Browsing by Subject "sediment"

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  • Harrison, Jesse P.; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Salonen, Iines S.; Jilbert, Tom; Koho, Karoliina A. (2021)
    Metabarcoding analyses of bacterial and eukaryotic communities have been proposed as efficient tools for environmental impact assessment. It has been unclear, however, to which extent these analyses can provide similar or differing information on the ecological status of the environment. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding to compare eutrophication-induced shifts in sediment bacterial and eukaryotic community structure in relation to a range of porewater, sediment and bottom-water geochemical variables, using data obtained from six stations near a former rainbow trout farm in the Archipelago Sea (Baltic Sea). Shifts in the structure of both community types were correlated with a shared set of variables, including porewater ammonium concentrations and the sediment depth-integrated oxygen consumption rate. Distance-based redundancy analyses showed that variables typically employed in impact assessments, such as bottom water nutrient concentrations, explained less of the variance in community structure than alternative variables (e.g., porewater NH4+ inventories and sediment depth-integrated O2 consumption rates) selected due to their low collinearity (up to 40 vs. 58% of the variance explained, respectively). In monitoring surveys where analyses of both bacterial and eukaryotic communities may be impossible, either 16S or 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding can serve as reliable indicators of wider ecological impacts of eutrophication.
  • Salonen, Iines S.; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Langlet, Dewi; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Koho, Karoliina A. (2021)
    Foraminifera are unicellular eukaryotes that are an integral part of benthic fauna in many marine ecosystems, including the deep sea, with direct impacts on benthic biogeochemical cycles. In these systems, different foraminiferal species are known to have a distinct vertical distribution, i.e., microhabitat preference, which is tightly linked to the physico-chemical zonation of the sediment. Hence, foraminifera are well-adapted to thrive in various conditions, even under anoxia. However, despite the ecological and biogeochemical significance of foraminifera, their ecology remains poorly understood. This is especially true in terms of the composition and diversity of their microbiome, although foraminifera are known to harbor diverse endobionts, which may have a significant meaning to each species' survival strategy. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding to investigate the microbiomes of five different deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species representing differing microhabitat preferences. The microbiomes of these species were compared intra- and inter-specifically, as well as with the surrounding sediment bacterial community. Our analysis indicated that each species was characterized with a distinct, statistically different microbiome that also differed from the surrounding sediment community in terms of diversity and dominant bacterial groups. We were also able to distinguish specific bacterial groups that seemed to be strongly associated with particular foraminiferal species, such as the family Marinilabiliaceae for Chilostomella ovoidea and the family Hyphomicrobiaceae for Bulimina subornata and Bulimina striata. The presence of bacterial groups that are tightly associated to a certain foraminiferal species implies that there may exist unique, potentially symbiotic relationships between foraminifera and bacteria that have been previously overlooked. Furthermore, the foraminifera contained chloroplast reads originating from different sources, likely reflecting trophic preferences and ecological characteristics of the different species. This study demonstrates the potential of 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding in resolving the microbiome composition and diversity of eukaryotic unicellular organisms, providing unique in situ insights into enigmatic deep-sea ecosystems.
  • (Ympäristöministeriö, 2016)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 1sv | 2015
    Denna anvisning behandlar miljökonsekvenserna av och miljöriskerna vid muddring och deponering och hanteringen av dessa konsekvenser och risker. Den är framför allt inriktad på tillståndspliktig muddring, dvs. muddring som omfattar mer är 500 kubikmeter, och den tillämpas både i inlandsvatten och i havsområden. Anvisningen kan tillämpas vid utredning av muddringsobjektets och muddermassans egenskaper, vid identifiering av risker och vid bedömning av huruvida muddermassan kan deponeras. I anvisningen finns rekommendationer om de undersökningar som bör göras i det område där muddringen ska genomföras. De halter av skadliga ämnen som anges i anvisningen kan användas i bedömningen av om muddermassan kan deponeras samt vid riktandet av undersökningarna. Anvisningen kan också användas när det avgörs om deponeringsplatsen är lämplig för ändamålet. Denna anvisning riktar sig till myndigheter som beviljar tillstånd för och övervakar muddrings- och deponeringsprojekt samt för dem som utarbetar eller beställer planer, utredningar och ansökningar i anslutning till verksamheten. Anvisningen är inte bindande.
  • Marttila, H.; Tammela, S.; Mustonen, K.-R.; Louhi, P.; Muotka, Timo; Mykrä, Heikki; Klove, B. (IWA Publishing, 2019)
    Hydrology Research 1 June 2019; 50 (3): 878–885
    We conducted a series of tracer test experiments in 12 outdoor semi-natural flumes to assess the effects of variable flow conditions and sand addition on hyporheic zone conditions in gravel beds, mimicking conditions in headwater streams under sediment pressure. Two tracer methods were applied in each experiment: 2–5 tracer-pulse tests were conducted in all flumes and pulses were monitored at three distances downstream of the flume inlet (0 m, 5 m and 10 m, at bed surface), and in pipes installed into the gravel bed at 5 m and 10 m distances. The tracer breakthrough curves (total of 120 tracer injections) were then analysed with a one-dimensional solute transport model (OTIS) and compared with data from the gravel pipes in point-dilution pulse tests. Sand addition had a strong negative effect on horizontal fluxes (qh), whereas the fraction of the median travel time due to transient storage (F200) was determined more by flow conditions. These results suggest that even small additions of sand can modify the hyporheic zone exchange in gravel beds, thus making headwater streams with low sediment transport capacity particularly vulnerable to sediments transported into the stream from catchment land use activities.
  • Karvonen, Lassi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    As water flow encounters an object on the sea floor, its hydrodynamics change. Accelerated currents and vortices develop around the object with changing intensity as a function of distance from its proximity. This leads to erosion and aggradation of sediment, known as scour. Studies focusing on formation processes of scour often involve locating visible scour sites by sonar scanning the geomorphology of the seafloor. However, the effects of scour on macroinfauna and small-scale sediment characteristics are not visible in sonar images. In this Master’s thesis, scour at a shipwreck of a timber-built historic sailing ship, the Joskär shipwreck, was first identified by scanning the study area with side-scan sonar, and by measuring water depth contours around the shipwreck by scuba diving. Sediment samples were then taken inside the area assumed to be under the most pressure from scour. Samples from three separate distances on two transects drawn outwards from the hull of the shipwreck were collected and analysed for sediment grain size, organic content, and species assemblages of macroinfauna. In addition, macrofauna were analysed for individual lengths, number of individuals, diversity index, and functional groups. All samples were collected with a core tube sampler operated by a scuba diver. The methods used in this Master’s thesis widen the concept of scour past the sole physical processes observable with sonar to a more holistic level that considers the quality of biological, geological, and chemical characteristics of the benthic environment. The results of the present Master’s thesis show that the quality of the sediment near Joskär shipwreck varies within a relatively small scale. Organic content of the sediment was the most potent descriptor of scour at the study site, exhibiting a consistent decreasing trend as distance to the shipwreck increased on both sampled transects. Sediment grain size became finer as distance to the shipwreck increased. However, compared to grain size, based on visual observations of the sediment samples, shell debris content of the sediment could possibly act as a better measure of presence of scour. The variability of characteristics of macroinfaunal communities as a function of distance from Joskär shipwreck was not a viable tool to describe the presence of scour, as no consistent trends of the variables were observed. As no control site was included in the study design, the characteristics of the benthic environment inside the scour around Joskär shipwreck could not be compared to the seafloor unaffected by scour. Further research could reveal possible variation between these distinct habitats, and that way produce valuable indicators of scour. The hypothesis in the present thesis was that macroinfaunal assemblages and sediment characteristics would exhibit variation between the sampling sites as a function of distance from the shipwreck. The observed trends of sediment characteristics validated a part of the hypothesis, showcasing the utility of sediment characteristics in describing scour at Joskär shipwreck. However, a part of the hypothesis was rejected, as no consistent trends of macroinfaunal features were present.
  • Väänänen, Kristiina; Abel, Sebastian; Oksanen, Tähti; Nybom, Inna; Leppänen, Matti T.; Asikainen, Harri; Rasilainen, Maj; Karjalainen, Anna K.; Akkanen, Jarkko (Elsevier, 2019)
    Science of The Total Environment 662 (2019), 88-98
    There are several methods for studying metal-contaminated freshwater sediments, but more information is needed on which methods to include in ecological risk assessment. In this study, we compliment the traditional Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach – including information on chemistry, toxicity and ecological status – with studies on metal bioavailability and metal body residues in local organisms. We studied four mining-affected boreal lakes in Finland by conducting chemical analyses of sediment and water, toxicity tests (L. variegatus, V. fischeri, C. riparius, L. stagnalis), and analysis of benthic organism community structure. In addition, we studied the relationships between metal loading, toxicity, metal bioavailability, and metal body residues in the field-collected biota. Chemistry and benthic organism community structures show adverse effects in those lakes, where the metal concentrations are the highest. However, toxicity was connected to low sediment pH during the experiment, rather than to high metal concentrations. Toxicity was observed in 4 out of 6 toxicity tests including growth test with L. variegatus, bulk sediment test with V. fischeri, and the L. stagnalis toxicity test. The C. riparius test did not show toxicity. Metal body residues in biota were not high enough to induce adverse effects (0.1–4.1 mg Cu/kg fw, 0.01–0.3 mg Ni/kg fw, 2.9–26.7 mg Zn/kg fw and 0.01–0.7 mg As/kg fw). Chemical analyses, metal bioavailability assessment and benthic community structures survey revealed adverse effects in the sediments, where metal concentrations are highest (Lake SJ and Lake KS). Standard toxicity tests were not suitable for studying acid, sulfide-rich sediments and, therefore, benthic structure study and chemical analyses are believed to give more reliable results of the ecological status of these sediments.
  • Zhao, Shengnan; Shi, Xiaohong; Sun, Biao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Zhiqiang; Huotari, Jussi (2022)
    The pH value of lake water varies with the lake environment, which has an effect on the form of phosphorus in sediment, and then the release of sediment phosphorus. The form of phosphorus in sediments was analyzed using field sampling. The environmental conditions with pH values of 4.0, 7.0 and 10.0 were simulated indoors to estimate the effects of pH on phosphorus release from sediments and the content change of various forms of phosphorus was studied. The results showed that in Wuliangsuhai Lake, Ca-P accounted for 54.3%, which was the largest portion of the TP. Phosphorus release was favored under acidic and alkaline conditions, and the alkaline condition was more favorable. The proportion of Fe/Mn-P and Fe/Al-P in the TP decreased with an increase in the pH, while the proportion of Ca-P in the TP increased with an increase in the pH. Under the alkaline condition (pH = 10), Ca-P in the sediment increased significantly, with an increase of 22.5%. However, Fe/Mn-P and Fe/Al-P decreased significantly, with drops of 37.3% and44.9%, respectively. Under the acidic condition (pH = 4), Fe/Mn-P and Fe/Al-P in the sediment increased significantly, and the increases were 63.1% and 37.1%, respectively. However, Ca-P decreased significantly, with a drop of 39.2%. In general, low pH promoted the release of Ca-P, and a high pH promoted the release of Fe/Mn-P and Fe/Al-P. Wuliangsuhai Lake water is characterized by weak alkaline characteristics throughout the year, and biological available phosphorus accounts for 13.3%-20.9% of the TP, with Fe/Mn-P being the dominant form. This study revealed that the risk of phosphorus release from sediments to the overlying water was greater under alkaline conditions.
  • Kutuniva, Johanna; Mäkinen, Jari; Kauppila, Tommi; Karppinen, Anssi; Hellsten, Seppo; Luukkonen, Tero; Lassi, Ulla (Elsevier, 2019)
    Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 7, 1 (2019), 102852
    Metal(loid) contamination in sediments is a widespread environmental issue. Sediments act normally as metal(loid) sinks, but if chemical conditions (such as pH or redox potential) change, they can become sources of secondary pollution. Consequently, various strategies for both in and ex situ remediation of contaminated sediments have been developed. One promising method is active capping, which involves the injection of adsorbents as a layer on the sediment surface or the mixing of adsorbents within the sediment. Adsorbents decrease the bioavailability of metal(loid)s. In the present work, the suitability of alkali-activated blast-furnace-slag, metakaolin geopolymer, and exfoliated vermiculite were evaluated for in situ stabilization of two metal(loid)-contaminated lake sediments through laboratory-scale experiments. The results indicated that adsorbent amendments had metal(loid)-specific performance: alkali-activated blast-furnace slag was suitable for Al, Cu, Fe, and Ni; metakaolin geopolymer for Cu, Cr (total), and Fe; and vermiculite for Al and Zn. None of the materials could stabilize Ba, Sr, or Ti. Furthermore, the amendments performed differently in two different lake sediments, implying that the effectiveness of the amendments needs to be confirmed on a case-by-case basis.
  • Kuprijanov, Ivan; Väli, Germo; Sharov, Andrey; Berezina, Nadezhda; Liblik, Taav; Lips, Urmas; Kolesova, Natalja; Mannio, Jaakko; Lips, Inga; Junttila, Ville (Macmillan, 2021)
    Marine Pollution Bulletin, 170 (2021), 112642
    Contamination by hazardous substances is one of the main environmental problems in the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. A trilateral effort to sample and analyse heavy metals (HMs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organotins from bottom sediments in 2019–2020 were conducted along with harvesting historical data in Russian, Estonian and Finnish waters. We suggest that the input of organotins still occurs along the ship traffic routes. The tributyltin content exceeded the established quality criteria up to more than 300 times. High contamination by PAHs found near the ports, most likely originate from incomplete fuel incineration processes. The Neva River Estuary and Luga Bay might potentially suffer from severe cadmium contamination. The high ecological risk attributed to the HMs was detected at deep offshore areas. The simulated accumulation pattern qualitatively agrees with field observations of HMs in sediments, demonstrating the potential of numerical tools to tackle the hazardous substances problems.
  • Broman, Elias; Bonaglia, Stefano; Norkko, Alf; Creer, Simon; Nascimento, Francisco J. A. (2021)
    Benthic macrofauna is regularly used in monitoring programmes, however the vast majority of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity lies mostly in microscopic organisms, such as meiofauna (invertebrates <1 mm) and protists, that rapidly responds to environmental change. These communities have traditionally been hard to sample and handle in the laboratory, but DNA sequencing has made such work less time consuming. While DNA sequencing captures both alive and dead organisms, environmental RNA (eRNA) better targets living organisms or organisms of recent origin in the environment. Here, we assessed the biodiversity of three known bioindicator microeukaryote groups (nematodes, foraminifera, and ciliates) in sediment samples collected at seven coastal sites along an organic carbon (OC) gradient. We aimed to investigate if eRNA shotgun sequencing can be used to simultaneously detect differences in (i) biodiversity of multiple microeukaryotic communities; and (ii) functional feeding traits of nematodes. Results showed that biodiversity was lower for nematodes and foraminifera in high OC (6.2%-6.9%), when compared to low OC sediments (1.2%-2.8%). Dissimilarity in community composition increased for all three groups between Low OC and High OC, as well as the classified feeding type of nematode genera (with more nonselective deposit feeders in high OC sediment). High relative abundant genera included nematodeSabatieriaand foraminiferaElphidiumin high OC, andCryptocaryon-like ciliates in low OC sediments. Considering that future sequencing technologies are likely to decrease in cost, the use of eRNA shotgun sequencing to assess biodiversity of benthic microeukaryotes could be a powerful tool in recurring monitoring programmes.
  • Salminen, Sarianna; Tammelin, Mira; Jilbert, Tom; Fukumoto, Yu; Saarni, Saija (Kluwer Academic, 2021)
    Journal of Paleolimnology 2021
    The influence of lake restoration efforts on lake bottom-water conditions and varve preservation is not well known. We studied varved sediments deposited during the last 80 years along a water-depth transect in the Enonsaari Deep, a deep-water area of the southernmost Enonselkä Basin, Lake Vesijärvi, southern Finland. For the last few decades, the Enonselkä Basin has been subject to ongoing restoration efforts. Varve, elemental, and diatom analyses were undertaken to explore how these actions and other human activities affected varve preservation in the Enonsaari Deep. In contrast to most varved Finnish lakes, whose water columns have a natural tendency to stratify, and possess varve records that span thousands of years, varve formation and preservation in Lake Vesijärvi was triggered by relatively recent anthropogenic stressors. The multi-core varve analysis revealed that sediment in the Enonsaari Deep was initially non-varved, but became fully varved in the late 1930s, a time of increasing anthropogenic influence on the lake. The largest spatial extent of varves occurred in the 1970s, which was followed by a period of less distinguishable varves, which coincided with diversion of sewage from the lake. Varve preservation weakened during subsequent decades and was terminated completely by lake aeration in the 2010s. Despite improvements in water quality, hypolimnetic oxygen depletion and varve preservation persisted beyond the reduction in sewage loading, initial aeration, and biomanipulation. These restoration efforts, however, along with other human actions such as harbor construction and dredging, did influence varve characteristics. Varves were also influenced by diatom responses to anthropogenic forcing, because diatoms form a substantial part of the varve structure. Of all the restoration efforts, a second episode of aeration seems to have had the single most dramatic impact on profundal conditions in the basin, resulting in replacement of a sediment accumulation zone by a transport or erosional zone in the Enonsaari Deep. We conclude that human activities in a lake and its catchment can alter lake hypolimnetic conditions, leading to shifts in lake bottom dynamics and changes in varve preservation.
  • Gladstone-Gallagher, Rebecca V.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Thrush, Simon F.; Brustolin, Marco C.; Villnäs, Anna; Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Alf (2021)
    Despite a long history of disturbance–recovery research, we still lack a generalizable understanding of the attributes that drive community recovery potential in seafloor ecosystems. Marine soft‐sediment ecosystems encompass a range of heterogeneity from simple low‐diversity habitats with limited biogenic structure, to species‐rich systems with complex biogenic habitat structure. These differences in biological heterogeneity are a product of natural conditions and disturbance regimes. To search for unifying attributes, we explore whether a set of simple traits can characterize community disturbance–recovery potential using seafloor patch‐disturbance experiments conducted in two different soft‐sediment landscapes. The two landscapes represent two ends of a spectrum of landscape biotic heterogeneity in order to consider multi‐scale disturbance–recovery processes. We consider traits at different levels of biological organization, from the biological traits of individual species, to the traits of species at the landscape scale associated with their occurrence across the landscape and their ability to be dominant. We show that in a biotically heterogeneous landscape (Kawau Bay, New Zealand), seafloor community recovery is stochastic, there is high species turnover, and the landscape‐scale traits are good predictors of recovery. In contrast, in a biotically homogeneous landscape (Baltic Sea), the options for recovery are constrained, the recovery pathway is thus more deterministic and the scale of recovery traits important for determining recovery switches to the individual species biological traits within the disturbed patch. Our results imply that these simple, yet sophisticated, traits can be effectively used to characterize community recovery potential and highlight the role of landscapes in providing resilience to patch‐scale disturbances.
  • Laukkanen, Johanna; Takaluoma, Esther; Runtti, Hanna; Mäkinen, Jari; Kauppila, Tommi; Hellsten, Seppo; Luukkonen, Tero; Lassi, Ulla (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Journal of Soils and Sediments
    Purpose Adsorbent amendment to contaminated sediments is one in situ remediation method to decrease the bioaccessibility of pollutants from the sediments. In this work, alkali-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) granules were used in a field experiment at Lake Kivijärvi (Finland). The lake was heavily affected by a mining accident in 2012, which released a significant peak load of metals and sulfate. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of the novel amendment material for in situ remediation in real conditions with a preliminary cost estimation. Methods Alkali-activated BFS granules were prepared and characterized for composition, microstructure, and surface properties. Two mesocosms were placed in the lake: one with granule dosing and another without. Sediment and pore water samples were collected after a two-week period. Similar small-scale experiment was performed in laboratory with a three-month duration. Bioaccessibility of metals from sediments was assessed with a three-stage leaching procedure. Results The granules were effective in decreasing the mobility of Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr in all leaching stages by approximately 50–90% in comparison with unamended sediment in the mesocosm experiment. Laboratory-scale incubation experiments also indicated decreased release of Ba, Co, Ni, Al, Fe, Mg, Mn and S. The estimated material costs were lower than the removal of the contaminated sediments with dredging and off-site treatment. Conclusion The results showed preliminarily the effectiveness of alkaline-activated BFS in the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments in a field experiment. However, topics requiring further study are the leaching of trace elements from the material and impact on the sediment pH.
  • Heikkinen, Janne (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The ambition of the agricultural environmental programme is to reduce nutrient load, because greater part of the diffuse loading of phosphorus is caused by agriculture. A eutrophic influence of the phosphorus in water systems tends to be limited inter alia by constructed wetlands. Their main task is to allow sedimentation of eroded soil into the bottom of the wetlands. There is ambiguity on the findings of the functionality and the importance of the prevention of water loading among scientific research in Finland. The aim of this study is to examine by utilizing soil analyses what happens to the basin water eroded phosphorus in the wetland sediment and wether the sedimentary constituent of the soil be suitable for a substratum of plant production. Comparing the samples of basin soil and wetland sediments revealed that the eroded constituent of the basin soil got assorted on wetlands. The samples collected from the wetlands contained 48 % more clay than the samples collected from the basin soil. The growth of the clay concentration increased the reactive area of the sediment. In consequence, it contained 45 % more hydroxides of aluminium and iron in the samples of the sediment than the samples of the basin soil. Because of the hydroxides, the phosphorus sorption capacity was 52 % higher than in the samples of the basin soil. However, the degree of phosphorus saturation was equal in the sediment and basin soil, because the oxidized sediment contained 50 % more phosphorus extracted from hydroxides of aluminium and iron. At the time of sampling the sediment was in reduced state and the amount of its water extracable phosphorus was significantly higher compared to the oxidized sediment. Correspondingly, when the sediment became oxidized the sorption capacity for phosphorus increased significantly, therefore the phosphorus was desorbed from reduced sediment to the wetlands water. This was also proven in a pot experiment, where rye-grass that grew in the sediment suffered from a severe shortage of phosphorus. In contrast, rye-grass grown in the basin soil didn’t suffer from the deficiency of phosphorus at the same fertilization levels. After threefold extra fertilization of phosphorus, the dry matter yield, concentration of phosphorus and uptake of phosphorus on the second yield grown in sediment were equal to the results of the first yield grown in basin soil. According to the results of the pot experiment, the sediment in reduced state is weakly suitable for the substratum of plant production, because the sorption capacity of phosphorus is high. Instead, sediment suits well to be utilized in the areas wherein the soil includes plenty of easy soluble phosphorus, such as for the material of subgrade for the corral of livestock, because the sediment reduces the load of phosphorus directed to the environment.
  • Lotsari, Eliisa; Dietze, Michael; Kämäri, Maria; Alho, Petteri; Kasvi, Elina (MDPI, 2020)
    Water 12 7 (2020)
    Macro-turbulent flows (i.e., coherent flow structures reaching through the whole water column), have not been studied widely in northern seasonally frozen rivers during both open-channel and ice-covered flow conditions. Thus, we aim: (1) to detect and compare the macro-turbulent flow, both at open-channel and ice-covered flow conditions; (2) to explore spatial variation of macro-turbulent flow characteristics within a meander bend; and (3) to detect the effects of near-bed layer velocity fluctuation on bedload transport during differing overall flow conditions. The analyses are based on 5–10 min-long acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements from a subarctic river. The ice-covered low flow, and open-channel higher and lower flow conditions were measured over the period of 2016 to 2020. This study found that macro-turbulent flow existed at all measurement locations under both open-channel and ice-covered flow conditions. Macro-turbulent flow was most consistent and obvious in the streamwise velocity component, and in particular at the inlet and outlet of the investigated meander bend. During all seasons, the near-bed velocities consistently exceeded the sufficient amount for sediment transport. At inlet and outlet areas, the greatest near-bed velocity fluctuation across the critical threshold for sediment transport coincided with the measurement times having frequent macro-turbulent flow.
  • Salonen, I. S.; Chronopoulou, P.-M.; Leskinen, E.; Koho, K. A. (2019)
    Metabarcoding is a method that combines high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA-based identification. Previously, this method has been successfully used to target spatial variation of eukaryote communities in marine sediments, however, the temporal changes in these communities remain understudied. Here, we follow the temporal changes of the eukaryote communities in Baltic Sea surface sediments collected from two coastal localities during three seasons of two consecutive years. Our study reveals that the structure of the sediment eukaryotic ecosystem was primarily driven by annual and seasonal changes in prevailing environmental conditions, whereas spatial variation was a less significant factor in explaining the variance in eukaryotic communities over time. Therefore, our data suggests that shifts in regional climate regime or large-scale changes in the environment are the overdriving factors in shaping the coastal eukaryotic sediment ecosystems rather than small-scale changes in local environmental conditions or heterogeneity in ecosystem structure. More studies targeting temporal changes are needed to further understand the long-term trends in ecosystem stability and response to climate change. Furthermore, this work contributes to the recent efforts in developing metabarcoding applications for environmental biomonitoring, proving a comprehensive option for traditional monitoring approaches.
  • Dale, Andrew W.; Paul, K. Mareike; Clemens, David; Scholz, Florian; Schroller-Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wallmann, Klaus; Geilert, Sonja; Hensen, Christian; Plass, Anna; Liebetrau, Volker; Grasse, Patricia; Sommer, Stefan (2021)
    An extensive data set of biogenic silica (BSi) fluxes is presented for the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at 11ºS and 12ºS. Each transect extends from the shelf to the upper slope (∼1000 m) and dissects the permanently anoxic waters between ∼200 – 500m water depth. BSi burial (2100 mmol m‐2 yr‐1) and recycling fluxes (3300 mmol m‐2 yr‐1) were highest on the shelf with mean preservation efficiencies (34±15%) that exceed the global mean of 10 – 20%. BSi preservation was highest on the inner shelf (up to 56%), decreasing to 7% and 12% under anoxic waters and below the OMZ, respectively. The data suggest that the main control on BSi preservation is the rate at which reactive BSi is transported away from undersaturated surface sediments by burial and bioturbation to the underlying saturated sediment layers where BSi dissolution is thermodynamically and/or kinetically inhibited. BSi burial across the entire Peruvian margin between 3ºS to 15ºS and down to 1000m water depth is estimated to be 0.1 – 0.2 Tmol yr‐1; equivalent to 2 – 7% of total burial on continental margins. Existing global data permit a simple relationship between BSi rain rate to the seafloor and the accumulation of unaltered BSi, giving the possibility to reconstruct rain rates and primary production from the sediment archive in addition to benthic Si turnover in global models.
  • Kiani, Mina; Raave, Henn; Simojoki, Asko; Tammeorg, Olga; Tammeorg, Priit (2021)
    Sediment removal from eutrophicated shallow lakes may not only be an effective method for lake restoration but also provides the potential for recycling nutrients from sediments to crop production. However, finding a suitable strategy for sustainably reusing the sediment remains a challenge. Therefore, current study focused on the best practices in applying the sediment from a shallow eutrophicated lake to the soil in terms of grass yield, nutrient uptake, and nutrient leaching. During a nine-month lysimeter experiment, 100-cm high columns were filled with six combinations of soil, sediment, and biochar, with or without meat bone meal organic fertilizer. Aboveground biomass, root mass distribution in soil, nutrient concentration, phosphorus (P) uptake of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) along with easily soluble nutrients in the growing medium, and leached mineral nitrogen (N) and P levels were measured. Plant growth conditions were improved by sediment additions, as the yield and P uptake of ryegrass nearly doubled in treatments containing sediment compared to the control soil. While the sediment was richer in macro and micronutrients (e.g. P and N) compared to the soil, the leached N and P levels from both treatments were almost equivalent (N < 830 mg m−2 and P < 3 mg m−2). In addition, applying a 2-cm layer of biochar between the sediment and soil reduced P and N leaching by 50%. According to the results, applying a 75-cm thick layer of sediments on agricultural sandy loam soils surrounding the lake seems a promising practice for improving plant yield and soil nutrient status without increasing of P and N leaching from soil.
  • Jäntti, Helena; Stange, Florian; Leskinen, Elina; Hietanen, Susanna (2011)
    The Baltic Sea is one of the most eutrophic marine areas in the world. The role of nitrogen as a eutrophicating nutrient in the Baltic Sea has remained controversial, due to lack of understanding of nitrogen cycling in the area. We investigated the seasonal variation in sediment nitrification, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) at two coastal sites in the Gulf of Finland. In addition to the in situ rates, we assessed the potential for these processes in different seasons. The nitrification and nitrogen removal processes were maximal during the warm summer months, when the sediment organic content was highest. In colder seasons, the in situ rates of the nitrification and nitrate reduction processes decreased, but the potential for nitrification remained equal to or higher than that during the warm months. The denitrification and nitrification rates were usually higher in the accumulation basin, where the organic content of the sediment was higher, but the transportation area, despite lower denitrification rates and potential, typically had higher potential for nitrification than the accumulation basin. Anammox and DNRA were not significant nitrate sinks in any of the seasons sampled. The results also show that the denitrification rates in the coastal Gulf of Finland sediment have decreased, and that benthic denitrification might be a less important sink for fixed nitrogen than previously assumed.