Browsing by Subject "seosrehu"

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  • Puranen, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong base which disrupts the seed coat by partial hydrolysis of hemicellulose and lignin in the rumen. NaOH can substitute for mechanical processing of cereal grains. Using total mixed ration including NaOH –treated grains, is an opportunity to avoid the metabolic problems caused by high dietary starch content. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of NaOH –treated wheat grains in ad libitum total mixed ration diet on feed intake and production of dairy cows. Commonly used oats-barley diet was a control. This study was conducted at the experimental farm of Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden from September to November 2010. There were 17 multiparous and 6 primiparous cows in the study (Swedish red breed). The cows were kept in a warm loose house barn and intake of total mixed ration was measured by using scale cups. Experimental treatments were ground barley and ground oats in the ratio of 1:1, ground wheat in the ratio of 1:0, ground wheat and NaOH –treated whole wheat in the ratio of 1:1 and NaOH –treated whole wheat in the ratio of 1:0. All the diets were formulated to have a dry matter content of 370 g/kg and crude protein content of 180 g/kg dry matter. Apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined using acid insoluble ash as a marker. Utilization of nitrogen was evaluated using calculated nitrogen balance. The experiment was conducted according to the 4x4 Latin square designs and the statistical differences between the treatments were detected by contrasts. Intakes of dry matter (PQ=0.02) and organic matter (PQ=0.02) increased in pursuance of their improved digestibility as half of the dried wheat was supplemented for NaOH –treated wheat. There was no significant difference between treatments in milk yield or energy corrected milk yield. Milk fat yield (PQ=0.04) and concentration of milk fat increased clearly (PQ=0.004) as half of the dry wheat was substituted for NaOH –treated wheat. By substituting all dry wheat for NaOH -treated wheat, milk protein concentration decreased (PL<0.001). The same occurred for milk urea concentration (PL=0.002). The NaOH –treatment did not result in any economic improvement in this study because concentration of milk protein decreased and intake increased, while milk production remained the same. The best production response was achieved by the mix diet of dried wheat and NaOH –treated wheat.
  • Toivonen, Marjo (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of starch content of partial mixed ration (PMR) on locomotion activity and milk yield in automatic milking system. The study was a part of Työtehoseura´s and ProAgria´s project “Automaattilypsynavetan toiminnallisuus”. The study was conducted at the research farm of the University of Helsinki. The experimental animals were thirty-nine primi- and multiparous cows, on average 104 days in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Cows were milked with automatic milking system which had a free cow traffic. Cows got concentrate from the milking robot 4, 6 or 8 kg according their milk yield. The experiment lasted six weeks and consisted of three two weeks’ periods. The experimental diets were partial mixed ration rich in starch (T) on periods 1 and 3 and partial mixed ration rich in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (K) on period 2. The change in starch content was made by replacing half of the cereals with concentrate rich NDF. The fermentation quality and digestibility of silage were good. The starch content of partial mixed rations was 166 (T), 87 (K) and 177 (T) g/kg DM. Dry matter intake and number of eating bouts were not affected by the starch concentration of partial mixed ration. There was curvilinear difference in NDF and starch intake as planned in the study design. The amount of milking visits and refusals decreased linearly during the experiment. The amount of fetched cows decreased slightly. There were a few less fetched cows with the PMR rich in NDF although the curvilinear effect was not significant. Milk yield decreased linearly during the experiment. The protein content of milk decreased slightly with PMR rich in NDF. The fat content of milk increased linearly during the experiment. There was no significant difference in energy corrected milk yield. On herd level there were no difference in locomotion activity and fetchings between partial mixed ration rich in starch or NDF. In individual level the PMR rich in NDF decreased fetching of two primiparous cows. The experimental partial mixed ration rich in starch did not decrease milking visits. In addition, partial mixed ration rich in starch had no effect on dry matter intake, eating visits or milk yield compared with partial mixed ration rich in NDF.