Browsing by Subject "seed"

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  • Saarsalmi, Anna; Savonen, Eira-Maija; Nikkanen, Teijo; Lipas, Erkki; Mikola, Jouni (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1994)
    The aim of the study was to obtain the information needed in preparing more precise fertilization recommendations for seed orchards. The fertilization requirement was estimated on the basis of soil and needle analyses, and by investigating the effects of different fertilization treatments on male and female flowering, the size of the seed crop and seed quality. The study was carried out in two Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed orchards in southern Finland, one of which was established on forest soil in 1971 and 1972, and the other on a peat field in 1974. 10 clones and 39 grafts from each clone were selected randomly from both orchards in autumn 1985. There were 13 treatments per clone, with three replications. The treatments consisted of N, P and K in various combinations, micronutrients, wood ash and grass control. The orchards were fertilized in spring 1986 and the seed crops collected in 1985–1990. There were statistically significant differences between the clones in both orchards as regards amount of flowers, size of the seed crop and seed quality. The annual variation in flowering and the size of the seed crop were also large. In general, the seeds from cones collected in October matured well and their germination percentage was high. The effects of fertilization on flowering, the size of the seed crop and seed quality were small. It would appear that the size of the crop can be affected to a much greater extent by favouring clones with a high seed-producing capacity than through fertilization. Fertilization is unnecessary if the nutrient status of the soil is satisfactory.
  • Vaartaja, Olli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1955)
  • Leinonen, Kari; Rita, Hannu (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1995)
    A multi-factor experimental approach and proportional odds model was used to study interactions between five environmental factors significant to Norway spruce seed germination: prechilling (at +4.5 °C), suboptimal temperatures (+12 and +16 °C), osmotically induced water stress (–0.3 Mpa and 0 Mpa), prolonged white light, and short-period far-red light. Temperature and osmotic stress interacted with one another in the germination of seeds: the effect of osmotic stress being stronger at +16 °C than at +12 °C. In natural conditions, this interaction may prevent germination early in the summer when soil dries and temperature increases. Prolonged white light prevented germination at low temperature and low osmotic potential. Inhibitory effect was less at higher temperatures and higher osmotic potential, as well as after prechilling. Short-period far-red light did not prevent germination of unchilled seeds in darkness. Prechilling tended to make seeds sensitive to short pulses of far-red light, an effect which depended on temperature: at +12 °C the effect on germination was promotive, but at +16 °C, inhibitory and partly reversible by white light. It seems that Norway spruce seeds may have adapted to germinate in canopy shade light rich in far-red. The seeds may also have evolved mechanisms to inhibit germination in prolonged light.
  • Bergsten, Urban (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Fort, Tania; Pauvert, Charlie; Zanne, Amy E.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Caignard, Thomas; Barret, Matthieu; Compant, Stephane; Hampe, Arndt; Delzon, Sylvain; Vacher, Corinne (2021)
    The tree seed mycobiome has received little attention despite its potential role in forest regeneration and health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the processes shaping the composition of seed fungal communities in natural forests as seeds transition from the mother plant to the ground for establishment. We used metabarcoding approaches and confocal microscopy to analyze the fungal communities of seeds collected in the canopy and on the ground in four natural populations of sessile oak (Quercus petraea). Ecological processes shaping the seed mycobiome were inferred using joint species distribution models. Fungi were present in seed internal tissues, including the embryo. The seed mycobiome differed among oak populations and trees within the same population. Its composition was largely influenced by the mother, with weak significant environmental influences. The models also revealed several probable interactions among fungal pathogens and mycoparasites. Our results demonstrate that maternal effects, environmental filtering and biotic interactions all shape the seed mycobiome of sessile oak. They provide a starting point for future research aimed at understanding how maternal genes and environments interact to control the vertical transmission of fungal species that could then influence seed dispersal and germination, and seedling recruitment.
  • Skrzypczynska, Malgorzata (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1996)
    Investigation on the relationship between the size of the Megastigmus suspectus Borr. (Hymenoptera, Torymidae) and the size of Abies alba Mill. seed from which those insects emerged was conducted. The examined insects (n = 46) originated from southern Poland, and were obtained from cones collected in 1993. M. suspectus thorax length was used as an index of adult insect size, because that was correlated with 8 other body measurements. In addition, the diameter of the emergence hole of this insect was measured. All data were log-transformed and analysed using regression analysis. There was no linear correlation between adult size and seed size, using either length of thorax or any of the other 8 body traits tested.