Browsing by Subject "sensitivity and specificity"

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  • Malkamäki, S.; Näreaho, A.; Lavikainen, A.; Oksanen, A.; Sukura, A. (2019)
    Berries and vegetables are potential transmission vehicles for eggs of pathogenic parasites, such as Echinococcus spp. We developed a SYBR Green based semi-quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis DNA from berry samples. A set of primers based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene was designed and evaluated. To assess the efficacy of the assay, we spiked bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) with a known amount of E. multilocularis eggs. The detection limit for the assay using the NAD1_88 primer set was 4.37 × 10−5 ng/μl of E. multilocularis DNA. Under artificial contamination of berries, 50 E. multilocularis eggs were reliably detected in 250 g of bilberries. Analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 100% with three eggs. As an application of the assay, 21 bilberry samples from Finnish market places and 21 bilberry samples from Estonia were examined. Previously described sieving and DNA extraction methods were used, and the samples were analyzed for E. multilocularis and E. canadensis DNA using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and a melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Echinococcus DNA was not detected in any of the commercial berry samples. This easy and fast method can be used for an efficient detection of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis in bilberries or other berries, and it is applicable also for fruits and vegetables. © 2019 The Authors
  • Saari, Antti; Pokka, Jari; Mäkitie, Outi; Saha, Marja-Terttu; Dunkel, Leo; Sankilampi, Ulla (2021)
    Context Development of the typical growth phenotype in juvenile acquired hypothyroidism (JHT), the faltering linear growth with increasing weight, has not been thoroughly characterized. Objective To describe longitudinal growth pattern in children developing JHT and investigate how their growth differs from the general population in systematic growth monitoring. Design Retrospective case-control study. Setting JHT cases from 3 Finnish University Hospitals and healthy matched controls from primary health care. Patients A total of 109 JHT patients aged 1.2 to 15.6 years (born 1983-2010) with 554 height and weight measurements obtained for 5 years preceding JHT diagnosis. Each patient was paired with 100 healthy controls (born 1983-2008) by sex and age. Longitudinal growth pattern was evaluated in mixed linear models. Growth monitoring parameters were evaluated using receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results At diagnosis, JHT patients were heavier (mean adjusted body mass index-for-age [BMISDS] difference, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.46-0.84]) and shorter (mean adjusted height-for-age deviation from the target height [(THSDS)-S-DEV] difference, -0.34 [95% CI, -0.57 to -0.10]) than healthy controls. However, 5 years before diagnosis, patients were heavier (mean BMISDS difference, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.12-0.54]) and taller (mean (THSDS)-S-DEV difference, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.06-0.52]) than controls. JHT could be detected with good accuracy when several growth parameters were used simultaneously in screening (area under the curve, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.78-0.89]). Conclusions Abnormal growth pattern of patients with JHT evolves years before diagnosis. Systematic growth monitoring would detect abnormal growth at an early phase of JHT and facilitate timely diagnosis of JHT.
  • De Marinis, Yang; Sunnerhagen, Torgny; Bompada, Pradeep; Bläckberg, Anna; Yang, Runtao; Svensson, Joel; Ekström, Ola; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Hansson, Ola; Groop, Leif; Gonçalves, Isabel; Rasmussen, Magnus (2020)
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global health- and economic crisis. Detection of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 by serological methods is important to diagnose a current or resolved infection. In this study, we applied a rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody test and performed serology assessment of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. In PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (n = 45), the total antibody detection rate is 92% in hospitalized patients and 79% in non-hospitalized patients. The total IgM and IgG detection is 63% in patients with 2 weeks disease duration; and 91% in hospitalized patients with >2 weeks disease duration. We also compared different blood sample types and suggest a higher sensitivity by serum/plasma over whole blood. Test specificity was determined to be 97% on 69 sera/plasma samples collected between 2016-2018. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG serology test, and mapped antibody detection patterns in association with disease progress and hospitalization. Our results support that the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG test may be applied to assess the COVID-19 status both at the individual and at a population level. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Olsen, A.; Berg, R.; Tagel, M.; Must, K.; Deksne, G.; Enemark, H.L.; Alban, L.; Johansen, M.V.; Nielsen, H.V.; Sandberg, M.; Lundén, A.; Stensvold, C.R.; Pires, S.M.; Jokelainen, P. (2019)
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonotic parasite. Meat of infected animals is presumed to constitute a major source of human infection and may be a driver of geographical variation in the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in humans, which is substantial in the Nordic-Baltic region in northern Europe. However, data on seroprevalence of T. gondii in different animal species used for human consumption are scattered. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of seroprevalence studies and meta-analysis to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in five animal species that are raised or hunted for human consumption in the Nordic-Baltic region: domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus), wild boars (Sus scrofa), and moose (Alces alces). We searched for studies that were conducted between January 1990 and June 2018, and reported in articles, theses, conference abstracts and proceedings, and manuscripts. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify variables influencing the seroprevalence. Findings: From a total of 271 studies identified in the systematic review, 32 were included in the meta-analysis. These comprised of 13 studies on domestic pigs, six on sheep, three on cattle, six on wild boars, and four on moose. The estimated pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii was 6% in domestic pigs (CI 95% : 3–10%), 23% in sheep (CI 95% : 12–36%), 7% in cattle (CI 95% : 1–21%), 33% in wild boars (CI 95% : 26–41%), and 16% in moose (CI 95% : 10–23%). High heterogeneity was observed in the seroprevalence data within each species. In all host species except wild boars, the pooled seroprevalence estimates were significantly higher in animals >1 year of age than in younger animals. Not all studies provided information on animal age, sensitivity and specificity of the serological method employed, and the cut-off values used for defining an animal seropositive. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of animals raised or hunted for human consumption in the region had tested positive for T. gondii. This indicates widespread exposure to T. gondii among animals raised or hunted for human consumption in the region. Large variations were observed in the seroprevalence estimates between the studies in the region; however, studies were too few to identify spatial patterns at country-level. © 2019