Browsing by Subject "severity"

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  • Seppänen, H.; Puolakkainen, P. (2020)
    Background: Acute pancreatitis is a common disease, the incidence of which is 75-100/100,000/year in Finland. The worldwide incidence of acute pancreatitis is increasing. The identified mildcases usually show rapid recovery with conservative treatment allowing early discharge. Severe cases need early intensive care to reduce the risk of serious complications such as multi-organ failure. The revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 2012-2013. A recurrent acute pancreatitis is defined as two or more well-documented separate attacks of acute pancreatitis with complete resolution in between. Alcoholic pancreatitis is the most common recurrent acute pancreatitis type. Methods: In this review current severity classifications and literature on the prevention of recurrent acute pancreatitis are analyzed. Results: The severity of the disease is classified as mild, moderately severe, and severe acute pancreatitis. Novel entities include acute peripancreatic fluid collections in mild acute pancreatitis and acute necrotic collections in necrotizing acute pancreatitis lesser than 4 weeks after the onset and pancreatic pseudocyst in mild acute pancreatitis and walled-off necrosis in necrotizing acute pancreatitis more than 4 weeks after the onset of the disease. After the first attack of alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis, 46% of the patients develop at least one recurrence within 10- to 20-year follow-up. With repeated intervention against alcohol consumption, it is possible to reduce the recurrences. Removing the gall bladder after biliary pancreatitis is the key preventing recurrences. In mild cases, even during the index admission; in severe cases, it is recommended to wait until the inflammatory changes have resolved. Of total, 59% of the idiopathic pancreatitis had sludge of stones in the gall bladder. In other etiologies, addressing the etiological factor may prevent recurrent acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: This review describes current use of novel severity classifications and also different possibilities to prevent recurrent acute pancreatitis with different etiologies including idiopathic.
  • Virkki, Vili; Alanärä, Elina; Porkka, Miina; Ahopelto, Lauri; Gleeson, Tom; Mohan, Chinchu; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Flörke, Martina; Gerten, Dieter; Gosling, Simon N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Wanders, Niko; Kummu, Matti (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
    Human actions and climate change have drastically altered river flows across the world, resulting in adverse effects on riverine ecosystems. Environmental flows (EFs) have emerged as a prominent tool for safeguarding the riverine ecosystems, but at the global scale, the assessment of EFs is associated with high uncertainty related to the hydrological data and EF methods employed. Here, we present a novel, in-depth global EF assessment using environmental flow envelopes (EFEs). Sub-basin-specific EFEs are determined for approximately 4400 sub-basins at a monthly time resolution, and their derivation considers the methodological uncertainties related to global-scale EF studies. In addition to a lower bound of discharge based on existing EF methods, we introduce an upper bound of discharge in the EFE. This upper bound enables areas to be identified where streamflow has substantially increased above natural levels. Further, instead of only showing whether EFs are violated over a time period, we quantify, for the first time, the frequency, severity, and trends of EFE violations during the recent historical period. Discharge was derived from global hydrological model outputs from the ISIMIP 2b ensemble. We use pre-industrial (1801–1860) quasi-natural discharge together with a suite of hydrological EF methods to estimate the EFEs. We then compare the EFEs with recent historical (1976–2005) discharge to assess the violations of the EFE. These violations most commonly manifest as insufficient streamflow during the low-flow season, with fewer violations during the intermediate-flow season, and only a few violations during the high-flow season. The EFE violations are widespread and occur in half of the sub-basins of the world during more Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 3316 V. Virkki et al.: Globally widespread and increasing violations of environmental flow envelopes than 5 % of the months between 1976 and 2005, which is double compared with the pre-industrial period. The trends in EFE violations have mainly been increasing, which will likely continue in the future with the projected hydroclimatic changes and increases in anthropogenic water use. Indications of increased upper extreme streamflow through EFE upper bound violations are relatively scarce and dispersed. Although local fine-tuning is necessary for practical applications, and further research on the coupling between quantita tive discharge and riverine ecosystem responses at the global scale is required, the EFEs provide a quick and globally robust way of determining environmental flow allocations at the sub-basin scale to inform global research and policies on water resources management.
  • Sternby, Hanna; Mahle, Mariella; Linder, Nicolas; Erichson-Kirst, Laureen; Verdonk, Robert C.; Dimova, Alexandra; Ignatavicius, Povilas; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Koiva, Peeter; Penttilä, Anne; Regner, Sara; Bollen, Thomas L.; Brill, Richard; Stangl, Franz; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Singh, Vijay; Busse, Harald; Michl, Patrick; Beer, Sebastian; Rosendahl, Jonas (2019)
    Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Obesity has previously been reported to influence disease severity. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association of adipose and muscle parameters with the severity grade of AP. Methods: In total 454 patients were recruited. The first contrast-enhanced computed tomography of each patient was reviewed for adipose and muscle tissue parameters at L3 level. Associations with disease severity were analysed through logistic regression analysis. The predictive capacity of the parameters was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: No distinct variation was found between the AP severity groups in either adipose tissue parameters (visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue) or visceral muscle ratio. However, muscle mass and mean muscle attenuation differed significantly with p-values of 0.037 and 0.003 respectively. In multivariate analysis, low muscle attenuation was associated with severe AP with an odds ratio of 4.09 (95% confidence intervals: 1.61-10.36, p-value 0.003). No body parameter presented sufficient predictive capability in ROC-curve analysis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that a low muscle attenuation level is associated with an increased risk of severe AP. Future prospective studies will help identify the underlying mechanisms and characterise the influence of body composition parameters on AP.
  • Li, Chuan-Xing; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Zicheng; Chen, Lu; Li, Xun; Zhou, Meng; Wheelock, Asa M. (2022)
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly became a global health challenge, leading to unprecedented social and economic consequences. The mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 are both unique and complex. Omics-scale studies are emerging rapidly and offer a tremendous potential to unravel the puzzle of SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology, as well as moving forward with diagnostics, potential drug targets, risk stratification, therapeutic responses, vaccine development and therapeutic innovation. This review summarizes various aspects of understanding multiomics integration-based molecular characterizations of COVID-19, which to date include the integration of transcriptomics, proteomics, genomics, lipidomics, immunomics and metabolomics to explore virus targets and developing suitable therapeutic solutions through systems biology tools. Furthermore, this review also covers an abridgment of omics investigations related to disease pathogenesis and virulence, the role of host genetic variation and a broad array of immune and inflammatory phenotypes contributing to understanding COVID-19 traits. Insights into this review, which combines existing strategies and multiomics integration profiling, may help further advance our knowledge of COVID-19.
  • Hungarian Pancreatic Study Grp; Szentesi, Andrea; Parniczky, Andrea; Vincze, Aron; Sallinen, Ville; Hegyi, Peter (2019)
    Introduction: The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are growing worldwide. Several studies have confirmed that obesity (OB), hyperlipidemia (HL), or diabetes mellitus (DM) can increase severity, mortality, and complications in AP. However, there is no comprehensive information on the independent or joint effect of MetS components on the outcome of AP. Our aims were (1) to understand whether the components of MetS have an independent effect on the outcome of AP and (2) to examine the joint effect of their combinations. Methods: From 2012 to 2017, 1435 AP cases from 28 centers were included in the prospective AP Registry. Patient groups were formed retrospectively based on the presence of OB, HL, DM, and hypertension (HT). The primary endpoints were mortality, severity, complications of AP, and length of hospital stay. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: 1257 patients (55.7 +/- 17.0 years) were included in the analysis. The presence of OB was an independent predictive factor for renal failure [OR: 2.98 (CI: 1.33-6.66)] and obese patients spent a longer time in hospital compared to non-obese patients (12.1 vs. 10.4 days, p = 0.008). HT increased the risk of severe AP [OR: 3.41 (CI: 1.39-8.37)], renal failure [OR: 7.46 (CI: 1.61-34.49)], and the length of hospitalization (11.8 vs. 10.5 days, p = 0.020). HL increased the risk of local complications [OR: 1.51 (CI: 1.10-2.07)], renal failure [OR: 6.4 (CI: 1.93-21.17)], and the incidence of newly diagnosed DM [OR: 2.55 (CI: 1.26-5.19)]. No relation was found between the presence of DM and the outcome of AP. 906 cases (mean age +/- SD: 56.9 +/- 16.7 years) had data on all four components of MetS available. The presence of two, three, or four MetS factors increased the incidence of an unfavorable outcome compared to patients with no MetS factors. Conclusion: OB, HT, and HL are independent risk factors for a number of complications. HT is an independent risk factor for severity as well. Components of MetS strongly synergize each other's detrimental effect. It is important to search for and follow up on the components of MetS in AP.
  • Morel, Olivier; van Beekhuizen, Heleen J.; Braun, Thorsten; Collins, Sally; Pateisky, Petra; Calda, Pavel; Henrich, Wolfgang; Al Naimi, Ammar; Norgaardt, Lone Nikoline; Chalubinski, Kinga M.; Sentilhes, Loic; Tutschek, Boris; Schwickert, Alexander; Stefanovic, Vedran; Bertholdt, Charline; International Society for Placenta accreta spectrum (IS-PAS) (2021)
    Introduction In cases of placenta accreta spectrum, a precise antenatal diagnosis of the suspected degree of invasion is essential for the planning of individual management strategies at delivery. The aim of this work was to evaluate the respective performances of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for the antenatal assessment of the severity of placenta accreta spectrum disorders included in the database. The secondary objective was to identify descriptors related to the severity of placenta accreta spectrum disorders. Material and methods All the cases included in the database for which antenatal imaging data were available were analyzed. The rates of occurrence of each ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging descriptor were reported and compared between the Group "Accreta-Increta" (FIGO grades 1 & 2) and the Group "Percreta" (FIGO grade 3). Results Antenatal imaging data were available for 347 women (347/442, 78.5%), of which 105 were included in the Group "Accreta - Increta" (105/347, 30.2%) and 213 (213/347, 61.4%) in the Group "Percreta". Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in addition to ultrasound in 135 women (135/347, 38.9%). After adjustment for all ultrasound descriptors in multivariate analysis, only the presence of a bladder wall interruption was associated with a significant higher risk of percreta (Odds ratio 3.23, Confidence interval 1.33-7.79). No magnetic resonance imaging sign was significantly correlated with the degree of severity. Conclusions The performance of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate mild from severe placenta accreta spectrum disorders is very poor. To date, the benefit of additional magnetic resonance imaging has not been demonstrated.
  • Acciarresi, Monica; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Morotti, Andrea; Costa, Paolo; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszlo; Szabo, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; D'Amore, Cataldo; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Lees, Kennedy R. (2017)
    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate for a possible association between both prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and the severity of stroke at presentation, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days, in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, AF, and assessment of prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc score. Severity of stroke was assessed on admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (severe stroke: NIHSS >= 10). Disability and mortality at 90 days were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS <3 or >= 3). Multiple logistic regression was used to correlate prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and severity of stroke, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days. Results: Of the 1020 patients included in the analysis, 606 patients had an admission NIHSS score lower and 414 patients higher than 10. At 90 days, 510 patients had mRS >= 3. A linear correlation was found between the prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and severity of stroke (P = .001). On multivariate analysis, CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score correlated with severity of stroke (P = .041) and adverse functional outcome (mRS = 3) (P = .001). A logistic regression with the receiver operating characteristic graph procedure (C-statistics) evidenced an area under the curve of .60 (P = .0001) for severe stroke. Furthermore, a correlation was found between prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and lesion size. Conclusions: In patients with AF, in addition to the risk of stroke, a high CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score was independently associated with both stroke severity at onset and disability and mortality at 90 days.