognition and hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Cognition is more or less compromised in schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder and alcohol use might aggravate this phenomenon. The study population included 3362 individuals from Finland with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Hazardous drinking was screened with the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption) screening tool. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses were obtained from national registrar data. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) on a tablet computer: The Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) or the reaction time (RT) test and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. The association between alcohol use and the RT and PAL tests was analyzed with log-linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. After adjustment for age, education, housing status, and the age at which the respondents had their first psychotic episodes, hazardous drinking was associated with a lower median RT in females and less variable RT in males, while AUD was associated with a poorer PAL test performance in terms of the total errors adjusted scores (TEASs) in females. Our findings of positive associations between alcohol and cognition in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are unique.
  • Rissanen, Päivi (2005)
    The main idea of my study is to present in the form of research one chance to speak of schizophrenia - it's mental care and rehabilitation of it. In my study I examine schizophrenia as a process of rehabilitation in many points of view. Firs of all I have included to my research my own experience of this illness and my rehabilitation of it. Secondly I have interviewed those employees how have participated to my rehabilitation process from which arises the second point of view to the work. The third point of view has been formed from the customer relationship, co-operation and community and the meaning of working habits. The fourt point of view enlightens the meaning of self-help and community effect on that is how the other people who are going through a rehabilitation process have helped me. I think that examine schizophrenia from many points of views is important becauce schizophrenia is complicated mental disorder. My aim was to find reasons which in my life had an effect on and led me to this process of rehabilitation. I'm going through how persons in mental care and rehabilitation have helped me and what kind of succesful mental care rehabilitation relationships have been in my life. My study begins as a story tellin form of my own experiences. I have analysed these stories in theory for example conversations of social work, mental care and rehabilitation by exploiting my own experience. The recearch materials I have collected in three ways: first of all by reading the research works writen before and the discussions of therapy. Secondly I have gone through my own experiences of rehabilitation and mental care as a source in form of diaries. And as a third method I interviewed the employees who took part in my rehabilitation and therapy, out of which I gathered the empiric materials of my research work based on the theme interviews. The meaning of customer relationship and interaction came up from my own experiences, the interviews of the employees and from discussions in theory. I myself consider mental care and rehabilitation work as fycical, psychic and social phenomen. Also the employees thought their mental work as a total effect, and they felt thinking the future of the customers, their aims at back to normal life and avoidin marginalization. One of my most important source of my study is a book of Martin Buber named "I and You". Otherwise I have concertrated to compare my own experiences of social work, mental care and the rehabilitation and the discussion of them.
  • Gyllenberg, David; McKeague, Ian W.; Sourander, Andre; Brown, Alan S. (2020)
    Objectives Few interactions between risk factors for schizophrenia have been replicated, but fitting all such interactions is difficult due to high-dimensionality. Our aims are to examine significant main and interaction effects for schizophrenia and the performance of our approach using simulated data. Methods We apply the machine learning technique elastic net to a high-dimensional logistic regression model to produce a sparse set of predictors, and then assess the significance of odds ratios (OR) with Bonferroni-corrected p-values and confidence intervals (CI). We introduce a simulation model that resembles a Finnish nested case-control study of schizophrenia which uses national registers to identify cases (n = 1,468) and controls (n = 2,975). The predictors include nine sociodemographic factors and all interactions (31 predictors). Results In the simulation, interactions with OR = 3 and prevalence = 4% were identified with = 80% power. None of the studied interactions were significantly associated with schizophrenia, but main effects of parental psychosis (OR = 5.2, CI 2.9-9.7; p <.001), urbanicity (1.3, 1.1-1.7; p = .001), and paternal age >= 35 (1.3, 1.004-1.6; p = .04) were significant. Conclusions We have provided an analytic pipeline for data-driven identification of main and interaction effects in case-control data. We identified highly replicated main effects for schizophrenia, but no interactions.
  • Oldereid, Nan B.; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Laivuori, Hannele; Petzold, Max; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Soderstrom-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to January 2017 were searched. Paternal factors examined included paternal age and life-style factors such as body mass index (BMI), adiposity and cigarette smoking. The outcome variables assessed were short-term outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth, birth defects and chromosomal anomalies. Long-term outcome variables included mortality, cancers, psychiatric diseases/disorders and metabolic diseases. The systematic review follows PRISMA guidelines. Relevant meta-analyses were performed. OUTCOMES: The search included 14 371 articles out of which 238 met the inclusion criteria, and 81 were included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analyses). Paternal age and paternal life-style factors have an association with adverse outcome in offspring. This is particularly evident for psychiatric disorders such as autism, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but an association is also found with stillbirth, any birth defects, orofacial clefts and trisomy 21. Paternal height, but not BMI, is associated with birth weight in offspring while paternal BMI is associated with BMI, weight and/or body fat in childhood. Paternal smoking is found to be associated with an increase in SGA, birth defects such as congenital heart defects, and orofacial clefts, cancers, brain tumours and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. These associations are significant although moderate in size, with most pooled estimates between 1.05 and 1.5, and none exceeding 2.0. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Although the increased risks of adverse outcome in offspring associated with paternal factors and identified in this report represent serious health effects, the magnitude of these effects seems modest.
  • Bradshaw, Nicholas J.; Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Pankakoski, Maiju; Zheutlin, Amanda B.; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Sinha, Vishal; Therman, Sebastian; Paunio, Tiina; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Haukka, Jari; Hennah, William (2017)
    Genetic studies of familial schizophrenia in Finland have observed significant associations with a group of biologically related genes, DISCI1, NDE1,NDEL1, PDE4B and PDE4D, the 'DISCI network'. Here, we use gene expression and psychoactive medication use data to study their biological consequences and potential treatment implications. Gene expression levels were determined in 64 individuals from 18 families, while prescription medication information has been collected over a 10 -year period for 931 affected individuals. We demonstrate that the NDE1 SNP rs2242549 associates with significant changes in gene expression for 2908 probes (2542 genes), of which 794 probes (719 genes) were replicable. A significant number of the genes altered were predicted targets of microRNA-484 (p = 3.0 x 10(-8)), located on a non -coding exon of NDE1. Variants within the NM. locus also displayed significant genotype by gender interaction to early cessation of psychoactive medications metabolized by CYP2C19. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-484 can affect the expression of CYP2C19 in a cell culture system. Thus, variation at the IVDET locus may alter risk of mental illness, in part through modification of miR-484, and such modification alters treatment response to specific psychoactive medications, leading to the potential for use of this locus in targeting treatment.
  • Rantanen, Linda Helene (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    A high birth weight (HBW) has quite recently been associated with an increased schizophrenia risk, but the link between a low birth weight (LBW) and schizophrenia is well-known. The purpose of this study was to analyze obstetric adversities – with the focus on the role of HBW - among 109 subjects chosen from the Finnish schizophrenia family study sample. The subjects had a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder or a genetically high risk of developing such a disorder. HBW (≥4000 g, n=37), compared to normal birth weight, NBW (2600-3999, n=64), associated with post-term pregnancy (p=0.041) and higher maternal parity (p=0.017). Post-term pregnancy associated with labour complications (p=0.04) and a prolonged first stage of labour (p=0.003). A higher parity was associated with Caesarean section (p=0.009), prematurity (p=0.048) and fetal malpresentation (p=0.021). LBW (<2600 g, n=8), compared to NBW, associated with perinatal complications (p=0.017), twin pregnancy (p=0.002), prematurity (p=0.009) grand multiparity (p=0.019) and higher parity (p=0.002).