Browsing by Subject "science"

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  • Watt, Allan; Ainsworth, Gill; Balian, Estelle; Cojocaru, George; Darbi, Marianne; Dicks, Lynn; Eggermont, Hilde; Furman, Eeva; Goudeseune, Lise; Huybrecht, Pierre; Kelemen, Eszter; Koch, Florian; Konstantinou, Zoi; Livoreil, Barbara; Locher, Karla; Lux, Alexandra; Mehring, Marion; Nesshoever, Carsten; Paloniemi, Riikka; Saarikoski, Heli; Pinto, Isabel Sousa; Vandewalle, Marie; Varjopuro, Riku; Varumo, Liisa; Wittmer, Heidi; Young, Juliette (Policy Press, 2019)
    Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice 15 (2), 2019, pp. 253-264 (12)
    The aim of EKLIPSE is to develop a mechanism to inform European-scale policy on biodiversity and related environmental challenges. This paper considers two fundamental aspects of the decision-support mechanism being developed by EKLIPSE: 1) the engagement of relevant actors from science, policy and society to jointly identify evidence for decision making; and 2) the networking of scientists and other holders of knowledge on biodiversity and other relevant evidence. The mechanism being developed has the potential not only to build communities of knowledge holders but to build informal networks among those with similar interests in evidence, be they those that seek to use evidence or those who are building evidence, or both. EKLIPSE has been successful in linking these people and in contributing to building informal networks of requesters of evidence, and experts of evidence and its synthesis. We have yet to see, however, significant engagement of formal networks of knowledge holders. Future success, however, relies on the continued involvement with and engagement of networks, a high degree of transparency within the processes and a high flexibility of structures to adapt to different requirements that arise with the broad range of requests to and activities of EKLIPSE.
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Marin, Pinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective. The way science and religion relate is a topic of lasting debate and discussion but little research. Thus, people's perceptions of the science-religion relationship remain poorly understood. Yet, the way people relate science and religion to each other seem to be connected to their opinions, attitudes, and choices. The aim of this study was to examine how epistemic cognition, ontological confusions of core knowledge, and the perceived social importance of science and religion predict agreement with four science-religion perspectives: conflict, independence, dialogue, and integration. Method. Participants (N=2256) were adult Finns who had, in an online survey, given their view on whether science and religion are in conflict. The sample was largely nonreligious with 67.2% not belonging to any religious denomination. Three logistic regressions were used to predict the likelihood to hold the conflict, dialogue and integration views, and an ordinal logistic regression was used to examine agreement with the independence view. Age, gender and education were controlled in all analyses. Results. Intuitive thinking style, core ontological confusions, and the perceived social importance of religion decreased the likelihood to hold the conflict view whereas a simple view of knowledge and importance of science increased it. Regarding the three non-conflict views, core ontological confusions increased the likelihood to hold the dialogue and integration views, but decreased the likelihood to hold the independence view. In addition, intuitive thinking style increased the odds to agree with the dialogue and integration views. Moreover, importance of religion increased the likelihood to hold the dialogue and integration views while importance of science increased the likelihood to agree with the independence view. Discussion. Differences in epistemic cognition, core ontological confusions, and the perceived social importance of science and religion affected agreement with the four science-religion perspectives. Therefore, it is likely that the ways people perceive the relation between science and religion could be better understood through further examination of thinking styles, views of knowledge and knowing, category errors, and attitudes.
  • Marin, Pinja; Lindeman, Marjaana (2021)
    Although the relationship between religion and science has long been the subject of discussion, investigations into the how and why of people's science-religion perspectives are rare. This study examined how epistemic and ontological cognition predict agreement with four science-religion perspectives: conflict, independence, dialogue, and integration. Participants (N = 3911) were Finnish, Danish, and Dutch adults who had answered an online study. Most people held views that were not well captured by the commonly used four categories. When more specific perspectives were examined, differences were found especially in supernatural beliefs, over-mentalizing, and justifications for religious arguments and scientific knowledge. Thinking styles and epistemic sophistication played only a minor role. The results suggest that non-scientists evaluate the relationship between religion and science more based on their ontological beliefs than their epistemic reflection.
  • Sinnemäki, Aino (2003)
    The subject of the thesis is the way of thought, writing, talk and action constructed in time and place in Finnish academic sociology. The institutional, textual and political problems of outlining and defining sociology run through the whole thesis. A more exact outline comes from the actual subject of research, Professor Erik Allardt's ongoing life work. Allardt's work has had a broader impact than just on Finnish academic sociology and through this both the university institution and research politics enter into my research. Many of the theoretical concepts of the thesis are based on the works of Pierre Bourdieu, Steven Shapin, and Helga Nowotny. The research material is first and foremost texts that have produced and interpreted Finnish sociology, secondly archive material, the most important of these are the protocols of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Helsinki, but also expert statements found in the archives of other universities and the protocols of the Central Board of Research Councils from 1986-1990, third oral and written reminiscences. The method of research is linking the central fragments of texts through concepts with the already ample history writing of Finnish sociology. This method is more a method of presenting than of explaining things. The titles of the three main parts of the thesis are 'Habitus and Capital'. 'Fields' and 'Practices'. In chapter two of part one Allardt's background and resources, on which his career was built, are presented. In chapter three of part two a general picture of post-war Finnish sociology is presented. In chapter four Allardt's activity as an academic actor is analyzed according to different forms of university capital. In chapter 5 the non-academic aspects of Allardt's political activity and his links to fields of economy are analyzed. Chapter 6 of part three presents Allardt's work through various archive materials and reminiscences. Chapter 7 deals with the heart of academic matter, writing. In chapter 8 the historical self-understanding of Finnish sociology is analyzed. In Erik Allardt's career there is an unusual and balanced program-view of the function of sociology in society and an attempt to realize this view on all levels, both in research and in participation in society. It is a question of acting in an area, where research produces information, that is experienced as convincing and needed, that creates and forms a view of society, that 'needs' more of that information and that supports the production of such information. Allardt's lifework is part of a time, where in this area at least from time to time a certain 'balance' was achieved. He has had a central part in at least the following developments in Finnish society. The professionalization of science has brought scientists closer to other highly educated professional groups. Mass university education has produced scientifically trained professionals in many fields. This might have led to the questioning of the former special position of authority of science. The same phenomenon has also created a 'mass audience' for science, that is capable of following scientific reasoning and discussions.
  • Koponen, Ismo (2021)
    Understanding about nature of science is important topic in science education as well as in pre-service science teacher education. In science education, Nature of Science (NOS), in its different forms of educational scaffoldings, seeks to provide with students an understanding of features of scientific knowledge and science in general, how scientific knowledge changes and becomes accepted, and what factors guide scientific activities. For a science teacher, deep and broad enough picture of sciences is therefore of importance. This study attempts to show that the research field called Science of Science (SoS) can significantly support building such a panoramic picture of sciences, and through that, significantly support NOS. The SoS approaches the structure and dynamics of science quantitatively, using scientific documents (e.g., publications, reports, books and monographs and patent applications) as trails to map the landscape of sciences. It is argued here that SoS may provide material and interesting cases for NOS, and in so doing enrich NOS in a similarly significant way as history, philosophy and sociology of science (HPSS) scholarship has done thus far. This study introduces several themes based on SoS that are of relevance for NOS as they were introduced and discussed in a pre-service science teachers' course. The feedback from pre-service teachers shows that introducing SoS, with minimal additional philosophical interpretations and discussions, but simply as evidential facts and findings, sparks ideas and views that come very close to NOS themes and topics. Discussions related to nature of science, and specific educational NOS scaffoldings for it, can find a good companion in SoS; the latter providing facts and evidence of thee structure and dynamics of sciences, the former providing perspectives for interpretations.
  • Kelemen, Eszter; Pataki, György; Konstantinou, Zoi; Varumo, Liisa; Paloniemi, Riikka; Pereira, Tânia R.; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Vandewalle, Marie; Young, Juliette (Elsevier Science, 2021)
    Environmental Science and Policy 123, 91-98
    An approach that has been suggested as potentially addressing the challenges of science-policy-interfaces (SPIs) is the mobilization of existing networks through a ‘network-of-networks’ (NoN) approach. This paper shares empirical findings from a mixed-method study, combining qualitative and quantitative data, that critically evaluates the ‘network-of-networks’ approach for SPIs. To establish whether and how a NoN can help existing networks act more effectively at the boundary of science and policy, we use the Eklipse Mechanism as a key example. We analyse the major characteristics of networks active in biodiversity-focused science-policy interactions, the potential roles and types of engagement of participants, and the major challenges faced by networks and individuals when acting at the boundaries of science and policy. Results suggest that the more diverse the actors involved, the more effective the SPI. While a formalized EU-level SPI for biodiversity is welcomed by most respondents, willingness and actual potential to contribute to such an entity differed amongst networks, highlighting that contributions to SPIs are highly dependent on individual and organizational capacities. The challenges faced by individuals and networks range from limited resources to effective communication and achieving meaningful impact even if the institutional context is unrewarding. To make a ‘network-of-networks’ model fully operational requires meeting the capacity building needs of networks, providing institutional support, and creating room for wider engagement.
  • Allo, Mai (2004)
    We develop a model to analyse the interaction between science, technology and social welfare. In the model, there are three types of actor: a monopolistic firm, scientists choosing to work either in the firm or in the university, and quality-demanding consumers. Peer control institution of the university affects quality of science used by the firm as an input. Peer control affects the firm's costs as well. First we show that the effort level in the university is too low. Further, we show that the firm might be willing to employ more scientists if peer control in the university became stricter. We determine the conditions for both the direct and indirect welfare effects of peer control.
  • Rask, Mikko; Mačiukaitė-Žvinienė, Saulė; Tauginienė, Loreta; Dikčius, Vytautas; Matschoss, Kaisa; Aarrevaara, Timo; d’Andrea, Luciano (Routledge, 2018)
    The field of public participation is developing fast, with phenomena such as citizen science and crowdsourcing extending the resource base of research, stimulating innovation and making science more accessible to the general population. Promoting public participation means giving more weight to citizens and civil society actors in the definition of research needs and in the implementation of research and innovation. As yet, there is limited understanding of the implications of widespread use of public participation and as a result, there is a risk that it will become a burden for research and an obstacle to bridging the gap between research and society. This volume presents the findings of a three-year international study on innovative public participation. The resulting work studies the characteristics and trends of innovative public participation through a global sample of 38 case studies. It provides theoretical generalisations on the dynamics of public participation, suggestions for an evaluation framework and clear empirical examples of how public participation works in practice. Illustrated by best practice cases, the authors identify characteristics which contribute to successful public participation. The book is aimed primarily at scholars and practitioners of public participation, as well as research managers, policy makers and business actors interested in related issues. There is also a secondary market for students and scholars of European governance studies, sociology and political sciences.
  • Inkinen, Janna; Klager, Christopher; Schneider, Barbara; Juuti, Kalle; Krajcik, Joseph; Lavonen, Jari; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2019)
    This study examines the association between student situational engagement and classroom activities in secondary school science classrooms in Finland and the U.S. Situational engagement is conceptualised as times when students feel that a task is interesting and challenging to them and that they have the skills to complete it (see Schneider et al., 2016. Investigating optimal learning moments in U.S. and Finnish science classes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(3), 400-421. doi:10.1002/tea.21306). Data on situational engagement and classroom activities were obtained using the experience sampling method (ESM) from 247 Finnish students in 13 secondary science classrooms and 281 U.S. students in 18 secondary science classrooms. In both samples, the students tended to be situationally engaged only a small proportion of the time during their science classes. However, the Finnish students were more likely than the U.S. students to report being situationally engaged. To investigate when the students were most likely to report being situationally engaged, hierarchical logistic regression models were employed, which suggested that some classroom activities were associated with higher levels of student situational engagement than others. The Finnish students were more likely to report being situationally engaged when calculating and presenting scientific information. In the U.S., the students were more likely to report being situationally engaged while discussing scientific information and less likely when listening to the teacher. The results suggest that situational engagement is momentary and associated with specific science classroom activities.
  • Dick, Jan; Turkelboom, Francis; Woods, Helen; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Primmer, Eeva; Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Bezak, Peter; Mederly, Peter; Leone, Michael; Verheyden, Wim; Kelemen, Eszter; Hauck, Jennifer; Andrews, Chris; Antunes, Paula; Aszalos, Reka; Baro, Francesc; Barton, David Nicholas; Berry, Pam; Bugter, Rob; Carvalho, Laurence; Czucz, Balint; Dunford, Rob; Garcia Blanco, Gemma; Geamana, Nicoleta; Giuca, Relu; Grizetti, Bruna; Izakovicova, Zita; Kertesz, Miklos; Kopperoinen, Leena; Langemeyer, Johannes; Montenegro Lapola, David; Liquete, Camino; Luque, Sandra; Martinez Pastur, Guillermo; Martín-López , Berta; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima; Niemelä, Jari Kalevi; Odee, David; Luis Peri, Pablo; Pinho, Patricia; Buerger Patricio-Roberto, Gleiciani; Preda, Elena; Priess, Joerg; Röckmann, Christine; Santos, Rui; Silaghi, Diana; Smith, Ron; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Tjalling van der Wal, Jan; Arany, Ildiko; Badea, Ovidiu; Bela, Györgyi; Boros, Emil; Bucur, Magdalena; Blumentrath, Stefan; Calvache, Marta; Carmen, Esther; Clemente, Pedro; Fernandes, Joao; Ferraz, Diego; Fongar, Claudia; Garcia-Llorante, Marina; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Gundersen, Vegard; Haavardsholm, Oscar; Kaloczkai, Agnes; Khalalwe, Thalma; Kiss, Gabriela; Köhler, Berit; Lazanyi, Orsolya; Lellei-Kovacs, Eszter; Lichungu, Rael; Lindhjem, Henrik; Magare, Charles; Mustajoki, Jyri; Ndege, Charles; Nowell, Megan; Nuss Girona, Sergi; Ochieng, John; Anders, Often; Palomo, Ignacio; Pataki, György; Reinvang, Rasmus; Rusch, Graciela M.; Saarikoski, Heli; Smith, Alison; Soy Massoni, Emma; Stange, Erik; Vågnes Traaholt, Nora; Vari, Agnes; Verweij, Peter; Vikström, Suvi; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes; Zulian, Grazia (2018)
    The ecosystem service (ES) concept is becoming mainstream in policy and planning, but operational influence on practice is seldom reported. Here, we report the practitioners' perspectives on the practical implementation of the ES concept in 27 case studies. A standardised anonymous survey (n = 246), was used, focusing on the science-practice interaction process, perceived impact and expected use of the case study assessments. Operationalisation of the concept was shown to achieve a gradual change in practices: 13% of the case studies reported a change in action (e.g. management or policy change), and a further 40% anticipated that a change would result from the work. To a large extent the impact was attributed to a well conducted science-practice interaction process (>70%). The main reported advantages of the concept included: increased concept awareness and communication; enhanced participation and collaboration; production of comprehensive science-based knowledge; and production of spatially referenced knowledge for input to planning (91% indicated they had acquired new knowledge). The limitations were mostly case-specific and centred on methodology, data, and challenges with result implementation. The survey highlighted the crucial role of communication, participation and collaboration across different stakeholders, to implement the ES concept and enhance the democratisation of nature and landscape planning. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Sainz, Milagros; Upadyaya, Katja; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    The present two studies with a 3-year longitudinal design examined the co-development of science, math, and language (e.g., Spanish/Finnish) interest among 1,317 Spanish and 804 Finnish secondary school students across their transition to post-compulsory secondary education, taking into account the role of gender, performance, and socioeconomic status (SES). The research questions were analyzed with parallel process latent growth curve (LGC) modeling. The results showed that Spanish students' interest in each domain slightly decreased over time, whereas Finnish students experienced an overall high and relatively stable level of interest in all domains. Further, boys showed greater interest in math and science in both countries, whereas girls reported having a greater interest in languages. Moreover, Spanish and Finnish students with high academic achievement typically experienced high interest in different domains, however, some declines in their interest occurred later on.
  • Kalliokoski, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    During the Covid-19 pandemic in Finland, there was a debate about the usefulness of face masks in suppressing the epidemic. Lack of scientific knowledge was emphasised in the debate, and the participants sought to define the role of science in decision-making. In this thesis, the ways in which ignorance and uncertainty were discussed and used to define the boundaries of science in the Finnish face mask debate are studied. In the theoretical part of the thesis, the meanings of ignorance and uncertainty are clarified and the boundary-work of science as well as uncertainty as a boundary-ordering device are discussed. The politicisation of non-knowledge and the characteristics of policy-relevant science are also examined. In the empirical part, the knowledge/non-knowledge claims of the Finnish experts and decision-makers who participated in the face mask debate are analysed. The data consists of 99 quotations collected from news articles published from March 1 to October 31, 2020. Qualitative frame analysis is employed to examine the forms of knowledge and ignorance along with the boundary-ordering devices used in the debate. The results show that experts working at the science-policy boundary highlighted uncertainty and ignorance most often. They also used uncertainty as a boundary-ordering device the most, although overall, this came up very rarely in the debate. The main discrepancy was between the assessments of different expert bodies, as research scientists did not usually mention the underlying uncertainties of scientific findings. Different actors had different approaches towards knowledge and ignorance, reflecting differences in epistemic cultures. Regulatory science and academic science have different criteria for assessing the credibility of knowledge. Moreover, not all ignorance and uncertainty in decision-making can be reduced with scientific methods. Therefore, more resilient decision-making processes should be developed, in which ignorance and limitations of scientific knowledge are identified and embedded in the decisions.