Browsing by Subject "sekvensointi"

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  • Vuorio, Kristiina; Mäki, Anita; Salmi, Pauliina; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020)
    Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020) 96
    The composition of phytoplankton community is the basis for environmental monitoring and assessment of the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Community composition studies of phytoplankton have been based on time-consuming and expertise-demanding light microscopy analyses. Molecular methods have the potential to replace microscopy, but the high copy number variation of ribosomal genes and the lack of universal primers for simultaneous amplification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes complicate data interpretation. In this study, we used our previously developed directional primer-independent high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach to analyze 16S and 18S rRNA community structures. Comparison of 83 boreal lake samples showed that the relative abundances of eukaryotic phytoplankton at class level and prokaryotic cyanobacteria at order level were consistent between HTS and microscopy results. At the genus level, the results had low correspondence, mainly due to lack of sequences in the reference library. HTS was superior to identify genera that are extensively represented in the reference databases but lack specific morphological characteristics. Targeted metatranscriptomics proved to be a feasible method to complement the microscopy analysis. The metatranscriptomics can also be applied without linking the sequences to taxonomy. However, direct indexing of the sequences to their environmental indicator values needs collections of more comprehensive sample sets, as long as the coverage of molecular barcodes of eukaryotic species remains insufficient.
  • Koivunen, Sampo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Oxford Nanopore MinION is a third generation sequencer utilizing nanopore sequencing technology. The nanopore sequencing method allows sequencing of either DNA or RNA strands as they pass through the membrane-embedded nanopores. By measuring the corresponding fluctuations in the ion flow passing through the nanopore the passing strands can be sequenced directly without additional second-hand reactions or measurements. The MinION sequencing has very distinctly different characteristics compared to the market leaders of the sequencing field. The small form factor of the device further helps it to separate itself from the other alternatives. However, the technology has only been on the market for a very short time and thus very little golden standards regarding its capabilities or usage have been established. This thesis describes our experiences testing the capabilities of the MinION sequencer both before its commercial release as a part of a special early access program, as well as our continued experiments with the device following its commercial launch. The main results of this study include successfully sequencing and aligning E.coli and human gDNA samples to their respective reference genomes. Using our sequencing and analysis pipeline specifically tuned to the MinION we were able to sequence the entire E.coli genome on a single MinION flow cell with an average depth of around 180. Over the course of the thesis project the MinION sequencing protocol was evaluated and optimized in order to determine whether it has the potential to achieve our ultimate goal of reliably sequencing the previously inaccessible genomic regions of the human genome. The possibility of augmenting the sequencing protocol by adding the pre-sequencing target enrichment was also explored. Ultimately we were able to confirm that the MinION sequencer can be used to sequence long DNA fragments from a multitude of sample types. The majority of the produced reads could successfully be aligned against a reference genome. However, the limited yield and sequencing quality of a single experiment does limit the applicability of the method for more complicated genomic studies. These issues can be addressed with various techniques, chiefly target enrichment, but adapting such methods into the sequencing pipeline has its own challenges.
  • Koivusaari, Pirjo; Tejesvi, Mysore V.; Tolkkinen, Mikko; Markkola, Annamari; Mykrä, Heikki; Pirttilä, Anna Maria (MDPI, 2019)
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10:651
    Biomass production and decomposition are key processes in ecology, where plants are primarily responsible for production and microbes act in decomposition. Trees harbor foliar microfungi living on and inside leaf tissues, epiphytes, and endophytes, respectively. Early researchers hypothesized that all fungal endophytes are parasites or latent saprophytes, which slowly colonize the leaf tissues for decomposition. While this has been proven for some strains in the terrestrial environment, it is not known whether foliar microfungi from terrestrial origin can survive or perform decomposition in the aquatic environment. On the other hand, aquatic hyphomycetes, fungi which decompose organic material in stream environments, have been suggested to have a plant-associated life phase. Our aim was to study how much the fungal communities of leaves and litter submerged in streams overlap. Ergosterol content on litter, which is an estimator of fungal biomass, was 5–14 times higher in submerged litter than in senescent leaves, indicating active fungal colonization. Leaves generally harbored a different microbiome prior to than after submergence in streams. The Chao1 richness was significantly higher (93.7 vs. 60.7, p = 0.004) and there were more observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (78.3 vs. 47.4, p = 0.004) in senescent leaves than in stream-immersed litter. There were more Leotiomycetes (9%, p = 0.014) in the litter. We identified a group of 35 fungi (65%) with both plant- and water-associated lifestyles. Of these, eight taxa had no previous references to water, such as lichenicolous fungi. Six OTUs were classified within Glomeromycota, known as obligate root symbionts with no previous records from leaves. Five members of Basidiomycota, which are rare in aquatic environments, were identified in the stream-immersed litter only. Overall, our study demonstrates that foliar microfungi contribute to fungal diversity in submerged litter.
  • Riskumäki, Matilda; Tessas, Ioannis; Ottman, Noora; Suomalainen, Alina; Werner, Paulina; Karisola, Piia; Lauerma, Antti; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Karkman, Antti; Wisgrill, Lukas; Sinkko, Hanna; Lehtimäki, Jenni; Alenius, Harri; Fyhrquist, Nanna (European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2021)
    Allergy 76: 4, 1280-1284