Browsing by Subject "self-presentation"

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  • Cámara Castillo, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The interactive features of social media platforms facilitate communication between political institutions and citizens and are said to enhance democracy by strengthening the public sphere. On the other hand, the commercialization of social networks and fragmentation of the public, together with the current mediatization of political communication, undermine the democratic possibilities of online platforms. Nowadays, the main social media platforms are owned by large US-based corporations with economic interests that often come into conflict with the public values promoted by EU institutions. Moreover, European institutions have the challenge of being often portrayed as non-transparent and remaining underrepresented in mass media. For that matter, analyzing how EU institutions present themselves on social media is relevant to understand which values they intend to promote and how do they interact with citizens, especially young people. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how the European Parliament and the European Commission use visual communication on Instagram to portray themselves and in which ways they use the interactive possibilities available in the Stories feature to communicate with citizens. In particular, this case study focuses on Instagram because it is a visually-centered social media platform, which allows analyzing the visual aspects of political communication fairly easily. Based on Habermas’ concept of public sphere, the analysis also considers whether democratic deliberation is part of the communication strategy of European institutions. Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis have been used as methods to assess the images and videos published on the Instagram accounts of the European Parliament and the European Commission during a period of 30 days, between January and February 2019. The clusters of analysis presented by Russmann and Svensson (2016), including perception, image management, integration and interactivity, have been selected as the main variables to analyze the content. The results of the analysis suggest that the communication strategy of the European institutions on Instagram is rather based on one-directional and top-down communication, accordingly with the findings of previous research. The European Parliament and the European Commission mostly use Instagram to inform citizens about their policy and to promote European values, instead of engaging in democratic deliberation and strengthening political participation. Furthermore, the building of the European identity appears to be a central aspect of the communication strategy of the analyzed institutions, often together with personalization and explicit reference to users.
  • Vigani, Alice (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In recent years, European societies have been affected by processes of increased diversity and migration. This master’s thesis explores the involvement in the local civil society of migrants. It takes place within the context of organisations of multiethnic composition working for migrants’ conditions and/or rights in the capital cities of Helsinki in Finland and Athens in Greece, two European metropolitan areas with stark differences in their migration, integration, and civil society panorama. The main aim of the study is to investigate how individuals of migrant origin construct and present themselves as agents for civil society organisations. The theoretical framework for the research is informed by previous studies on social movements and the civil society, in particular the social psychological model by Klandermans and the corpus of research stemming from Goffman’s framing theory. Another central theoretical reference is Goffman’s impression management theory, not previously applied to this research area. Adopting a micro-social constructionist perspective, the theoretical concepts listed above are operationalized with the tools offered critical discursive psychology and positioning theory. The data consists of transcripts of semi-structured interviews with five participants in each city, active in different organisations and from different countries of origins. The analysis led to the individuation of three main self-presentation styles across the participants, varying on different dimensions including the fit between them and the organisation, their position towards the organisation’s team and towards its target – migrant communities. The three styles are: Team Player, Enterprising Leader, and Expert Critic. In light of the results, it can be argued that the participants all attempted to present themselves in a positive light as agents for the organisations. Plus, participants’ self-presentations were impacted on one side from their origin and the stereotypes attached to it, on the other from the dominant migration regime and its consequences for migrants and their integration at the local level. Over all, the analysis yields interesting insights on how societal, organisational, and personal characteristics impact the participation and position in the civil society for migrant actors.
  • Krug, Anna-Lena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The world in which we live and communicate is complicated and complex. This is also true for political communication, which has moved, in some part, to newer forms of media, such as social media platforms. Politicians have gained the opportunity to communicate directly with their followers online, without any mediators. This allows political actors to present the image of themselves and the version of reality they want to convey. Twitter is one example of such a platform, which provides an interactive channel of communication between political actors and their audience. This thesis aims to analyse how the 280 characters long tweets are used as forms of communication by employing and combining Erving Goffman’s concepts of framing and self-presentation. Frames are interpretative frameworks which are activated by our brains to make sense of situations and events and the understanding of self-presentation describes how actors portray themselves in social settings. (Political) actors can change the way the narrative is framed, depending on which frame of reference they are highlighting in their communication. For the case sample, 1785 tweets by the German party Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) have been collected over a period of four weeks at the beginning of 2020. Their categorisation as a right-wing party as well as their active presence on Twitter makes them an interesting subject of study. To structure the collected data, the tweets are divided into 12 categories of framing strategies, which are based on the differentiation between a Positive Self-Presentation and a Negative Other-Presentation. The analysis of the tweets and the employed framing strategies showed that the party emphasised the (perceived) differences between themselves and the other, which ranges from political elites, oppositional political parties and their supporters to civilian groups such as activists, migrants or critics of the party. Language is important for the portrayal of the framing strategies, either through the usage of personal pronouns – for example, “us” or “them” – or through the invention of mocking names classifying the other. The self, here the AfD, is always presented positively and the others are depicted in a negative light. It has been found that the combination of different framing strategies can lead to a stronger emphasis on the positive self and the negative other. The tweets generally portray one version of reality or one version of the narrative that fits best to the objective the party wants to portray. The data sample and the period of data collection are rather limited and would need to be expanded for further analysis. Nonetheless, the results give an indication of how framing strategies can be used daily in political communication, which can add to the knowledge of political researchers and communicators.
  • Kohtamäki, Ilari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Tämän pro gradu-tutkielman tutkimuskohteena on sosiaalinen vuorovaikutus kaupungissa, jossa informaatioteknologia on integroitunut osaksi fyysistä ympäristöä. Ennen älypuhelimia ihmisiä on kohdattu joko kasvotusten tai internetin välityksellä. GPS-teknologian ja älypuhelinsovellusten nopea kehittyminen on tehnyt ihmisten fyysisen kohtaamisen mahdolliseksi digitaalista ympäristöä hyödyntäen. Uudet tavat olla vuorovaikutuksessa sekä muiden ihmisten että ympäristön kanssa ovat tulleet luonnolliseksi osaksi todellisuudenkokemusta. Kaupunkitilasta on muodostunut fyysisen ja digitaalisen todellisuuden hybridi, jossa ihmisiä kohdataan uusin tavoin. Tavoitteena on selvittää, millaista sosiaalisuutta tällaisessa hybridikaupungissa rakentuu. Kasvoittain tapahtuva ja digitaalinen vuorovaikutus muodostavat yhdentymän, jonka puitteissa tuntemattomien kohtaaminen tapahtuu. Vuorovaikutuksen perinteiset ja digitaaliset käytännöt kohtaavat ensi kertaa tutkitun teknologian myötä muodostaen hybridin, jossa molemmat ehdollistavat toisensa. Teoreettisessa katsauksessa käsitellään tämän hybridin taustaa. Osiossa käydään läpi teknologian kehityksen historiaa ihmisen mekaanisista jatkeista tietokoneiksi sekä sosiaalisen murrosta digitaalisten vuorovaikutusteknologioiden kehityksen myötä. Lisäksi tehdään katsaus lokaatioperustaisten pelien sekä internetpohjaisten seuranhakupalveluiden tutkimukseen. Tutkimuskysymys on: Millaista on sosiaalinen vuorovaikutus Grindrissä? Grindr on miehistä kiinnostuneille miehille suunnattu geososiaalista paikannusta hyödyntävä älypuhelimissa toimiva seuranhakupalvelu. Aineistonkeruun aikaan se oli myös ainoa suurta suosiota saavuttanut paikannusta hyödyntävä seuranhakusovellus. Aineisto koostuu kolmestatoista Berliinissä tehdystä haastattelusta, jotka on kerätty vuoden 2014 aikana. Haastateltavat on rekrytoitu sovelluksen välityksellä. Aineistonkeruumenetelmänä on teemahaastattelu ja -analyysimenetelmänä teemoittelu. Kaikki haastattelut olivat 40–120 minuuttisia yksilöhaastatteluja, ja ne toteutettiin englannin kielellä. Tutkimustyön perusteella voidaan todeta seuraavia asioita: Tuntemattomia voi kohdata Grindrin välityksellä ajasta ja paikasta riippumatta. Viestintä perustuu enemmän kuviin kuin sanoihin. Identiteetti ja intressit määritellään digitaalisessa ympäristössä, ja niissä luodot käsitykset ohjaavat toimintaa vahvasti myös fyysisessä kohtaamisessa. Digitaalisessa ympäristössä on luonnollista ilmaista tarpeensa suoraviivaisesti ja siirtyä nopeasti eteenpäin, mikäli intressit eivät kohtaa. Perinteiset ympäristöt ja tavat kohdata tuntemattomia ovat menettäneet merkitystään. Sosiaalinen vuorovaikutus Grindrissä vaikuttaa sekä ihmisten käsityksiin itsestä että muista. Kasvottaisen ja digitaalisen vuorovaikutuksen käytännöt limittyvät ja vaikuttavat vastavuoroisesti toisiinsa hybridisosiaalisen kanssakäymisen myötä. Fyysinen olemus määrittää puitteet digitaalisen persoonan konstruktiolle, samaan aikaan kun digitaalinen identiteetti vaikuttaa siihen, miten itsensä esittää fyysisissä kohtaamisissa. Tämän seurauksena on syntynyt uudenlaista sosiaalisuutta. Fyysistä ja digitaalista vuorovaikutusta ei hybridikaupungissa ole mielekästä tarkastella toisistaan irrallaan niiden asettuessa kaksisuuntaiseen suhteeseen, jossa molemmat välittyvät erottamattomasti toisikseen.