Browsing by Subject "sexualitet"

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  • Breitenstein, Selma (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This Master's thesis is part of a project on marginalisation in school. The main focus of this study is to review how eighth-graders, reflect on and challenge structures of gender, gender roles, sexuality and heteronormativity in school. Although the school as an institution should be safe, inclusive and equal, structures that are problematic exist. The thesis used a feminist poststructuralist approach and gender was an important theme. The theoretical framework of the thesis described gender, sex and sexuality through both a societal perspective and a school perspective. The material for the study was collected from 2013 to 2014. The sample in this thesis consisted of 11 individual interviews and 4 group interviews with students in the eighth grade in a school in the capital area in Finland. The method of analysis was qualitative content analysis. How students challenge gender roles, heteronormativity and sexuality is something that there is not much research about. Hence, it was central to analyse what kind of structures exist in the school. It emerged that the students have to put up with stereotypical gender roles, threats of violence, appearance requirements, offensive name-calling, and a pressure to select a suitable hobby. Boys behave violently towards girls to a greater extent than the other way around. The results also indicate that the school is a very unsafe place for students with a non-heterosexual orientation. In school there is in general very little discussion about heteronormativity and sexuality. There were students in school who challenged the norms. There was a group of girls that explicitly challenged the structures. They questioned girl- and boy colours, and that educational materials, practices and environments in the school were heteronormative and gender-divided. Although there has been a change from previous research in that students are challenging structures, results indicate that gender roles and heteronormative structures still exist in school, which is problematic. Overall the thesis demonstrates that it is very hard to be a student in the eighth grade today. Bullying and excluding structures in school are common. The schools should actively review their own practices. Students who challenge the structures give hope to that despite everything, small changes in the everyday life in school are possible.
  • Ramstedt, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    I min pro gradu-avhandling har jag studerat hur genus, sexualitet och kroppslighet uppfattas och upplevs av pianister verksamma inom den västerländska konstmusiken. Pro gradun är en kvalitativ studie som baserar sig på intervjuer med tre under 30-åriga kvinnliga yrkespianister. Utgångspunkten för studien är den feministiska uppfattningen att kön är performativt och socialt konstruerat. Forskningsfrågan är hur genus och kroppslighet tolkas och skapas av pianisterna, samt hur deras uppfattningar om musikens betydelser påverkar deras upplevelser av att spela piano. Studien redogör även för pianospelandets historia ur genusvetenskaplig synvinkel. De intervjuade pianisternas uppfattningar jämfördes med pianospelandets kulturhistoria, för att studera hurudana uppfattningar om kön ännu existerar inom pianokonsten. Intervjuerna analyserades systematiskt, främst genom att utgå från Judith Butlers (1990/2006) performativitetsteori samt DeNoras (2002) teori om hur musik och musikframföranden konstruerar kön. Utgående från Butlers teori analyserades hur pianisterna skapade genus genom kroppsliga praktiker. DeNoras teori var utgångspunkten för att studera hur musik kan möjliggöra performativitet och hur konsertframföranden bygger upp och upprätthåller föreställningar om genus. I studien analyserades de betydelser pianisterna förknippade med kroppslighet och pianomusik samt hur pianisterna själva uppfattade kroppslighet och genus i relation till framförandet av musik. De intervjuade pianisterna jämförde även sina tidigare uppfattningar från ungdomen med sina nuvarande uppfattningar. Genom att beskriva pianisternas studiegång analyserades hur uppfattningar om genus och kroppslighet hade skapats. Studien visar att uppfattningar om genus i pianospel hade byggts upp under de intervjuade pianisternas ungdomsår. Genus, förknippat med en viss kroppslighet, kopplades ihop med repertoar och framföranden. Pianisterna hade speciellt i ungdomsåren spelat verk av J.S. Bach, Frédéric Chopin och W.A. Mozart. Repertoar som avvek från detta uppfattades som maskulin eller som möjlig att framföras endast av pojkar och män. Framförallt svårare verk av Ludwig van Beethoven och J.S. Bach sammankopplades med manlig kroppslighet och med uppfattningar om genialitet, andlig värdighet och även gudomlighet. Framföranden där pianistens kroppslighet avvek från den (vita) manliga kroppen uppfyllde inte kriterierna för en värdig tolkning av verken. De intervjuade pianisterna hade under studietiden genomgått en process, där de kritiserade de inlärda uppfattningarna om kroppsligheten i pianospel. Pianisterna ville framförallt spela verk genom vilka de hittade en mental och kroppslig frihet. Ofta hittades denna känsla särskilt genom att framföra modern västerländsk musik. En pianist upplevde sin sexualitet i pianospel, som fick henne att känna sig fri. Genom att kritiskt granska uppfattningar av genus, kroppslighet och musik hade pianisterna fått emancipatoriska upplevelser. Studien visar att pianots kulturhistoriska bakgrund påverkar pianisternas upplevelser av pianospel. Binära könsuppfattningar skapas genom specifika repertoarval i pianisternas ungdomsår. Uppfattningar av genus påverkade spelandet på olika sätt. Alla pianister hade försökt utvidga uppfattningarna, bland annat genom att spela modern musik. Eftersom pro gradun är en kvalitativ studie går det inte att dra generaliserande slutsatser. Studiens resultat gör det dock möjligt att forska vidare i hur binära konstruktioner av genus upprätthålls inom den västerländska pianokonsten.
  • Arlander, Annette (2014)
  • Siren, Kenneth (2018)
    The aim of this research is to examine the role of disruption in an artistic process and the possibilities of utilizing disruption in contemporary theatre. The theoretical starting point is John Dewey’s view of disruption as the onset of all learning and problem solving, and hence crucial for all pedagogy and education. The two research questions are: (1) in what ways could disruption be made a more central, productive, and visible element of an artistic process by means of contemporary theatre practices, and (2) what kind of a theatre performance results from an artistic process which aims to provide the audience with experiences of disruption? The basis of this research is the artistic process of the devised theatre performance Names of Plants, as well as its four performances. A group of nine performers, aged 19–48, and myself as the director experimented with various contemporary theatre practices used to create potential for disruption for the participants. An added pedagogical dimension to the process was acknowledging the gender diversity in the group as some of the participants and the author do not identify with binary terms for gender. The resulting performance, staged in an art gallery, was devised from the ideas, elements, autobiographical accounts, and movement sequences which originated in these exercises and practices. The artistic outcomes were created with the aim that the members of the audience would have possibilities to experience disruptions. Material for this practice-led research was collected in a research diary, through questionnaires to the participants and by an exit questionnaire to the audience. The theatre practices used turned out to have different results in cultivating experiences of disruption. Particularly fruitful were exercises that didn’t provide a clear model of a successful completion but rather allowed for the unexpected to happen. Both primarily physical and primarily verbal approaches seemed to produce disruptions and recollections of past moments of disruption. Other useful means included shifting the rehearsal structure multiple times. Some disruptions arose from the concrete aspects of the rehearsal situation itself; some of these fed the creativity while others caused tension and stress. Focusing on experiencing disruptions seems to have fostered a warm, caring atmosphere and acceptance towards mistakes, unfinishedness, and individuality. Aiming to provide the audience with experiences of disruption, Names of Plants combined a collage-like collection of elements with a unified, cohesive aesthetic quality throughout the performance. The elements were created through collecting autobiographical material from the participants as well as crafting scenic ideas from the experiences come upon during the exercises. The collage-like structure allowed for a diversity of autobiographical voices and was intended to provide opportunities for the audience to self-identify with, to recall past unexpected moments, and to experience new ones. The audience members found various unexpected elements in the performance, even in the kind of artistic context where people expect to be surprised.