Browsing by Subject "serum"

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  • Becker, Anna; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Itkonen, Outi (2021)
    Context: Patients with serotonin-secreting neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have increased serum 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) concentrations. Serum 5HIAA thus serves as a biomarker in NEN. Objective: To evaluate an improved tandem mass spectrometric serum 5HIAA assay for diagnosis and follow-up of NEN in a clinical cohort. Design: A retrospective study during 2016-2018 at the Diagnostic Center and Department of Endocrinology at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Methods: Detailed patient data was obtained from 116 patients. Serum 5HIAA was analyzed by 2 different liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays with samples prepared either by protein precipitation or solid phase extraction. Twenty-four-hour urine 5HIAA samples (n = 33) were analyzed by amperometric LC, and the results were compared. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: We achieved 5 to 10 000 nmol/L linearity and Conclusion: Serum 5HIAA by LC-MS/MS after protein precipitation performs equally well for the diagnosis of NEN as urinary 5HIAA LC assay. The outcome and sensitivity for serum and 24-h urine assays are convergent. Due to much more reliable and convenient sampling, we recommend serum instead of 24-h urine 5HIAA for diagnosis and follow-up of NEN patients.
  • Clayton, Aled; Boilard, Eric; Buzas, Edit I; Cheng, Lesley; Falcón-Perez, Juan Manual; Gardiner, Chris; Gustafson, Dakota; Gualerzi, Alice; Hendrix, An; Hoffman, Andrew; Jones, Jennifer; Lässer, Cecilia; Lawson, Charlotte; Lenassi, Metka; Nazarenko, Irina; O’Driscoll, Lorraine; Pink, Ryan; Siljander, Pia R-M; Soekmadji, Carolina; Wauben, Marca; Welsh, Joshua A; Witwer, Ken; Zheng, Lei; Nieuwland, Rienk (2019)
    There is an increasing interest in exploring clinically relevant information that is present in body fluids, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are intrinsic components of body fluids (?liquid biopsies?). In this report, we will focus on blood. Blood contains not only EVs but also cells, and non-EV particles including lipoproteins. Due to the high concentration of soluble proteins and lipoproteins, blood, plasma and serum have a high viscosity and density, which hampers the concentration, isolation and detection of EVs. Because most if not all studies on EVs are single-centre studies, their clinical relevance remains limited. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve standardization and reproducibility of EV research. As a first step, the International Society on Extracellular Vesicles organized a biomarker workshop in Birmingham (UK) in November 2017, and during that workshop several working groups were created to focus on a particular body fluid. This report is the first output of the blood EV work group and is based on responses by work group members to a questionnaire in order to discover the contours of a roadmap. From the answers it is clear that most respondents are in favour of evidence-based research, education, quality control procedures, and physical models to improve our understanding and comparison of concentration, isolation and detection methods. Since blood is such a complex body fluid, we assume that the outcome of the survey may also be valuable for exploring body fluids other than blood.
  • Penttinen, Anne (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, E.C. 3.4.21.26) cleaves short peptides, of less than 30 amino acid long, at the C-side of an internal proline. It has been associated with many pathophysiological processes, such as neurodegeneration and inflammation. At the moment there are no studies that have been focused on POP function in multiple sclerosis (MS). A preliminary study in a Spanish cohort reported altered POP activity in plasma samples of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) compared with healthy controls. Also they observed increased levels of the endogenous POP inhibitor in plasma samples of patients with RR-MS. The first objective of this study was to evaluate the POP activity levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from RR-MS patients and healthy controls in a Finnish population using a kinetic fluorescence assay. The seral levels of the endogenous POP inhibitor were also investigated by preincubating recombinant porcine POP (rPOP) with serum and determining the percentual decrease of POP activity compared to basal rPOP values (inhibitory capacity %). The second objective of this study was to purify and characterize the endogenous POP inhibitor in serum. In order to accomplish this goal, different biochemical and biophysical features, such as temperature resistance and filtering cut-off were tested. Also a combination of chromatographic approaches (affinity/anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction chromatography) with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and protein staining was used. All the differences observed in POP activity/inhibitor levels (serum, serum with DTT, CSF) between healthy controls and patients with RR-MS in this study did not reach statistical significance due to low values in all the samples. However, the trends in all the measured parameters were similar to the preliminary study in a Spanish cohort. Thus, the data supports further, more comprehensive, studies on the role of POP in MS. After series of chromatographic runs, a mass spectrometry analysis revealed the endogenous POP inhibitor to be α2-macroglobulin, a panprotease inhibitor in serum. α2-Macroglobulin has also been associated with MS, thus this finding substantiate the relationship between POP and MS.
  • Pietiäinen, Milla; Liljestrand, John M.; Akhi, Ramin; Buhlin, Kåre; Johansson, Anders; Paju, Susanna; Salminen, Aino; Mäntylä, Päivi; Sinisalo, Juha; Tjäderhane, Leo; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Pussinen, Pirkko (2019)
    Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory reaction at the apex of an infected tooth. Its microbiota resembles that of marginal periodontitis and may induce local and systemic antibodies binding to bacteria- and host-derived epitopes. Our aim was to investigate the features of the adaptive immune response in apical periodontitis. The present Parogene cohort (n = 453) comprises patients with cardiac symptoms. Clinical and radiographic oral examination was performed to diagnose apical and marginal periodontitis. A three-category endodontic lesion score was designed. Antibodies binding to the bacteria- and host-derived epitopes were determined from saliva and serum, and bacterial compositions were examined from saliva and subgingival samples. The significant ORs (95% CI) for the highest endodontic scores were observed for saliva IgA and IgG to bacterial antigens (2.90 (1.01-8.33) and 4.91 (2.48-9.71)/log10 unit), saliva cross-reacting IgG (2.10 (1.48-2.97)), serum IgG to bacterial antigens (4.66 (1.22-10.1)), and Gram-negative subgingival species (1.98 (1.16-3.37)). In a subgroup without marginal periodontitis, only saliva IgG against bacterial antigens associated with untreated apical periodontitis (4.77 (1.05-21.7)). Apical periodontitis associates with versatile adaptive immune responses against both bacterial- and host-derived epitopes independently of marginal periodontitis. Saliva immunoglobulins could be useful biomarkers of oral infections including apical periodontitis-a putative risk factor for systemic diseases.