Browsing by Subject "security"

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  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa (2014)
    This article discusses the dynamics of transitions and security within the framework of the development of administrative accountability in Russia. It considers both the legal and administrative culture in Russia on the basis of the formation of administrative accountability and challenges found in this process. During the three periods of Russian transitions under study in this article, administrative accountability has developed as a result of attempts to institutionalize new ideals in an old administrative culture. The article shows that, during these transitions, uncertainties and unintended effects of administrative changes have intensified traditional security concerns that have exceeded other considerations in the implementation of reforms. As a result, the institutionalization of new professional practices and ways of thinking has been diffuse and administrative accountability remains legalistic.
  • University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science; Münch, Jürgen; ; ; (2013)
    The seminar on cloud-based software engineering in 2013 covered many interesting topics related to cloud computing and software engineering. These proceedings focus on decision support for moving to the cloud, on opportunities that cloud computing provides to software engineering, and on security aspects that are associated to cloud computing. Moving to the Cloud – Options, Criteria, and Decision Making: Cloud computing can enable or facilitate software engineering activities through the use of computational, storage and other resources over the network. Organizations and individuals interested in cloud computing must balance the potential benefits and risks which are associated with cloud computing. It might not always be worthwhile to transfer existing services and content to external or internal, public or private clouds for a number of reasons. Standardized information and metrics from the cloud service providers may help to make the decision which provider to choose. Care should be taken when making the decision as switching from one service provider to another can be burdensome due to the incompatibilities between the providers. Hardware in data centers is not infallible: the equipment that powers cloud computing services is as prone to failure as any computing equipment put to high stress which can have an effect on the availability of services. Software Engineering – New Opportunities with the Cloud: Public and private clouds can be platforms for the services produced by parties but the cloud computing resources and services can be helpful during software development as well. Tasks like testing or compiling - which might take a long time to complete on a single, local, workstation - can be shifted to run on network resources for improved efficiency. Collaborative tools that take advantage of some of the features of cloud computing can also potentially boost communication in software development projects spread across the globe. Security in the Cloud – Overview and Recommendations: In an environment where the resources can be shared with other parties and controlled by a third party, security is one matter that needs to be addressed. Without encryption, the data stored in third-party-owned network storage is vulnerable and thus secure mechanisms are needed to keep the data safe. The student seminar was held during the 2013 spring semester, from January 16th to May 24th, at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Helsinki. There were a total of 16 papers in the seminar of which 11 were selected for the proceedings based on the suitability to the three themes. In some cases, papers were excluded in order to be published elsewhere. A full list of all the seminar papers can be found from the appendix. We wish you to have an interesting and enjoyable reading experience with the proceedings.
  • Aalto, Pami (2001)
    This study explores the construction of political space in post-Soviet Estonia. To this end, the study develops a new 'critical geopolitics' approach to the study of International Relations by importing perspectives from Political Geography and social theory, and by making use of Q methodological discourse analysis. On the whole, the new approach departs clearly from traditional geopolitical scholarship in focusing on the political, discursive and subjective aspects of geopolitics. In particular, this approach helps us to obtain detailed knowledge of how discourse construction, identity politics and subjectively experienced everyday life result in the creation of new symbolic and material (territorial) boundaries between groups, states and groups of states. In the early 1990s, the ethnic Estonians initiated the practice of 'restorationist geopolitics'. By clinging to the principle of restoration of Estonia's statehood, they drove themselves into a border dispute with Russia. They also found themselves at odds with Russia in practising exclusionist citizenship policies towards Estonia's Russophone minority and by trying to disengage Estonia firmly from Russia after some 50 years of Soviet rule over Estonia. However, by making use of Q methodological discourse analysis and in-depth interviews, the study locates three discourses that introduce interesting alternatives to 'restorationist geopolitics'. The significance of these three discourses is that they indicate a relative opening up of political space in Estonia. Importantly, there is now more room for competing forms of identity politics as well. This also means the transformation of the rigid boundaries of the early 1990s between the ethnic Estonians and Estonia's Russophones into more permeable ones, with the Estonian government also opting for more inclusive policies. Estonian-Russian interstate relations continue to display a somewhat more mixed pattern, but the application of the new 'critical geopolitics' approach provides good grounds for finding further routes of peaceful development in the Baltic Region and post-Soviet space at large.
  • Heikka, Henrikki (1999)
    The origin of security dilemmas has long been a central question in international relations. Three archetypal models of the security dilemma can be found in international relations literature. According to the spiral model, security dilemmas are driven by the inability of security-seeking states to coordinate their policies in an anarchic political space, while the deterrence model implies that security dilemmas are caused by the offensive intentions of at least one of the actors in an anarchic system. Advocates of the model of peaceful change, in turn, maintain that security dilemmas are nothing more than a social construction: anarchy is what states make of it. In this thesis I deconstruct and reconstruct some key aspects of security dilemma theories in a hitherto unexplored (meta)theoretical context, that of Jacques Lacan's psychoanalytical theory. The aim of the thesis is to show how a Lacanian interpretation of one phenomenon - 'predationism' - can help us locate the logic of all three models described above (international relations as tragedy, evil, and a social construction) within one theoretical framework. The thesis is structured around two parts. The first part deals with explaining the origins of anti-Western sentiments in the discourse of Russian 'enlightened patriotism'. I begin the study by reviewing contemporary neorealist and constructivist analyses of Russian foreign policy. Through a close reading of Waltzian neorealism and Wendtian constructivism I then show how the causal logics of both theories, despite their many differences, presume the existence of a phenomenon usually referred to as predationism (an aggressive policy of seeking non-security goals), which neither theory can explicate in scientific terms. Relying on Lacan and Slavoj Žižek, I conceptualize predationism as a cultural and political effort to escape the lack arising from representation by displacing it to a Symbolic Other, which is constructed as threatening, inferior, degenerate etc., and whose function in political discourse is to enable collectives to maintain the illusion of national / ethnic / civilizational unity. I demonstrate the potential usefulness of Lacanian discourse analysis by applying it to the thinking of Sergei Kortunov, a prominent Kremlin strategist, who has written extensively on Russian identity and foreign policy. Kortunov's anti-Westernism, I conclude, is not so much a reaction to Western deeds (as constructivism would suggest) or to the structure of the international system (as neorealism would lead us to believe) as a symptom of a discursive structure where the split inherent in identity is displaced to the Western Other in order to rescue the fantasy of an organic Russia from its own impossibility. In the second part of the thesis, I make three moves in order to place the Lacanian-inspired explanation for predationism within the context of security dilemma theory. I begin by elaborating the relationship between the Lacanian reading of alienation and the interpretation of estrangement in the philosophy of the Enlightenment. Next, after tracing the imprints of the Enlightenment within contemporary objectivist, subjectivist, and inter-subjectivist security dilemma theories, I suggest how a Lacanian reading of estrangement can help us (re)locate the role of culture in the formation of different kinds of security dilemmas. Finally, I propose some guidelines under which a dialogue between a structuralist understanding of the logic of anarchy and a Lacanian-inspired structuralist theory of the origins of threat perceptions could be developed into a research programme and how this programme could be evaluated. I sum up the thesis with a chapter in which I reflect on the potential usefulness of Lacanian theory for policy research. The main source material of the thesis consists of academic literature dealing with international relations theory, political theory, psychoanalysis and Russian foreign policy. The case study on Sergei Kortunov's thinking is based on his recent articles and books.
  • Eestilä, Sari Tuuli Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In recent years, loneliness has been talked about in the media relatively often. There are multiple studies about harmfulness of loneliness for one's health and safety both nationally and internationally. The aim of this master's thesis is to find out how the loneliness discourse has changed in the Finnish parliamentary discussions and why. The main research questions are: How often has loneliness been brought up between the years 1980 and 2019 in the Finnish governmental documents and which actor groups and themes can be identified in the discussion. In addition, the thesis will look at by whom have the actor groups and themes been brought up. The data of this thesis are governmental documents: governmental proposals, expert opinions and debate initiatives. The used methods are both quantitative and qualitative. In the first part, the data is analyzed using quantitative content analysis, more specifically categorization. By processing the data this way, one gets an answer to the first two research questions: how often has loneliness been brought up and which actor groups and themes can be identified in the discussion. In the second part of the thesis, the findings are analyzed using narrative analysis as a qualitative method. This reveals what kind of narratives are linked to findings and in which context and by whom they have been brought up. In the third part of the thesis, there is a brief review on the wider Finnish (socio)political environment and how it might have affected the results. The most important findings in this thesis are that the loneliness discussion has increased and peaked only in the 2010s. The most often mentioned group is child loneliness. Loneliness as a subjective feeling is relatively new topic in the parliamentary discussions. It started to emerge only in the 2000s and peaked after 2015. In the 2000s, organizations used the prevention of loneliness as an argument to get funding or to justify the importance of their work. This proves that in the 2000s loneliness had become something that is considered harmful. Security is a new viewpoint in the loneliness discussion: in 2010s it has started to emerge in the media as a security problem, partly because of school shootings and radical lone operators. In the 2020, the Finnish Security and Intelligence Service (Supo) mentions that lone operators are among the biggest security threats in Finland. While the demands towards the state has increased, loneliness in the Parliament has always been talked about through something else, or as a "side effect" of another problem.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2017)
    Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series
  • Prozorov, Sergei (2017)
    The article addresses the reinterpretation of the problematic of security in the messianic turn in contemporary continental political thought. I focus on Giorgio Agamben's reinterpretation of Hobbes's Leviathan in Stasis, which restores an eschatological dimension to this foundational text of modern security politics. Hobbes's commonwealth has been traditionally read as a secularized version of the katechon, a force that restrains the state of nature while drawing on its resources. Instead, Agamben argues that for Hobbes, the state is neither the analogue of God's kingdom on earth nor the katechon that delays its arrival, but the profane power that will disappear when the kingdom of God is established on earth. It is thus in principle incapable of attaining the peace and security that it claims to provide, perpetually producing insecurity and violence in the guise of protection. In Agamben's reading, it is precisely this failure of the state's security apparatuses that assists the advent of the messianic event in an oblique fashion. The exposure of this failure does not aspire to the improvement of the apparatuses of security or resign us to inescapable insecurity but only affirms the need to render the present apparatuses inoperative, bringing forth a future without them.
  • Kammonen, Juhana (2009)
    Mobile IPv6 -protokolla (MIPv6) kuvailee ne yhteyskäytännöt, joilla kotiverkkonsa ulkopuolelle vaeltava langaton asiakassolmu kykenee säilyttämään yhteyden mahdollisesti kokonaan eri verkossa sijaitsevaan vastaanottavaan solmuun. Asiakassolmu kommunikoi vastaanottavan solmun kanssa aluksi kotiverkossaan sijaitsevan kotireitittimen välityksellä ja tarvittaessa lopulta ilman kotireitittimen apua. Kotireitittimen tärkein tehtävä on ylläpitää asiakassolmun kotiosoitteen ja tilapäisosoitteen välistä sidontaa. Solmujen välisen yhteyden säilyttämisen lisäksi yhteys on suojattava mahdollisilta palvelunesto-, välimies-, monistus- ja muilta hyökkäyksiltä. Suojautumiskeinona asiakassolmun ja kotireitittimen välille muodostetaan IPsec-turvayhteys IPsec-protokollakokoelman avulla. IPsec-turvayhteyden kuljetusmoodi suojaa asiakassolmun ja vastaanottavan solmun väliset sidonnan päivitykset. IPsecturvayhteys ei kuitenkaan sovellu kotireitittimen ja vastaanottavan solmun välisen tietoliikenneverkon osuuden eikä asiakassolmun ja vastaanottavan solmun välisen suoran linkin suojaamiseen. Suoran linkin muodostamisen suojaamista varten MIPv6:een on kehitetty protokollakohtainen turvaratkaisu, reititystesti. Reititystestin tavoitteena on asiakassolmun ja vastaanottavan solmun välisen tietoliikenneyhteyden todentaminen siten, että vastaanottava solmu voi tallentaa asiakassolmun osoitteiden sidonnan. Näin vältytään kotireitittimen kuormittamiselta, ja tiedonsiirto nopeutuu. IPsec-turvayhteyden tunnelimoodilla suojataan osa reititystestin keskeisistä viesteistä. Tämä tutkielma käsittelee ensin MIPv6:ta yleisellä tasolla. Myöhemmät luvut esittelevät MIPv6:n keskeiset turvallisuusuhat, IPsec-protokollakokoelman ja reititystestin. Aiheet koskevat erityisesti asiakassolmua, kotireititintä ja asiakassolmun kanssa kommunikoivaa vastaanottavaa solmua. Myös tutkielman näkökulma rajoittuu näihin kolmeen solmuun. Pääpaino on MIPv6:n turvallisuusuhkien esittelyssä ja turvaratkaisuissa, joilla vastataan näihin uhkiin. IPsec-protokollakokoelmaan kuuluvan IKE-protokollan yksityiskohtainen käsittely kuten myös reititystestin mahdolliset muunnokset eri verkkoinfrastruktuureissa jäävät tämän tutkielman aihealueiden ulkopuolelle. Tärkeimpänä tuloksenaan tutkielma näyttää reititystestin onnistuneen kulun. Reititystestin avulla asiakassolmun ja vastaanottavan solmun välille muodostetaan riittävän voimakas IPsec:stä riippumaton turvayhteys, jolla siis MIPv6:lle keskeiset sidonnan päivitykset voidaan hyväksyä. Tietoturvan näkökulmasta MIPv6 on käyttövalmis. IPsec:n avulla saadaan suojattua kriittisimmät vaiheet MIPv6-solmujen välisessä tietoliikenteessä. Reititystesti vastaa hyvin langattoman tiedonsiirron haasteisiin niin tietoturvan kuin yhteysnopeudenkin suhteen. Käytön lisääntymisen myötä MIPv6 tulee lähitulevaisuudessa kokemaan laajamittaista käytännon testausta ja ongelmien ratkaisua, mikä asettaa hyvät suuntaviivat MIPv6:n kehitykselle.
  • Salonen, Hilma Annikki (2018)
    The Russian renewable energy industry has not yet succeeded in breaking through into the domestic market despite its potential, particularly in remote Arctic settlements. This article examines broad issues that influence national policy-makers and provides an analysis of the type of objectives that are emphasized in Russian energy policies. It can be assumed that the priorities behind these objectives have a more stable status than more concrete plans to boost the use of renewables, since they often fail to materialize. In order to discover these priorities, I analyze several relevant policy-making documents with the help of public justification analysis, a method developed to examine public claims made in favor of a certain cause, and the commonly known values that the claim-makers refer to in order to convince others. This paper reveals that Russian energy policy documents tend to emphasize concrete, technical tasks over more abstract, holistic goals. In addition, industrial needs dominate all policies, even those related to socio-economic or environmental issues. I conclude that the tendencies listed above may prevent fundamental structural change in the Russian energy industry, despite the potential of renewable energy, especially in the Arctic regions.
  • Niemi, Pia-Maria; Kallioniemi, Arto; Ghosh, Ratna (2019)
    The emergence of religiously -motivated terrorist attacks and the increasing xenophobia expressed in Europe concern religions in many ways. Questions related to religion also lie at the core of educational aims and practices used to create national cohesion and understanding about different types of values and worldviews. However, despite the topicality of the issue, we have little knowledge about the ways in which young adults experience religions in a secular state. In order to contribute to the discussion regarding the relationships between religion, nationality, security, and education, this study focuses on investigating how politically active young adults experience the role of religions in Finnish society. The qualitative data of this study were collected from young adults (18–30-year- olds) through an online questionnaire distributed through political youth organisations. The content analysis of the responses (altogether 250 respondents) identified five main orientations towards religions. The findings highlight the importance of providing young people with education about different faiths and worldviews for reducing prejudices, especially those related to Islam. The findings also highlight the need to address in education and society the possible but not as self-evident relationship between violence and religion, and to do this more explicitly than is currently done.
  • Chen, Liang; Thombre, Sarang; Järvinen, Kimmo; Lohan, Elena Simona; Alén-Savikko, Anette; Leppäkoski, Helena; Bhuiyan, M. Zahidul H.; Bu-Pasha, Shakila; Ferrara, Giorgia Nunzia; Honkala, Salomon; Lindqvist, Jenna; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Korpisaari, Päivi; Kuusniemi, Heidi (2017)
    Internet of Things (IoT) connects sensing devices to the Internet for the purpose of exchanging information. Location information is one of the most crucial pieces of information required to achieve intelligent and context-aware IoT systems. Recently, positioning and localization functions have been realized in a large amount of IoT systems. However, security and privacy threats related to positioning in IoT have not been sufficiently addressed so far. In this paper, we survey solutions for improving the robustness, security, and privacy of location-based services in IoT systems. First, we provide an in-depth evaluation of the threats and solutions related to both global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and non-GNSS-based solutions. Second, we describe certain cryptographic solutions for security and privacy of positioning and location-based services in IoT. Finally, we discuss the state-of-the-art of policy regulations regarding security of positioning solutions and legal instruments to location data privacy in detail. This survey paper addresses a broad range of security and privacy aspects in IoT-based positioning and localization from both technical and legal points of view and aims to give insight and recommendations for future IoT systems providing more robust, secure, and privacy-preserving location-based services.
  • Osmani, Lirim; Toor, Salman; Komu, Miika; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Linden, Tomas; White, John; Khan, Rasib; Eerola, Paula; Tarkoma, Sasu (2018)
    Cloud computing improves utilization and flexibility in allocating computing resources while reducing the infrastructural costs. However, in many cases cloud technology is still proprietary and tainted by security issues rooted in the multi-user and hybrid cloud environment. A lack of secure connectivity in a hybrid cloud environment hinders the adaptation of clouds by scientific communities that require scaling-out of the local infrastructure using publicly available resources for large-scale experiments. In this article, we present a case study of the DII-HEP secure cloud infrastructure and propose an approach to securely scale-out a private cloud deployment to public clouds in order to support hybrid cloud scenarios. A challenge in such scenarios is that cloud vendors may offer varying and possibly incompatible ways to isolate and interconnect virtual machines located in different cloud networks. Our approach is tenant driven in the sense that the tenant provides its connectivity mechanism. We provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of a number of alternatives to solve this problem. We have chosen one of the standardized alternatives, Host Identity Protocol, for further experimentation in a production system because it supports legacy applications in a topologically-independent and secure way.
  • Reiman, Tea (2002)
    This study examines states’ non-compliance with the rulings of the International Court of Justice. Submission to international arbitration is a special case of international law, implying sacrifice of state’s autonomy of action and acceptance of the risk of sanctions. This study examines two cases of non-compliance with the rulings of the Court, the Fisheries Jurisdiction and the Gabcíkovo-Nagymaros cases. Security is the fundamental interest, function, and raison d’être of the state, the safeguarding of which supersedes all other issues. Securitization of an issue provides the state internal legitimacy for tackling the issue with all measures. The objective of the study is to examine whether the central issue of the dispute was perceived as a security threat and successfully securitized in both Iceland and Hungary, and whether non-compliance with the ruling was a consequence of securitization in the Fisheries and Gabcikovo cases. The study consists of two analytical phases: the analysis of the securitization processes of the cases, and the analysis through the sectoral approach, which consists of five security sectors. The study is primarily based on Buzan, Wæver, and de Wilde’s framework for analysis. The study is a two-case study. The cases were selected according to the requirements posed by the theoretical framework. The study is an ideographic analysis, in which methods of qualitative research are used. The research data consists of documentary material: previous studies, judgments, articles, and other existing literature and relevant legal analyses. The research techniques of textual analysis and source criticism are employed. The hypotheses are verified by the analysis. Both securitization processes were successful, and non-compliance was demonstrated to be a consequence of the securitization. Further findings are related to the theoretical framework: the relative importance of the sectors, the cross-sectoral dynamics, and the developments of the security discourse. The implication of securitization processes to the role of the Court in the international system are also discussed. The results of the study are applicable only to the two examined cases, yet securitization provides a possible explanation of non-compliance with the rulings of the International Court of Justice also in a wider context.
  • Palosaari, Teemu (2005)
    This study analyses the role of security in the European integration process. The focus of the study is the geographical widening of the integration process, i.e. the enlargements of the European Union (and its predecessor the European Community). The study looks at how the role of security has changed during the integration process by analysing the role that security issues have played in the context of the enlargements. It seeks to examine how arguments related to security politics have been used in promoting (or opposing) the geographical expansion of the European integration process and the accession of new member states. Additionally, the enlargement of 2004, is put under closer scrutiny in order to analyse the compatibility of the new member states' views on security with those of the European Union (EU). Before going into the analysis of security's role in the integration process there is a need to ponder what security actually is, i.e. what is meant by "security" and how it is to be conceptualised. In the study of International Relations (IR) the general development has been towards a wider security concept, extending the scope of security studies from military security to other forms of security as well. In this study the selected way of conceptualising "security" is such that it leads to an analysis of security argumentation - therefore turning attention on how different security arguments have played a central role in the European integration process. In doing this it highlights the linkages between security and integration. The enlargements of the European Union/European Community as special forms of integration have an aspect of territoriality that unavoidably connects it to traditional security considerations. Furthermore, as will be explained in this study, the whole European integration process started with clearly security-oriented aims - the Schuman Declaration of 1950 presented European integration as the answer to questions of war and peace. During the Cold War period the focus of integration moved on to issues other than traditional security (key words of integration were the single market program, market liberalisation, efficiency cohesion, environment, technological research and development, social policies relating to employment, and the like) (Ojanen et al. 2000, 38; Dinan 1994, 130: Pinder 2001, 25). But since the late 1990s the traditional military-oriented conception of security has clearly been (re)gaining its significance in 1 In 2004 ten new countries joined the EU: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. In the course of the history of European integration it was the fifth geographical enlargement. The previous enlargements were: United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark (1973); Greece 1981; Spain and Portugal (1986); Austria, Finland and Sweden (1995).
  • Tallberg, Teemu (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009)
    Economics and Society
    In Finland the organising of defence is undergoing vast restructuring. Recent legislation has redefined the central tasks of the Finnish Defence Forces. At the same time, international security cooperation, economic pressures and new administrative paradigms have steered the military towards new ways of organising. National defence is not just politics and principles; to a large extent it is also enacted in day-to-day life in organisations. The lens through which these realities of defence are analysed in this study is gender. How is the security sector – and national defence as part of it – organised in the changing security environment? What is the new division of labour between different societal actors in the face of security challenges? What happens ‘at work’ within the military and the defence sector more broadly? How does gender affect the way in which defence is organised and understood, and how do the changes in the organising of security affect gender relations? The thesis searches for answers to these questions in the context of two organisational settings in the male-dominated defence sector. The case study on a Finnish peacekeeping unit in the Balkans opens a critical view on men’s social practices and the everyday life of crisis management organisations. In the second case study, reorganising of provisioning in the Finnish Defence Forces turns out to be a complicated process where different power relations and social divisions intermingle. Tallberg’s extensive ethnographic fieldwork in the two focal organisations has produced a detailed set of data that lays the basis for critical analysis and policy development in terms of defence organising, cooperation around peace and security issues, and gender equality in organisations. Observations and results are provided for understanding social networks, militarisation, authority relations, care, public-private partnerships, personnel policies, career planning, and humour.
  • Tullberg, Emily (2006)
    The right to define and control borders has long been conceptualised as a founding principle of the state. Borders define limits of governance, legal jurisdiction, identities and cultures. The deepening and widening of the European Union over the past decades has, however, started to change the meaning of borders as signifiers of national sovereignty. As its internal organisational borders have come down along with deepening cooperation, the emphasis the Union puts on its external borders has grown. The last ten years of Schengen cooperation between the participating member states and their relevant agencies (police, border guard and army) have been particularly important. This change in the administration of the border has also had a deep impact on notions of internal and external security. European Union member states have redefined their security priorities and re-drawn their security borders. Threats from the outside have global effects and can easily penetrate porous national borders. The outside is ever more present on the inside. This thesis focuses on Finland in its European Union security context and asks where Finland’s borders are and what they represent. I argue that in our global security context the European Union is no longer concerned mainly with other states as posing threats to security, but with the security concerns of ever more mobile populations. Individuals are threats to be securitised against while the referent object to be protected is the European citizenry and the societal structures that uphold our way of life. The way to achieve this is through ever greater use of surveillance and control technologies and the labelling of individuals according to threat assessments. I come to the conclusion that internal security discourses at the EU level and the Finnish government level use a language of ‘global security’ favouring closed borders. These borders are not physical borders but deterritorialized organisational borders that can be found within member states' administrative practices, in various databanks (cyberspace) and in third countries, for example in the form of visa policies and carrier sanctions. Finland has taken part in this redefinition of its security priorities since joining the European Union in 1995. It now shares many of the new border security priorities defined in EU-level security documents, i.e. terrorism, organised crime and illegal immigration, but it also has its own particular border issues: mistrust of Russia, mistrust of the security implications of EU enlargement and the need to offset the security implications of Schengen open borders by intensifying information gathering and sharing as well as internal surveillance mechanisms. Finnish internal security actors are not convinced of the ability of other Schengen states to fully secure their borders which Finland now sees as its ‘security borders’. Its relationship with Russia and its eastern border is characterised by distrust of this former wartime enemy and Cold War superpower. However, it also sees the necessity of cooperating with Russian authorities as a securitised border with Russia hinders trade and economic gain.
  • Setälä, Iiris (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The purpose of this study is to find out weather or not the users of internet bank are aware of the security threats concerning the use of the service. The intention is to find out also if the interviewees have created some methods of their own to raise the security level of their use of internet bank. Still, the purpose of the study is to clarify the interviewees’ opinions about the economically responsible party in case of economic losses. Research material consists of eight internet bank users’ interviews. The statements of the interviewees are considered from factual point of view and analysed by dividing them under certain themes and types. In addition to the interviews of consumers, also two experts were interviewed. This material works more like source of information and it is not analysed like the other interviews. These two interviews were carried out to get information about the security level of Finnish internet banks. Phishing is criminal activity by which the criminals’ objective is to gather confidential information, such as access codes for internet bank, from the victims. This research revealed that the interviewees were quite unaware of the different forms of phishing attacks. However, almost everyone had heard of the phishing e-mails. They were not seen as a threat because the interviewees knew how to identify those e-mails and also that they should never be answered but deleted immediately. Consumers can enhance the security of internet transactions by their own behaviour. The interviewees seemed to be quite careful when using internet bank even though they had not gotten much directions from the bank. The different parts of internet bank access codes were kept separately and the fixed parts were mostly known by heart. Some interviewees used internet bank merely at home or at work place and public computers were broadly avoided for that purpose. The interviewees thought that the economically responsible party in the case of economical losses depends on the situation. Bank could not be held responsible if the access codes were given to outsiders by self. In other cases however the interviewees saw bank as the responsible party. Greater awareness of security threats seems in this research material to increase the responsibility of consumer. Consumers’ responsibility would also increase if banks would increasingly inform consumers about these security threats.
  • Lehtinen, Sonja (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Every four years, the U.S. presidential elections and the political campaigns are intensely followed by the media both nationally and globally. The primary elections precede the general election and are to determine who the presidential nominee of each party will be. To aid in the selection of the nominee, multiple debates are held for the candidates. This election cycle was perhaps a bit more intriguing than usual, as one of the Republican primary candidates came from outside established politics. This person was businessman Donald Trump, who challenged the political status quo with his often-provocative comments. It became evident that his unconventional style appealed to many: Trump seized the office in January of 2017. Many of the comments the Republican candidates made about immigration gained plenty of media attention. In this thesis, the focus is on the Republican candidates’ immigration-related rhetoric throughout the primary season. The goal to distinguish the discourses immigration is linked with in the debates and examine the rhetorical methods employed by the candidates as they attempt to convince and persuade their audiences on the topic of immigration. The data used in this thesis consists of twelve Republican debates arranged during the primary season. The rhetoric is examined through various rhetorical devices as well as Aristotle’s three modes of persuasion—ethos, pathos and logos. Ethos attempts to make the speaker appear trustworthy and respectable to the audience: pathos is used to appeal to the audiences’ emotions; and logos is used to appeal to the audience’s senses and intellect. The analysis method applied in this thesis is rhetorical discourse analysis. The immigration-based history of the United States, its social, racial, and ethnic composition as well as its ever-changing demographics lay a very interesting backdrop to the entire topic. The U.S. is a country built by immigrants, yet its relationship with immigration has always been difficult. Many newcomers have traditionally been disliked or even feared, be it because of their exotic appearance, their religion, or their unfamiliar language. American nativists have throughout history attempted to keep America white and Christian and rejected those who do not easily fall into these categories. Originally even Catholics were shunned. Whiteness and Christianity are two features that have long prevailed as the most depictive characteristics of the United States, even if the white population is on the decline and soon no racial group will alone form racial majority. The twelve primary debates are analyzed through rhetorical discourse analysis. The goal is to distinguish the central discourses and the rhetoric that the candidates apply when discussing immigration. A total of five discourses were discovered. These are named the problem discourse, the legality discourse, the security discourse, the economic discourse and Americanness as a discourse. The problem discourse as well as Americanness as a discourse can be found within all of the other discourses. Within the problem discourse, immigration is generally depicted as a problem; immigration is portrayed as an issue pertaining to law within the legality discourse: the security discourse is founded on the idea of immigration as a security matter; within the economic discourse, immigration appears an economic problem; and lastly, Americanness as a discourse builds around the age-old discussion on who is American. The economy discourse appears the most dominant, but the security discourse is found to be intensified by candidates Donald Trump and Ted Cruz. The candidates’ rhetoric most often aims to increase their popularity in the race and the audience’s support. This is understandable as the crux of a presidential primary is to select one candidate as the party nominee for the general election. As could be then expected, of Aristotle’s three modes of persuasion—ethos, pathos, and logos—ethos is most commonly used.