Browsing by Subject "seroprevalence"

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  • Alburkat, Hussein; Jääskeläinen, Anne; Barakat, Ali; Hasony, Hassan; Sironen, Tarja; Al-hello, Haider; Smura, Teemu; Vapalahti, Olli (2020)
    Acute febrile neurological infection cases in southern Iraq (N = 212) were screened for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Two LCMV IgM–positive serum samples and 2 cerebrospinal fluid samples with phylogenetically distinct LCMV strains were found. The overall LCMV seroprevalence was 8.8%. LCMV infections are common and associated with acute neurological disease in Iraq.
  • Olsen, A.; Berg, R.; Tagel, M.; Must, K.; Deksne, G.; Enemark, H.L.; Alban, L.; Johansen, M.V.; Nielsen, H.V.; Sandberg, M.; Lundén, A.; Stensvold, C.R.; Pires, S.M.; Jokelainen, P. (2019)
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonotic parasite. Meat of infected animals is presumed to constitute a major source of human infection and may be a driver of geographical variation in the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in humans, which is substantial in the Nordic-Baltic region in northern Europe. However, data on seroprevalence of T. gondii in different animal species used for human consumption are scattered. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of seroprevalence studies and meta-analysis to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in five animal species that are raised or hunted for human consumption in the Nordic-Baltic region: domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus), wild boars (Sus scrofa), and moose (Alces alces). We searched for studies that were conducted between January 1990 and June 2018, and reported in articles, theses, conference abstracts and proceedings, and manuscripts. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify variables influencing the seroprevalence. Findings: From a total of 271 studies identified in the systematic review, 32 were included in the meta-analysis. These comprised of 13 studies on domestic pigs, six on sheep, three on cattle, six on wild boars, and four on moose. The estimated pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii was 6% in domestic pigs (CI 95% : 3–10%), 23% in sheep (CI 95% : 12–36%), 7% in cattle (CI 95% : 1–21%), 33% in wild boars (CI 95% : 26–41%), and 16% in moose (CI 95% : 10–23%). High heterogeneity was observed in the seroprevalence data within each species. In all host species except wild boars, the pooled seroprevalence estimates were significantly higher in animals >1 year of age than in younger animals. Not all studies provided information on animal age, sensitivity and specificity of the serological method employed, and the cut-off values used for defining an animal seropositive. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of animals raised or hunted for human consumption in the region had tested positive for T. gondii. This indicates widespread exposure to T. gondii among animals raised or hunted for human consumption in the region. Large variations were observed in the seroprevalence estimates between the studies in the region; however, studies were too few to identify spatial patterns at country-level. © 2019
  • Kapiainen, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Only little data is available on seroprevalence of tick borne diseases in Finnish dogs. Worldwide these diseases, anaplasmosis being one of them, are relatively widely studied. In some European countries the disease has become more common than earlier and it has spread more towards North just in the last few years. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum –bacterium in Finnish dogs, the PCR-positivity in relation with seropositivity and the risk factors for exposure to a vector borne pathogen. The hypotheseis were that Anaplasma phagocytophilum is underdiagnosed in Finland, there are more Anaplasma phagocytophilum -infections and seropositive dogs in the southern parts of Finland and that hunting dogs are more susceptible for Anaplasma phagocytophilum -seropositivity compared to pet dogs. For material, 390 canine blood samples (serum, EDTA) were collected all around Finland. Of these samples, 50 were from hunting dogs. DNA was extracted from the EDTA-samples and with real-time -PCR the PCR-positive, bacteremic dogs, were spotted. Seropositivity was tested from the serum samples by using commercial SNAP 4Dx-test. The seroprevalence of anaplasmosis in Finnish dogs was 4,6% (18/390) and in hunting dogs 4,0% (2/50). Regionally in Åland there were more seropositive dogs than elsewhere in Finland. In Åland the seropositivity was 45% (9/20). Small dogs were more often seropositive than large dogs. Only two Finnish dogs were PCR-positive (2/390), meaning they had Anaplasma phagocytophilum -infection. These two dogs were seronegative. This study suggests that canine anaplasmosis is an important tick borne disease in Finnish dogs. The results show that dogs are commonly exposed to anaplasmosis especially in Åland islands and small dogs may be more susceptible to infection than large. It is unclear at this point if the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum -exposure will increase in other parts of the country due to the climate change and the northern spread of Ixodes ticks. The prevalence of actual infection is low. Because of this low number of Anaplasma phagocytophilum -positive dogs, no risk factors for infection could be identified in our study. Therefore, future studies with larger number of infected dogs are necessary to better understand the risk factors associated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum -infections in dogs and in people.
  • Grzybek, Maciej; Tolkacz, Katarzyna; Sironen, Tarja; Mäki, Sanna; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Biernat, Beata; Nowicka, Joanna; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Bajer, Anna (2020)
    Simple Summary Wild rodents constitute a significant threat to public health. We tested 77 voles from northeastern Poland for the presence of antibodies to hantaviruses, arenaviruses and cowpox viruses. We report 18.2% overall seroprevalence of zoonotic viruses. Our results contribute to knowledge about the role of Polish voles as possible reservoirs of viral infections. Rodents are known to be reservoir hosts for a plethora of zoonotic viruses and therefore play a significant role in the dissemination of these pathogens. We trapped three vole species (Microtus arvalis, Alexandromys oeconomus and Microtus agrestis) in northeastern Poland, all of which are widely distributed species in Europe. Using immunofluorescence assays, we assessed serum samples for the presence of antibodies to hantaviruses, arenaviruses and cowpox viruses (CPXV). We detected antibodies against CPXV and Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), the overall seroprevalence of combined viral infections being 18.2% [10.5-29.3] and mostly attributed to CPXV. We detected only one PUUV/TULV cross-reaction in Microtus arvalis (1.3% [0.1-7.9]), but found similar levels of antibodies against CPXV in all three vole species. There were no significant differences in seroprevalence of CPXV among host species and age categories, nor between the sexes. These results contribute to our understanding of the distribution and abundance of CPXV in voles in Europe, and confirm that CPXV circulates also in Microtus and Alexandromys voles in northeastern Poland.