Browsing by Subject "schooling"

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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Pyhälä, Aili; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Gueze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza (2016)
    Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i) schooling and ii) local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane') from whom we collected information on 1) schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy), 2) local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3) working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.
  • Salmenranta, Iida (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Child labor is still a topical question regardless of many years' battle against it. In this thesis I will consider the connection between schooling decisions and child labor prevalence. The underlying question of this thesis is why the prevalence of children's absence from primary education varies across regions of similar poverty. The model in this thesis considers the community attitudes and norms as a factor behind the time allocation decision. The three ways for a child to spend his or her time are school, work and idleness, or in most cases, some combination of these. As we will find out, schooling and working do go hand in hand, but it is also shown that measures to increase schooling do not necessarily decrease working. Many school attending children still continue to work. In this thesis I will introduce briefly an interesting view on why child labor still occurs and that it’s not necessarily always harmful for the child and the family. Policies of education supply and demand are presented as ways to increase schooling propensity. On the supply side the instruments are for example school accessibility, eg. building a school in the community. On the demand side there are different kinds of transfers, which are discussed in theory and there is also an empirical example.