Browsing by Subject "secularism"

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  • Kallinen, Timo (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2016)
    Studia Fennica Anthropologica
  • Taira, Teemu (2019)
    This article examines religion in Finnish newspapers, arguing that religion-related discourses have changed from one of Lutheran dominance to one of diversity. The main data consists of a longitudinal sample (1946-2016) of the most popular Finnish newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, and especially of its editorials and readers' letters. Additional data covers a wider variety of newspapers from the 1990s to 2018. The data is analysed using quantitative content analysis and a discursive approach. It will be suggested that it is possible to discuss diversity both as an emergent discourse and a theme in the Finnish media since the mid-1990s, thereby overcoming earlier frameworks that took Lutheranism for granted or gave it a special role in the private sphere. The analysis shows that these shifts do not provide clear support for the idea that newspapers and journalism are anti-religious; rather, it suggests that they may be understood as having a 'liberalizing' effect, especially when religious values are not seen as compatible with those of journalists and newspapers.
  • Hänninen, Erja (2002)
    The topic of my Master's thesis is the contest of Indian secularism after the independence of India. As challengers of the Indian secularism I examine Hindu nationalism, Sikh nationalism and Kashmiri nationalism, which either try to secede from the Indian union, like Sikh and Kashmiri nationalism, or to change it into a Hindu state. These nationalisms are also often referred to as communalism. The purpose of secularism was to guarantee the different religious groups inside the Indian union a possibility to function equally. This did not work out, which led first to the contest of secularism, and then to the crisis of the Indian secularism, the nation-state and the Congress Party of India, with secularism as its main principal. My aim is to study how and why the nationalisms have been able to contest the secularism. I examine the political development of the nationalisms and their conjuncture with the Indian politics led by the Congress Party. Further, I examine why the separatist nationalisms turned against the nation-building project of India and started to demand the recognition as own nations. I have divided this thesis into three main chapters. In the first part, I study the concept of secularism and how it evolved into a special Indian version. In the second part, I first present different conceptions of nationalism and communalism, and how I use them. Then, I study how the nationalisms have developed to a situation, in which they have been able to contest the Indian secularism. In the last chapter, I apply two theories to the Indian context, and I come to the result that the Indian secularism is in a state of crisis. In my research, I come to the conclusion that the contest of Indian secularism did not happen solely because of the rise of the communalist powers, but it also took place because of the Congress Party surrendering its secular role by succumbing to opportunistic politics, and its failure to answer to the demands of the nationalisms. The main sources of my thesis are researches in Indian history. I have concentrated on comparing the findings of these researches and to set the information they provide into a new, more comprehensive and historical perspective. By comparing the different nationalisms, I provide a new perspective to the research of the topic. Other sources, that I have used, are the Lok Sabha Debates, the Internet pages of the communalist parties and material from the Archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Finland.