Browsing by Subject "sexuality"

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  • Bergroth, Ona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tämä pro gradu -tutkielma käsittelee seksuaalivähemmistöihin kuuluvien naisten identiteetin rakentumista kielen näkökulmasta. Tutkielma perustuu neljän yksilön haastatteluihin, joissa keskeisenä teemana ovat oma identiteetti, coming out -tarinat ja LGBTQ-yhteisön sisäinen terminologian käyttö. Tämän lisäksi tutkitaan englannin kielen asemaa globaalin LGBTQ-yhteisön yhteisenä kielenä; englannin kielen keskeisyys näkyy myös haastateltavien kielenkäytössä. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu kahdesta Zoom-alustalla toteutetusta videohaastattelusta, joista kumpaankin osallistui kaksi toisilleen tuttua haastateltavaa. Keväällä 2020 puhjenneesta koronapandemiasta johtuen haastattelut suoritettiin etäyhteyden välityksellä. Haastattelut tallennettiin haastateltavien luvalla suoraan Zoomin kautta. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin äänitallenteita ja niiden pohjalta tehtyjä muistiinpanoja. Haastatteluaineiston analyysi tässä tutkielmassa yhdistelee sosiolingvistiikan ja queer-teorian tutkimushistoriaa, ja tärkeimmät teoreettiset käsitteet ovat Judith Butlerin performatiivisuuden teoria sekä Eckertin sosiolingvistiikan alalle tuoma käytäntöyhteisö (community of practice). Näiden lisäksi sosiolingvistiikan konseptit indeksikaalisuus ja asenne (stance) toimivat analyysin perustana. Coming out -tarinoita peilataan myös aiempiin samaa aihetta käsitteleviin tutkimuksiin. Tutkimusnäkökulma on deskriptiivinen ja kvalitatiivinen. Tutkielman tulokset on jaoteltu haastattelukysymysten mukaan: ensin käsitellään haastateltavien omaa identiteettiä, minkä jälkeen keskustelu laajenee käsittelemään yhteisön sisäistä terminologiaa ja kielivalintojen merkityksiä. Tuloksissa käsitellään eri termien eksklusiivisuutta ja inklusiivisuutta, konnotaatioita ja termien välisiä hierarkioita ja linkkejä. Tämän lisäksi käsitellään termien historiaa ja niihin liittyvien asenteiden muutoksia, esimerkiksi aiemmin halventavina käytettyjen termien (slur) takaisinottoa ja käyttöä nykypäivän arkikielessä. Haastateltavien näkemyksiä nykypäivän kielenkäytöstä peilataan aiempaan tutkimukseen terminologian muutoksista. Haastateltavat tuovat myös esille englannin kielen keskeisen aseman seksuaalivähemmistöjen terminologiassa, joka ulottuu myös muita kieliä äidinkielenään puhuvien kielenkäyttöön. Tutkielman keskeisimmät tulokset ovat, että termien konnotaatiot sekä yksilön identiteetin että yhteisön tasolla ovat vahvasti aika-, paikka- ja kontekstisidonnaisia. Yksittäisellä identiteettikategorialla, kuten nimikkeellä queer, ei siis ole yhtä sidottua merkitystä ja konnotaatiota, vaan esimerkiksi historiallinen tausta ja termin käyttöyhteys vaikuttavat sen merkitykseen ja puhujien asenteisiin. Lisäksi omaa identiteettiä kuvailevia termejä voidaan käyttää eri tavoin eri sosiaalisissa tilanteissa, koska konnotaatiot ovat sekä puhujasta että kuulijasta riippuvaisia. Näin ollen identiteetin performatiivisuus korostuu tutkielman tulosten analyysissä – kuten aiempi tutkimus on osoittanut, identiteetti on kielessä ja sosiaalisessa kontekstissa rakentuva ilmiö. Haastatteluaineistosta ilmenee myös, että LGBTQ-yhteisön kielenkäyttö on jatkuvassa muutoksessa uusien termien syntymisen myötä. Seksuaalivähemmistöjen kielenkäytön tutkiminen onkin jatkuvasti relevanttia, etenkin globaalin käytäntöyhteisön näkökulmasta.
  • Alafuzoff, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tutkielma käsittelee kuubalaisen runoilijan Carilda Oliver Labran valikoiduissa runoissa esiintyvää seksuaalisuutta, erotiikkaa sekä intohimon ja rakkauden diskurssia kuubalaisen kulttuurin näkökulmasta. Carilda Oliver Labra on 1920-luvulla Kuubassa syntynyt naisrunoilija, joka on tullut tunnetuksi ennen kaikkea eroottisista runoistaan. Ensimmäiset runonsa hän julkaisi 1940-luvulla, jolloin ne aiheuttivat paheksuntaa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on luoda yleiskäsitys kuubalaisesta rakkauden kokemuksesta sekä naisen seksuaalisesta heräämisestä 1940-luvun Kuubassa aina 1980-luvulle asti. Tutkimukseen on valittu seitsemän runoa 1940-luvulta aina 1980-luvun alkuun asti. Runot edustavat Labran eroottista tuotantoa ja luovat yleiskatsauksen hänen tyyliinsä kirjoittaa eroottista runoutta. Runot myös kertovat Labran omaa elämäntarinaa, sijoittuen mm. hänen avioliittojensa ajalle, sekä toisen avioimiehen menetykseen, joka vaikutti tuntuvasti Labran tekemiin runoihin. Teoriataustana tutkimuksessa käytetään Luce Irigarayn sekä Hélène Cixousn ajatuksia rakkaudesta, parisuhteista sekä naisten kirjoittamisesta. Teorioiden tukena toimii ymmärrys naiseuden ja rakkauden käsityksestä yleisellä tasolla sekä Kuuban sisäisesti. Tämän lisäksi tulkinta sijoitetaan Kuuban historiaan. Tutkimusmenetelmänä toimii runoanalyysi sekä diskurssianalyysi. Carilda Oliver Labran runous heijastelee kuubalaista käsitystä rakkaudesta, mutta myös osoittaa uuden tavan luoda naisen seksuaalisuutta ja kirjoittaa erotiikkaa naisen näkökulmasta Kuubassa 1940-luvulta aina 1980-luvulle. Carilda toimi vastoin yleisiä odotuksia ja stereotypioita ja osoitti, että myös naisella on oikeus eroottisiin ajatuksiin ja seksuaalisuutensa ilmaisuun.
  • Muurinen, Mira (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In my master’s thesis (pro gradu) I analyze three novels that are set in the future: The Year of the Flood by Margaret Atwood, The Circle by Dave Eggers, and Super Sad True Love Story by Gary Shteyngart. I suggest that while the novels share a great deal of tropes with such dystopian classics as Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, Geroge Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, and Yevgeni Zamyatin’s Мы (trans. We), they also differ from these novels to a significant degree. For this reason, I suggest approaching them as corporatocratic dystopias. In the analysis of generic dystopian characteristics in the novels, I refer to Erica Gottlieb’s (2001) notions of dystopian fiction. Another important literary concept in my study is satire, in the analysis of which I refer to Dustin H. Griffin’s (1994) views on satire as a playful and questioning genre. Central for all dystopias is the notion of a dystopian waning: the implied author of a dystopia exaggerates and ridicules in order to warn a contemporaneous reader against dystopian developments that take place in the reader’s own reality. The elementary difference between the three novels I analyze and Gottlieb’s characterizations concerns the novels’ description of tyranny. Traditionally, dystopias depict the supremacy of a state or a political party. In the novels I investigate in my thesis, the negative developments that take place in society are closely linked to the fact that corporations have gained power at the cost of political rulers, i.e. to the birth of a corporatocracy. I approach the question of power with the help of Antonio Gramsci’s (1975/1992) two dimensions of power: hegemony and dominance. I argue that unlike earlier dystopias, in which tyranny manifests itself in coercive deeds of dominance, the kind of corporatocracy the three novels depict functions to a great extent through hegemony, which is based on consent. In the three novels, corporations renew and uphold their power by maintaining excessive consumerism and mediatisation in society. In the analysis of these developments, I turn to Jürgen Habermas’ (1962/1989) views on mediatisation, and to Jean Baudrillard’s (1970/1998 and 1981/1994) and Joseph D. Rumbo’s (2002) conceptions on consumer society. The effects of consumerism penetrate also the private sphere in the novels, and thus questions about the body, sex, gender and sexuality are central to my thesis. Additionally, the novels seem to suggest that corporatocracy threatens reciprocity and togetherness between people, and alienates them from nature and from religion. I approach these themes with the help of Baudrillard’s theorisations on the body in consumer culture and Luce Irigaray’s (1985) discussions on patriarchy and women as commodities. The central outcome of my study is that the characters in the novels do not merely appear as identifiable victims of corporatocracy, or as fearless heroes who challenge the tyranny. Rather, as members of their fictional societies, the characters also contribute to the establishment of corporatocracy. I suggest that the dystopian warning all three novels eventually communicate leads directly to the behaviour, norms and ideologies of the characters, and finally, to human nature. Thus, through their characters, the implied authors of these novels encourage their readers to critically assess also their own roles as members of society.
  • Ådahl, Susanne (2000)
    This thesis analyses the specific moral discourses that popular class female sex workers and their regular clients create in the particular world of prostitution in Managua, Nicargua. My intention was to identify, through ethnographic narratives, what meanings sex workers and clients attach to intimacy and respect and how their street life (calle) and home making (casa) roles merge and interact. The specific kind of morality that emerges in sex workers' and clients' manner of speaking indicates how the limits of morality are fluid, pointing to where the spheres of calle and casa meet, intermingle and create specific meanings. This is not an investigation into deviant behaviour, although the actors are situated in a social world that is characterised as liminal. It is, rather, an ethnography of the particular aimed at dispelling stereotypical images portrayed of sex workers and clients. It attempts to bring a commentary to the ongoing discussion on masculinity and sexuality, where a stress is being placed on the multiplicity and shifting character of roles, and of the centrality of interaction between men and women. The study is based on ethnographical field work (Nov 1998 - Mar 1999) conducted in Managua. The main methodology used was taped life history interviews mainly with sex workers and clients; and, participant observation through site visits to both day time and night time locations. The total number of interviews conducted was 26 (women 18, men 8). Additionally, literary sources on sexuality and masculinity in Latin America were used. In the world of Managua prostitution we find popular class Managuans in their role as clients and sex workers, but we also glimpse their other, home making roles. The so called "ideal" picture of gender relations, and the real situation on the streets and homes of popular class Nicaraguans contradict each other. Men and women are conditioned to believe in romantic love, but in many Nicaraguan homes the reality is economic and emotional deprivation, violence, and abandonment. There is a lack of trust, of safety and of an opportunity for men and women to fulfil the roles of home making. Women and men live with the dream of having a home, a place of safety and love, understanding and communication. Through the game of courtship between sex workers and clients, respect and communication leads to a mutual sense of affection and a particular kind of morality. The safety arising from this interaction provides a means of making a home. In this process we find evidence of how the meaning of morality and masculinity is shifting and transformative.
  • Laiti, Minna; Parisod, Heidi; Pakarinen, Anni; Sariola, Salla; Hayter, Mark; Salanterä, Sanna (2021)
    Previous research shows that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and other (LGBTQ+) students can experience substantial emotional- and health-related issues at school, but research into LGBTQ+ students' experiences of school nursing is limited. This qualitative study describes the experiences of Finnish LGBTQ+ students engaging with junior high school nurses. Data were collected from 35 LGBTQ+ students using an online survey tool comprising of a set of open-ended questions. Two interconnecting themes were identified following thematic analysis: (1) junior high school nurse engagement: a mixed or unsatisfactory experience and (2) LGBTQ+ students' needs for diversity-affirming junior high school nursing. Findings show that LGBQT+ students felt junior high school nurse engagement was often unsupportive with issues around their sexuality and gender identity. LGBTQ+ students expressed the need for diversity-affirming information and support in school settings. Further research from school nurses' perspective is needed to increase understanding of this topic.
  • Härkönen, Heidi (2013)
    The efforts of the Cuban socialist state to create a ‘New Man’ shared basic characteristics with endeavours in Eastern European and Soviet state socialisms, including the promotion of gender equality and stable marital relationships. In Cuba, this also included the goal of creating greater stability in the largely matrifocal family relationships. Ethnographic evidence from contemporary Havana suggests that Cubans have widely embraced some aspects of the state’s notions of socialist marital relationships, but insecurities still play a significant role in love relationships. Infidelity, ‘plotting’ and shaky trust in their romantic partner are of constant concern for Cubans. Exploring how Cubans negotiate doubts and trust in love relationships, this paper relates jealousy to uncertainties endemic in the transformations of contemporary Cuban socialism. The material deficiencies and dissatisfactions of post-Soviet Cuba, indissociable from a major increase in international tourism, intertwine with local notions of masculinity and femininity and fuel insecurities in relationships. While Caribbean family relationships have for long been described as fragile and unstable, this paper examines new insecurities that have emerged in post-Soviet Havana as part of important changes in contemporary Cuban socialism rather than of longue-durée.
  • Harkonen, Heidi (2019)
    Among low-income Havana residents, men frequently give money and other forms of material support to women in whom they have a romantic interest. For women, men's material contributions are expressions of responsibility and care. While men share this view to a degree, they sometimes have more ambiguous emotions regarding such practices. These tensions in different views of gendered reciprocity are influenced by large-scale changes that have taken place in Cuban society since the 1990s. Although, traditionally, state socialism has embraced ideas of gender egalitarianism and women's independent income, the post-Soviet period has seen the emergence of new inequalities, dependencies, and marginalizations that threaten earlier, socialist understandings of intimacy. The importance that women currently place on material wealth in terms of their views of a desirable partner highlights the gendered consequences of Cuba's contemporary economic transformations and their complex interplay with individuals' aspirations for love.
  • Geyer, Lukas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyz society got entangled in discussions about what it means to be Kyrgyz. Even though Kyrgyzstan has experienced a surge in nationalism over the last decades, it is only since recently that non-heteronormative sexualities are increasingly constructed as a threat to the continued existence of the Kyrgyz nation. Based on five in-depth interviews with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals, I explore how they rationalise the increasing homophobia in Kyrgyz society and what kind of behavioural strategies they adopt to cope with the hostile environment. In particular, I assess whether the discursive exclusion of LGBT individuals from the Kyrgyz nation alters their relationship with the nation and the state. The research participants demonstrate an awareness for the connection between increasing nationalism and worsening attitudes against LGBT people and report corresponding adjustments in their behaviour, ranging from adaptation and hiding strategies to activism and emigration. While all respondents have a negative relationship with the Kyrgyz state, most report a decreasing sense of belonging to the Kyrgyz nation amid growing homophobia as well. These results suggest that the increased emphasis on the purportedly heteronormative nature of the Kyrgyz nation succeeds in redefining individual belonging to the nation and shifting the imagined boundaries of the nation.
  • Tuominen, Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Objectives. Most sex education related studies prior to this study have focused on describing the current sex education situation from different perspectives, often bringing attention to certain problems. The field of sex educational research has been in need of studies that focus on solving those problems. This study aims to find ways to develop school sex education by defining what sex education should be, how the teaching should be organized, and how it could be developed. Methods. The research approach of this study was qualitative. The data was collected by interviewing eight sex education experts from different backgrounds. The experts were selected due to their sex educational experience that varied from scientific research concerning sex education to decades of sex educational teaching experience. The interviews were transcribed and processed using content analysis. The main subject of the analysis was the information from the experts, not so much the experts themselves. Through content analysis the information was brought to a more general level in a more compact and informative form. Results and conclusions. Increasing and developing school sex education was considered important. Experts wanted to improve the quality of sex education by taking sexuality more into account in the everyday life of schools. The basis of sex education was set on the fact that children have a right to good quality sex education and teachers need professional skills to implement this right. The most important goal of sex education is to raise individuals who are satisfied with their lives and allow the same to others. When this goal is fulfilled can sex education generate positive chance in both personal and community level. The results can be applied to the development of school sex education and used by individual teachers, schools, municipalities and national projects.
  • Lehtonen, Jukka (2002)
    The study deals with the sexuality and gender of young people and the way they get expressed in various practices at school. I interviewed 30 non-heterosexual young people, 16 girls and 14 boys. Their ages ranged from 15 to 20 years. The reason to interview non-heterosexual young people was my interest in their experiences, and the assumption that non-heterosexual youth have more memories of heteronormativity. I analysed their stories, and, on the basis of the interviews, reconstructed school practices and studied ways of challenging and maintaining heteronormativity. The study draws largely on gender-specific studies in the sociology of education as well as on lesbian and gay studies. For gender analysis and the study of performativity, Judith Butler provided useful theoretical ideas. Other important scholars were Tuula Gordon, Elina Lahelma, Sinikka Aapola, Tarja Palmu, Tarja Tolonen, Helena Saarikoski, Janet Holland, Debbie Epstein, Mairtin MacAnGhaill, James Sears, and Jeffrey Weeks. I am involved in a research project 'Citizenship, Difference and Marginality at School – with Special Reference to Gender', lead by Tuula Gordon. I research at the construction of sexuality and gender in school practices. I analyse the ways in which heteronormativity becomes intertwined in these practices. Heteronormativity involves the idea that heterosexual masculinity for men and heterosexual femininity for women are seen as self-evident, or natural basis for gender and sexuality, or that they are presented as something better compared to other alternatives. I analyse sex education as well as the gendered sports and craft education at school, and the behaviour of teachers. I study the relationships between young people, abusive words and bullying based on gender or sexuality, as well as the stories dealing with sexuality told. I am interested in the ways non-heterosexuality is both manifested and concealed. I look at the use of space and embodiment. I analyse the three layers of school: the official school with its textbooks and organisation of teaching, the informal school involving the informal relationships between students, and the physical school with the various uses of space and body. School cultures vary from one school to another and even within one school depending on the way students and teachers feel about these practices. Ideas about yourself in terms of gender and sexuality are formed as part of the school practices which, in turn, interact with the surrounding culture and society. Heteronormativity and the ways it is challenged get expressed in the school practices in many ways. Heterosexual masculinity for men and heterosexual femininity for women are conceived as something natural and depicted as the only present and future alternative. Other alternatives are not brought up, or they are presented as something questionable. Alternative gender and sexual behaviours are controlled by teachers and, in particular, by students themselves. Some young people are put in an unfair position. Because of heteronormative practices, some students avoid close relationships with their peers, or choices transgressing the gender boundaries. School practices also include various ways of challenging heteronormativity by both the school employees and students. The practices of heteronormativity themselves enable its challenging, and the challenging of heteronormativity may, in turn, lead to attempts to maintain it.
  • Lahelma, Antti (2019)
    A wide range of rock art sites associated with hunter-gatherer populations in Northern Fennoscandia depict scenes where men, women and animals (usually elk or deer) are involved in a sexually charged act. For instance, at Namforsen (Sweden) and Kanozero (north-western Russia), elks appear to be 'monitoring' a human couple having sex. Ithyphallic figures accompanied by animals are found at several sites, such as Kanozero, where an ithyphallic figure brandishing an elk-headed staff is faced by a capercaillie. Even acts of zoophilia, or humans in sexual congress with animals, appear to be depicted at a number of sites. These scenes are here approached in the light of an animistic ontology and the notion of perspectivism, introduced by Eduardo Viveiros de Castro, where non-human beings are entangled in social and thus also sexual relations with humans. In the ethnographic sources pertaining to northern circumpolar cultures, hunting is perceived as a sexual act, where each kill involves seducing the prey. In northern and eastern parts of Finland and Karelia, this mentality persisted well into the historical period, as evidenced by hunting spells and ceremonies recorded in the 19th Century.
  • Keskinen, Suvi (Routledge, 2018)
    Routledge Critical Studies in Gender and Sexuality in Education
    This chapter focuses on how minority young people search for ways to build their lives, gain respectability and perform agency in a societal context characterized by the previously mentioned processes. It also focuses on the gendered and sexualized aspects of racism, as they are lived out by young people in a multi-ethnic suburb in Finland, and the different strategies they develop to question, ignore and disturb practices. The chapter examines the interviews with young people who have one or two parents born outside Finland. It also examines how gendered racism shapes the conditions in which racialized minority youth live their everyday lives and how the young people challenge, ignore and disturb such discourses and practices. The concept "territorial stigmatization" also rightly points to the importance of media coverage in the establishment of othering narratives of the residence areas where ethnic/racial and class-bound inequalities merge.
  • Airaksinen, Timo (Brill, 2019)
    Value Inquiry Book Series
    Names: Airaksinen, Timo, 1947- author. Title: Vagaries of desire : a collection of philosophical essays / Timo Airaksinen. Description: Leiden ; Boston : Brill-Rodopi, 2019. | Series: Value inquiry book series, 0929-8436 ; volume 340. Philosophy, literature, and politics | Includes index. | Summary: “Vagaries of Desire is a major collection of new essays by Timo Airaksinen on the philosophy of desire. The first part develops a novel account of the philosophical theory of desire, including Girard. The second part discusses Kafka’s main works, namely The Castle, The Trial, and Amerika, and Thomas Hobbes and the problems of intentionality. The text develops such linguistic tropes as metaphor and metonymy in connection with topics like death and then applies them to Kafka’s texts. The third part makes an effort to understand the mysteries of sadism and masochism in philosophical and rhetorical terms. The last article criticizes Thomas Nagel’s influential account of sexual perversion and develops a viable alternative”--