Browsing by Subject "sensitivity"

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  • Väänänen, Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aim: People with speaking disabilities have equal rights to functional interaction and communication as people without disabilities. These rights actualize only through the actions and skills of more able communicators. Guiding staff and family members is an important part of every speech and language pathologist's (SLP) job, especially if the client has severe learning disability. However, many SLPs experience guiding difficult and the results of staff communication training have been unsatisfactory. There are different models that can be used to help the process of indirect speech and language therapy. One of them is called Intensive interaction (II). Its role in enhancing interaction skills of more able communicators has only been studied a little. The purpose of this study is to find out if II is a meaningful approach to carry out indirect speech and language therapy. The aim was to find out if and how the interaction skills of a staff member change during an II process. The aim was also to figure out how she saw the significance of II. Methods: This research data were collected in the Communication and Technology Centre Tikoteekki of the Finnish Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. The data were collected during an II process that took place in 2014 and 2015 in a residential unit for people with learning disabilities. This study had two participants, one of whom was a resident with multiple learning and speaking disabilities, and the other one a staff member. The video material was composed of 14 interaction videos between the resident and the staff member, and one video of guidance discussion between the staff member and the mentoring SLP in the end of the process. The data were analysed according to the themes arising from the data, by mostly qualitative means. The changes in interaction skills were described with different tables and transcriptions. The guidance discussion was transcribed and analysed according to inductive analysis. Results and conclusions: The interaction style of the staff member became more sensitive and present. That change manifested through improvements in four elements of interaction: distance from the interaction partner, touching, quality and quantity of vocalization and tasklessness of interaction. The staff member saw II as a meaningful approach, especially for herself as an employee, but also for her interaction partner with multiple disabilities and more generally. These results suggest that II is a meaningful and effective means of mentoring significant others to become more sensitive, skillful and able interaction partners for persons with severe speaking disabilities. Additionally this study gives premises for further research on II and indirect speech and language therapy. In light of this research II is also important on societal level.
  • Veija, Tuukka; Kero, Mia; Koljonen, Virve; Böhling, Tom (2019)
    Aims Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare cutaneous neuroendocrine tumour of the skin, can be categorised into two groups according to Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) presence. MCV-negative tumours are more aggressive and frequently associated with gene mutations. Some of the genes are potential therapeutic targets. We have previously reported EGFR mutations in six of 27 MCC tumours and overexpression of ALK and EZH2 at mRNA level in MCC tumours. In this study, we sought to determine expression of ALK, EGFR and EZH2 in MCC samples and assess their correlation to MCV status and clinical parameters. Methods and results Tissue microarrays were utilised and stained with primary antibodies. Staining data were statistically compared to patient sex, tumour location and development of metastasis and MCC-specific death; 112 tumours and their corresponding patient data were included. We found strong expression of ALK in 51% and strong expression of EZH2 in 76% of the tumours. There was evident correlation of ALK expression with MCV-positivity. Expression of EGFR was infrequent, presenting only in seven MCV-negative tumours. None of the proteins associated with development of metastasis or MCC specific death. Conclusions ALK and EZH2 expression are frequent in MCC and ALK expression correlates to MCV positivity. EGFR positive tumours might respond to EGFR inhibiting treatment.
  • Syrjänen, Milla; Hautamäki, Airi; Pleshkova, Natalia; Maliniemi, Sinikka (2019)
    This study aimed to explore the self-protective strategies of six parents with ADHD and the sensitivity they displayed in dyadic interaction with their under 3-years-old children. The parents were interviewed using the Adult Attachment Interview. Parental sensitivity was assessed using the CARE-Index. The study showed a variation of the parents' self-protective strategies and sensitivity. The more complex the parent's self-protective strategy was, the less sensitive was the interaction. Some parents' need for self-protection compromised their ability to protect their child and decreased their sensitivity. All parents displayed indications of unresolved traumas, which also impaired their sensitivity to the signals of their child and ability to engage in mutual regulation of arousal and emotion with their child. Attachment-oriented family psychological assessment, including assessments of the self-protective strategies of each family member would make possible to design a treatment adapted to the unique family needs, also in order to alleviate early risk.
  • Snellman, Marja (2007)
    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe disease and a major cause of death worldwide especially among the elderly. The most common causative pathogen is Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus. The diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia is difficult because there is no gold standard, a diagnostic test that would identify all cases and yet be definite. National Public Health Institute has launched a Finnish Community-Acquired Pneumonia study investigating the frequency and causes of CAP among the elderly aged 65 years and above. Sputum, urine, blood and nasopharyngeal swab samples are the collected from the subjects enrolled in the study and a large number of microbiological assays are performed on samples. One of the main objectives is to find a case definition for pneumococcal pneumonia in the elderly. For this purpose, the accuracy of diagnostic tests performed in the study need to be evaluated. In the absence of gold standard, the true disease status of the subjects is latent and the sensitivities and the specificities of the tests cannot be estimated using conventional methods. The aim of this thesis is to to estimate the sensitivities and the specificities of diagnostic tests and estimate the prevalence of pneumococcal pneumonia among the elderly population in Finland using latent class analysis. The method is applied to data collected in the Finnish Community-Acquired Pneumonia study. Methodological issues in latent class analysis are discussed. In addition, a function for estimating the model parameters using statistical program R is presented. The main sources are: Agresti, Alan 2002: Categorical Data Analysis. Wiley. New York. Hagenaars, Jacques A. 1990: Categorical Longitudinal Data. Sage Publication. London Formann, A. - Kohlmann, T. 1996: Latent class analysis in medical research. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 5, 179-211.
  • Fronzek, Stefan; Carter, Timothy R.; Pirttioja, Nina; Alkemade, Rob; Audsley, Eric; Bugmann, Harald; Flörke, Martina; Holman, Ian; Honda, Yasushi; Ito, Akihiko; Janes-Bassett, Victoria; Lafond, Valentine; Leemans, Rik; Mokrech, Marc; Nunez, Sarahi; Sandars, Daniel; Snell, Rebecca; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Akemi; Wimmer, Florian; Yoshikawa, Minoru (Springer, 2019)
    Regional Environmental Change
    Responses to future changes in climatic and socio-economic conditions can be expected to vary between sectors and regions, reflecting differential sensitivity to these highly uncertain factors. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using a suite of impact models (for health, agriculture, biodiversity, land use, floods and forestry) across Europe with respect to changes in key climate and socio-economic variables. Depending on the indicators, aggregated grid or indicative site results are reported for eight rectangular sub-regions that together span Europe from northern Finland to southern Spain and from western Ireland to the Baltic States and eastern Mediterranean, each plotted as scenario-neutral impact response surfaces (IRSs). These depict the modelled behaviour of an impact variable in response to changes in two key explanatory variables. To our knowledge, this is the first time the IRS approach has been applied to changes in socio-economic drivers and over such large regions. The British Isles region showed the smallest sensitivity to both temperature and precipitation, whereas Central Europe showed the strongest responses to temperature and Eastern Europe to precipitation. Across the regions, sensitivity to temperature was lowest for the two indicators of river discharge and highest for Norway spruce productivity. Sensitivity to precipitation was lowest for intensive agricultural land use, maize and potato yields and Scots pine productivity, and highest for Norway spruce productivity. Under future climate projections, North-eastern Europe showed increases in yields of all crops and productivity of all tree species, whereas Central and East Europe showed declines. River discharge indicators and forest productivity (except Holm oak) were projected to decline over southern European regions. Responses were more sensitive to socio-economic than to climate drivers for some impact indicators, as demonstrated for heat-related mortality, coastal flooding and land use.
  • Nevalainen, Maisa Katariina; Vanhatalo, Jarno; Helle, Inari (2019)
    Risk of an Arctic oil spill has become a global matter of concern. Climate change induced opening of shipping routes increases the Arctic maritime traffic which exposes the area to negative impacts of potential maritime accidents. Still, quantitative analyses of the likely environmental impacts of such accidents are scarce, and our understanding of the uncertainties related to both accidents and their consequences is poor. There is an obvious need for analysis tools that allow us to systematically analyze the impacts of oil spills on Arctic species, so the risks can be taken into account when new sea routes or previously unexploited oil reserves are utilized. In this paper, an index‐based approach is developed to study exposure potential (described via probability of becoming exposed to spilled oil) and sensitivity (described via oil‐induced mortality and recovery) of Arctic biota in the face of an oil spill. First, a conceptual model presenting the relevant variables that contribute to exposure potential and sensitivity of key Arctic marine functional groups was built. Second, based on an extensive literature review, a probabilistic estimate was assigned for each variable, and the variables were combined to an index representing the overall vulnerability of Arctic biota. The resulting index can be used to compare the relative risk between functional groups and accident scenarios. Results indicate that birds have the highest vulnerability to spilled oil, and seals and whales the lowest. Polar bears’ vulnerability varies greatly between seasons, while ice seals’ vulnerability remains the same in every accident scenario. Exposure potential of most groups depends strongly on type of oil, whereas their sensitivity contains less variation.
  • Melero, Yolanda; Evans, Luke C.; Kuussaari, Mikko; Schmucki, Reto; Stefanescu, Constantí; Roy, David B.; Oliver, Tom H. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Communications Biology
    Climatic anomalies are increasing in intensity and frequency due to rapid rates of global change, leading to increased extinction risk for many species. The impacts of anomalies are likely to vary between species due to different degrees of sensitivity and extents of local adaptation. Here, we used long-term butterfly monitoring data of 143 species across six European bioclimatic regions to show how species’ population dynamics have responded to local or globally-calculated climatic anomalies, and how species attributes mediate these responses. Contrary to expectations, degree of apparent local adaptation, estimated from the relative population sensitivity to local versus global anomalies, showed no associations with species mobility or reproductive rate but did contain a strong phylogenetic signal. The existence of phylogenetically-patterned local adaptation to climate has important implications for forecasting species responses to current and future climatic conditions and for developing appropriate conservation practices.
  • La Serna Kanevets, Liudmila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The study examines sensitivity in the everyday interactive situations with multicultural children under 3 years of age in early childhood educational context. The research problem focuses on figuring out in which ways sensitivity occurs and what are the contextual factors related to sensitive and non-sensitive situations. Sensitivity refers to early childhood educator’s ability to detect and take into account the emotional needs of the child (Laevers according to Kalliala, 2008). The study was conducted in collaboration with the University of Helsinki LASSO project and a kindergarten in Helsinki, where the research material was collected by videorecording three early childhood educators and two children in their everyday life at the kindergarten. The research material was colleted between the late autumn 2014 to early spring 2015. The qualitative data were analysed by utilizing theory-driven approach. The basis of the analysis is in AES (adult engagement scale) and especially the sensitivity part of the scale, as well as EA (emotional availability) scale. LIS-YC scale was also used in observation of children (Kalliala, 2008). The results showed that sensitivity is a small part of everyday interactive situations. Differences in results were seen in the quality of the interaction. The majority of the interaction with the first participant was neutral, and more than half of the interactions were sensitive. In contrast, only half of the other participant’s interaction was neutral, and also half was non-sensitive. The differences were also found in the ways in which the sensitive and non-sensitive situations appeared in the participants' everyday life. For the first participant, the sensitivity was constructive, and adults made huge efforts to interact with the child. The insensitive moments were not numerous, but they could not be classified as accidental. The second one’s sensitive moments were supportive in nature but relatively rare. Insensitive situations were somewhat accidental, and for some reason, educators failed to notice the child’s needs. Based on the results, a study related to sensitivity between educators and children comparing Finnish and multicultural children would be important to conduct.
  • Säles, Emilia (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The Finnish legislation states that foster parents have an obligation of non-disclosure. This Master's Thesis discusses the conceptions and experiences foster parents have regarding the role of the obligation of non-disclosure in interaction. The study was carried out by the in-depth interviews of six foster parents during the year 2012. Before the interviews foster parents kept a small-scale interaction diary the purpose of which was to prepare foster parents for the forthcoming interviews. Transcribed interview data was analyzed and compressed into one main theme (the interest/need of the child ) and two sub themes (challenges of the obligation of non-disclosure and the means of interaction). The conceptions and experiences foster parents had on the obligation of non disclosure and the ways by which foster parents executed the obligation of non-disclosure or managed private information was presented with Communication Privacy Management Theory. Attachment Theory was also utilized in the interpretation of the conceptions and experiences of the foster parents. In this study executing the obligation of non-disclosure presented itself as an active managing of private information by the foster parents, the purpose of which was to take care of foster child's interests and needs. Foster parents strived for sensitive responsiveness in spite of the obligation of non-disclosure. Disclosure as well as non-disclosure of private information was seen as protecting the child depending on the situation. Foster parents viewed that the obligation of non-disclosure should primarily protect foster children. In the foster parent's point of view too strict interpretation of the obligation of non-disclosure had opposite effects on foster children's well-being. Most of the interviewees disclosed thoughts and feelings on fostering with their close friends or relatives because they felt they received support needed in fostering from these relationships. The interpretations that authorities have on the obligation of non-disclosure and the instructions given to the foster parents should be defined in order to insure foster parent's possibilities for executing sensitive interaction needed in taking care of foster children and their needs. The foster parent's views on the obligation of non-disclosure should be researched further. In order to receive a full picture on the phenomenon the views of the foster children and social services authorities should also be researched.
  • Grano, Niklas; Oksanen, Jorma; Kallionpää, Santeri; Roine, Mikko (2017)
    Previous studies have shown an association between hopelessness and suicidal behaviour in clinical populations. The aim of the study was to investigate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) for suicidal ideation in adolescents who show early risk signs on the psychiatric disorder continuum. Three-hundred and two help-seeking adolescents (mean age=15.5 years) who were entering an early intervention team at Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, completed questionnaires of BHS and suicidal ideation, derived from Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Results suggest that a BHS cut-off score 8 (sensitivity=0.70, specificity=0.76) or cut-off score 9 (sensitivity=0.63, specificity=0.80) may be useful to detect suicidal ideation with BHS in help-seeking adolescents population. Results remain mainly the same in a separate analysis with adolescents at risk for psychosis. The results support previous cut-off points for BHS in identification of suicidal ideation. The results suggest also that lower cut-off scores may be useful in sense of sensitivity, especially in clinical settings.
  • Roukka, Sulo; Puputti, Sari; Aisala, Heikki; Hoppu, Ulla; Seppä, Laila; Sandell, Mari A. (2021)
    Chemesthesis is a part of the flavor experience of foods. Chemesthetic perception is studied to understand its effect on food-related behavior and health. Thus, the objective of this research was to study individual differences in chemesthetic perception. Our study involved sensory tests of three chemesthetic modalities (astringency, pungency, and cooling). Participants (N = 196) evaluated the intensity of samples in different concentrations using a line scale under sensory laboratory conditions. Aluminum ammonium sulfate, capsaicin, and menthol were used as the prototypic chemesthetic compounds. The participants were divided into sensitivity groups in different chemesthetic modalities by hierarchical clustering based on their intensity ratings. In addition, an oral chemesthesis sensitivity score was determined to represent the generalized chemesthesis sensitivity. The results showed that people can perceive chemesthesis on different intensity levels. There were significantly positive correlations between (1) sensitivity scores for oral chemesthesis and taste as well as (2) each chemesthesis and taste modalities. Moreover, based on the multinomial logistic regression model, significant interactions between oral chemesthesis and taste sensitivity were discovered. Our findings showed that people can be classified into different oral chemesthesis sensitivity groups. The methods and results of this study can be utilized to investigate associations with food-related behavior and health.
  • Hakala, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives: Specific language impairment (SLI) is an impairment of oral language, which places demands on parent-child interaction, putting children at-risk for adverse developmental outcomes. Little is known about how different types of language impairment affect parent-child interaction. This study aims to examine how language impairment influences child, parent and dyadic behaviours between dyads with children who have expressive- and receptive-SLI. Methods: The sample included 85 children aged 36-81 months participating in the Helsinki Longitudinal SLI study. The sample consisted of 53 children with expressive-SLI (F80.1), and 32 children with receptive-SLI (F80.2). Parent-child interaction was evaluated using Erickson’s sensitivity scales during drawing, puzzle-making, and free play. Groups were compared using analysis of covariance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and conclusions: Children with expressive-SLI were found to be more persistent, enthusiastic, compliant and have a more positive experience of the interaction overall, when compared to children with receptive-SLI. SLI did not have a statistically significant effect on any of the parent and dyadic variables. Group means suggest that some parents may provide less emotional support and instruction to children with receptive-SLI. This could support earlier findings, which suggest that parents of language-impaired children adjust their behaviour to that of their children. Less active participation and poorer experience of the expression of children with receptive-SLI suggests that they need more support facilitate participation.