Browsing by Subject "sexualitet"

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  • Laaksonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    International policy documents (FN (UN), 1989; WHO & BZgA, 2010, 2013; WAS, 2014; UNESCO, 2018) recommend that children should receive age-appropriate sexuality education, but it is unclear whether this is fulfilled in practice. There is relatively little research on sexuality education for younger students. Therefore, it is relevant to research how sexuality education for younger students is delivered. The purpose of this study is to describe how sexuality education is delivered in grades 1-2 in Finland and to examine teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality education for younger students. In this study I would like to draw attention to the potential of the Finnish curriculum when it comes to sexuality education. Five teachers, who at the time of the study taught grades 1-2 in Finnish primary schools, participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews that were recorded, transcribed, and analysed with thematic analysis. The results found that teachers had difficulties defining sexuality education. Teachers taught sexuality education across subjects, spontaneously and sometimes also unconsciously. Teachers need help defining what sexuality education is and what themes are to be addressed. Sexuality education should be made an evident part of the subject environmental studies in the Finnish curriculum. This can hopefully encourage teachers to teach sexuality education. The sexuality education was not really planned, evaluated, or developed in any of the schools. This is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Local plans for sexuality education should be written. The teachers had generally positive attitudes towards sexuality education for younger students, but in some situations sexuality education could be perceived as a difficult subject. Several of the teachers showed interest in promoting diversity and equal treatment in their teaching. This study failed in providing any deeper insight into how teachers work with norms in sexuality education.
  • Breitenstein, Selma (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This Master's thesis is part of a project on marginalisation in school. The main focus of this study is to review how eighth-graders, reflect on and challenge structures of gender, gender roles, sexuality and heteronormativity in school. Although the school as an institution should be safe, inclusive and equal, structures that are problematic exist. The thesis used a feminist poststructuralist approach and gender was an important theme. The theoretical framework of the thesis described gender, sex and sexuality through both a societal perspective and a school perspective. The material for the study was collected from 2013 to 2014. The sample in this thesis consisted of 11 individual interviews and 4 group interviews with students in the eighth grade in a school in the capital area in Finland. The method of analysis was qualitative content analysis. How students challenge gender roles, heteronormativity and sexuality is something that there is not much research about. Hence, it was central to analyse what kind of structures exist in the school. It emerged that the students have to put up with stereotypical gender roles, threats of violence, appearance requirements, offensive name-calling, and a pressure to select a suitable hobby. Boys behave violently towards girls to a greater extent than the other way around. The results also indicate that the school is a very unsafe place for students with a non-heterosexual orientation. In school there is in general very little discussion about heteronormativity and sexuality. There were students in school who challenged the norms. There was a group of girls that explicitly challenged the structures. They questioned girl- and boy colours, and that educational materials, practices and environments in the school were heteronormative and gender-divided. Although there has been a change from previous research in that students are challenging structures, results indicate that gender roles and heteronormative structures still exist in school, which is problematic. Overall the thesis demonstrates that it is very hard to be a student in the eighth grade today. Bullying and excluding structures in school are common. The schools should actively review their own practices. Students who challenge the structures give hope to that despite everything, small changes in the everyday life in school are possible.
  • Ramstedt, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    I min pro gradu-avhandling har jag studerat hur genus, sexualitet och kroppslighet uppfattas och upplevs av pianister verksamma inom den västerländska konstmusiken. Pro gradun är en kvalitativ studie som baserar sig på intervjuer med tre under 30-åriga kvinnliga yrkespianister. Utgångspunkten för studien är den feministiska uppfattningen att kön är performativt och socialt konstruerat. Forskningsfrågan är hur genus och kroppslighet tolkas och skapas av pianisterna, samt hur deras uppfattningar om musikens betydelser påverkar deras upplevelser av att spela piano. Studien redogör även för pianospelandets historia ur genusvetenskaplig synvinkel. De intervjuade pianisternas uppfattningar jämfördes med pianospelandets kulturhistoria, för att studera hurudana uppfattningar om kön ännu existerar inom pianokonsten. Intervjuerna analyserades systematiskt, främst genom att utgå från Judith Butlers (1990/2006) performativitetsteori samt DeNoras (2002) teori om hur musik och musikframföranden konstruerar kön. Utgående från Butlers teori analyserades hur pianisterna skapade genus genom kroppsliga praktiker. DeNoras teori var utgångspunkten för att studera hur musik kan möjliggöra performativitet och hur konsertframföranden bygger upp och upprätthåller föreställningar om genus. I studien analyserades de betydelser pianisterna förknippade med kroppslighet och pianomusik samt hur pianisterna själva uppfattade kroppslighet och genus i relation till framförandet av musik. De intervjuade pianisterna jämförde även sina tidigare uppfattningar från ungdomen med sina nuvarande uppfattningar. Genom att beskriva pianisternas studiegång analyserades hur uppfattningar om genus och kroppslighet hade skapats. Studien visar att uppfattningar om genus i pianospel hade byggts upp under de intervjuade pianisternas ungdomsår. Genus, förknippat med en viss kroppslighet, kopplades ihop med repertoar och framföranden. Pianisterna hade speciellt i ungdomsåren spelat verk av J.S. Bach, Frédéric Chopin och W.A. Mozart. Repertoar som avvek från detta uppfattades som maskulin eller som möjlig att framföras endast av pojkar och män. Framförallt svårare verk av Ludwig van Beethoven och J.S. Bach sammankopplades med manlig kroppslighet och med uppfattningar om genialitet, andlig värdighet och även gudomlighet. Framföranden där pianistens kroppslighet avvek från den (vita) manliga kroppen uppfyllde inte kriterierna för en värdig tolkning av verken. De intervjuade pianisterna hade under studietiden genomgått en process, där de kritiserade de inlärda uppfattningarna om kroppsligheten i pianospel. Pianisterna ville framförallt spela verk genom vilka de hittade en mental och kroppslig frihet. Ofta hittades denna känsla särskilt genom att framföra modern västerländsk musik. En pianist upplevde sin sexualitet i pianospel, som fick henne att känna sig fri. Genom att kritiskt granska uppfattningar av genus, kroppslighet och musik hade pianisterna fått emancipatoriska upplevelser. Studien visar att pianots kulturhistoriska bakgrund påverkar pianisternas upplevelser av pianospel. Binära könsuppfattningar skapas genom specifika repertoarval i pianisternas ungdomsår. Uppfattningar av genus påverkade spelandet på olika sätt. Alla pianister hade försökt utvidga uppfattningarna, bland annat genom att spela modern musik. Eftersom pro gradun är en kvalitativ studie går det inte att dra generaliserande slutsatser. Studiens resultat gör det dock möjligt att forska vidare i hur binära konstruktioner av genus upprätthålls inom den västerländska pianokonsten.
  • Aura, Pernilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    All schools in Finland are required by law to ensure equality of treatment on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and other individual characteristics. Previous studies have shown that young people who do not conform to heteronormative expectations are more likely to have mental health problems compared to their peers and are more likely to feel that school is an unsafe environment. Teachers, for their part, often feel that they do not have enough knowledge about how different sexualities and gender identities should be taken into account in their practical dealings with students. Previous studies have primarily focused on the school experiences of teenagers and young adults rather than on the experiences of younger students. The purpose of this study is to examine the views of seventh-grade students regarding the sex education they have received from first grade onwards, and how teachers accommodate gender diversity in their teaching. The study was based on semi-structured interviews with four native Swedish-speaking seventh-grade students from southern Finland. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that all the students who participated in the study felt that sexuality and gender identity were not properly discussed in grades 1 through 6. By contrast, they felt that the information they were given about puberty and reproduction in grades 5 through 6 was sufficient. The analysis also suggests that although the students felt that some of the teachers were clearly concerned with advancing gender equality, the atmosphere in the school in general was still quite heteronormative. All the students who participated in the study felt that more sex education was needed, and that there should be greater discussion of gender diversity, preferably even before fifth grade. In their view, this would help foster a more respectful and inclusive atmosphere at school. In future studies, it would be of interest to find out more about what kind of support teachers would benefit from to develop sex education, and what would help them to accommondate gender diversity in their teaching.