Browsing by Subject "shift work"

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  • Karhula, Kati; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Kivimäki, Mika; Harma, Mikko (2018)
    ObjectiveTo investigate whether changes in objective working hour characteristics are associated with parallel changes in work-life conflict (WLC) among hospital employees.MethodsSurvey responses from three waves of the Finnish Public Sector study (2008, 2012 and 2015) were combined with payroll data from 91 days preceding the surveys (n=2 482, 93% women). Time-dependent fixed effects regression models adjusted for marital status, number of children and stressfulness of the life situation were used to investigate whether changes in working hour characteristics were associated with parallel change in WLC. The working hour characteristics were dichotomised with cut-points in less than or greater than 10%or less than or greater than25%occurrence) and WLC to frequent versus seldom/none.ResultsChange in proportion of evening and night shifts and weekend work was significantly associated with parallel change in WLC (adjusted OR 2.19, 95%CI 1.62 to 2.96; OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.21 to 2.44; OR 1.63, 95%CI 1.194 to 2.22, respectively). Similarly, increase or decrease in proportion of quick returns (adjusted OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.10 to 1.89) and long work weeks (adjusted OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.04 to 1.52) was associated with parallel increase or decrease in WLC. Single days off and very long work weeks showed no association with WLC.ConclusionsChanges in unsocial working hour characteristics, especially in connection with evening shifts, are consistently associated with parallel changes in WLC.
  • Harma, Mikko; Karhula, Kati; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajarvi, Anneli; Hakola, Tarja; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine whether changes in work shifts and shift intensity are related to changes in difficulties to fall asleep, fatigue, and sleep length. Methods Questionnaire responses of hospital employees (N=7727, 93% women) in 2008, 2012, 2014 and 2015 were linked to daily-based records of working hours during three months preceding each survey. We used conditional logistic regression and longitudinal fixed-effects analyses to investigate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each 25% within-individual change in the proportion of working hour characteristics in relation to changes in fatigue, difficulties to fall asleep, and 24-hour sleep length. Results Change in night but not in morning or evening shifts was associated with parallel changes in odds for longer sleep length (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.28-1.64) and fatigue during free days (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.64). Similarly, short shift intervals and having >2 but not >4 consecutive night shifts were associated with increased odds of fatigue during work and difficulties to fall asleep (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.19-1.72 and OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.19, respectively). Among workers aged >= 50 years, the associations were the strongest between night shifts and longer sleep (OR 2.24,95% CI 1.52-3.81) and between higher proportion of short shift intervals and fatigue during free days (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.10-2.54). Conclusions Among shift workers with fatigue or sleep problems, decreasing the proportion of night shifts and quick returns and giving preference to quickly forward-rotating shift systems may reduce fatigue.
  • Sulkava, Sonja; Ollila, Hanna M.; Alasaari, Jukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Harma, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Lahtinen, Alexandra; Lindstrom, Jaana; Toivola, Auli; Sulkava, Raimo; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Partonen, Timo; Silander, Kaisa; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina (2017)
    Study Objectives: Tolerance to shift work varies; only some shift workers suffer from disturbed sleep, fatigue, and job-related exhaustion. Our aim was to explore molecular genetic risk factors for intolerance to shift work. Methods: We assessed intolerance to shift work with job-related exhaustion symptoms in shift workers using the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumina's Human610-Quad BeadChip (n = 176). The most significant findings were further studied in three groups of Finnish shift workers (n = 577). We assessed methylation in blood cells with the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip, and examined gene expression levels in the publicly available eGWAS Mayo data. Results: The second strongest signal identified in the GWAS (p = 2.3 x 10E-6) was replicated in two of the replication studies with p Conclusions: These findings suggest that a variant near MTNR1A may be associated with job-related exhaustion in shift workers. The risk variant may exert its effect via epigenetic mechanisms, potentially leading to reduced melatonin signaling in the brain. These results could indicate a link between melatonin signaling, a key circadian regulatory mechanism, and tolerance to shift work.
  • Karhula, Kati; Salo, Paula; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Oksanen, Tuula; Puttonen, Sampsa; Kivimäki, Mika; Härmä, Mikko (2019)
    We aimed to study the association of perceived control over scheduling of shifts with objectively measured working hour characteristics in shift workers. The participants were 5128 hospital employees (91% women, 85% nursing personnel, average age 43 years) in period-based work (114:45h/3 weeks) from the 2015 Finnish Public Sector study. Survey responses to a measure of control over scheduling of shifts were linked to payroll data on working hour characteristics during the 91 days preceding the survey. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess differences in dichotomized proportion of working hour characteristics (being full-time worker, number of work shifts, long work weeks (>40h and >48h/week), long work shifts (>12-h), evening and night shifts, quick returns (4 consecutive work shifts, and variability of shift length with cut points at 10% or 25% between employees with high, intermediate, or low control over scheduling of shifts. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, full-/part-time work (where applicable), duration of shift work experience, perceived work ability, children <18 years in the household, and overall stressfulness of the life situation. Differences between age groups, men and women, and levels of work ability were examined using interaction terms. In adjusted analyses, the proportion of full-time workers was lower among employees with intermediate control over scheduling of shifts compared to those with high control (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-0.98). High proportion (>25%) of weekend work was lower among employees with low control over scheduling of shifts compared to high control (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93). High proportion (>25%) of having >4 consecutive work shifts was associated with lower control over scheduling of shifts (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62). Variability of shift length was lower among employees with intermediate and low control over scheduling of shifts compared to those with high control (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.93; OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75, respectively). No association was observed between the level of control over scheduling of shifts and high proportion of long work weeks (>25% of >40h weeks and >10% of >48h weeks), long work shifts (>25%), quick returns (>25%), single days off (>25%), and evening or night shifts (>10%) in the whole sample. In subgroup analyses, women with low control over scheduling shifts had lower odds ratio (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.91) and men had higher odds ratio (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.26-6.98) for large proportion of >12-h shifts. In conclusion, the employees with high control over scheduling of shifts had slightly more often unsocial working hour characteristics than those with intermediate or low control over scheduling of shifts. The findings, however, suggest that good work time control in shift work can be possible without compromising shift ergonomics.
  • Beltagy, Marwa S.; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the status of night work as a risk factor for common mental disorders (CMD). Methods A cohort study with three data waves was conducted on populations of social and healthcare employees for a duration of eight years (total N=46 010). Data were analyzed as a non-randomized pseudo trial to examine (i) whether moving from non-night work to night work is associated with the development of CMD, (ii) the extent to which moving back to non-night work biases this association and (iii) whether moving from night to non-night work is associated with the recovery from CMD. Results According to logistic regression with generalized estimating equation and without bias-correction, changing to night work was not associated with the odds of acquiring CMD [odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.30]. However, night workers with CMD had higher odds of recovery from CMD when changing to non-night work compared to continuing night work (1.99, 95% CI 1.20-3.28). When night workers developed CMD, the odds of moving back to non-night work increased by 68%. In analyses corrected for this bias, changing from non-night to night work was associated with a 1.25-fold (95% CI 1.03-1.52) increased odds of acquiring CMD. Conclusions A change from non-night to night work may increase the risk of CMD, while moving back from night to non-night work increased recovery from CMD.
  • Sallinen, M; Onninen, J; Ketola, K; Puttonen, S; Tuori, A; Virkkala, J; Akerstedt, T (2021)
    Experimental and epidemiological research has shown that human sleepiness is determined especially by the circadian and homeostatic processes. The present field study examined which work-related factors airline pilots perceive as causing on-duty sleepiness during short-haul and long-haul flights. In addition, the association between the perceived reasons for sleepiness and actual sleepiness levels was examined, as well as the association between reporting inadequate sleep causing sleepiness and actual sleep-wake history. The study sample consisted of 29 long-haul (LH) pilots, 28 short-haul (SH) pilots, and 29 mixed fleet pilots (flying both SH and LH flights), each of whom participated in a 2-month field measurement period, yielding a total of 765 SH and 494 LH flight duty periods (FDPs) for analyses (FDP, a period between the start of a duty and the end of the last flight of that duty). The self-reports of sleepiness inducers were collected at the end of each FDP by an electronic select menu. On-duty sleepiness was rated at each flight phase by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The sleep-wake data was collected by a diary and actigraph. The results showed that "FDP timing" and "inadequate sleep" were the most frequently reported reasons for on-duty sleepiness out of the seven options provided, regardless of FDP type (SH, LH). Reporting these reasons significantly increased the odds of increased on-duty sleepiness (KSS >= 7), except for reporting "inadequate sleep" during LH FDPs. Reporting "inadequate sleep" was also associated with increased odds of a reduced sleep-wake ratio (total sleep time/amount of wakefulness
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Lallukka, Tea; Kujanpää, Tero; Lahti, Jouni; Kanerva, Noora; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Mänty, Minna (2021)
    Aims: The aim was to examine whether the contribution of physical work exposures to the risk of sickness absence (SA) is different between those with and without common mental disorders (CMD). Methods: We used questionnaire data on four work exposures and CMD from 6159 participants of the Helsinki Health Study cohort with 12,458 observations from three surveys (2000-2002, 2007 and 2012). We formed combination exposures for the work exposures (hazardous exposures, physical workload, computer and shift work) with CMD. Associations with SA of different length were examined with negative binomial regression models. Results: We observed stronger associations for CMD with SA than for the individual work exposures. The strength of the associations for hazardous exposures and physical workload increased with length of SA, especially when the participant also had CMD. The strongest associations for the combined exposures were observed for SA > 15 days, the rate ratios being 2.63 (95% CI 2.27-3.05) among those with hazardous exposure and CMD, and 3.37 (95% CI 2.93-3.88) among those with heavy physical workload and CMD. Conclusions: Employees with hazardous exposures or physical workload combined with CMD were at the highest risk of SA compared with those without these exposures or with only one exposure.
  • Ropponen, Annina; Koskinen, Aki; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Oksanen, Tuula; Härmä, Mikko; Karhula, Kati (2022)
    Objective To investigate the association of hospital physicians' working hours and on-call shifts with the risk of occupational injuries. Methods In this nested cohort study of 556 Finnish hospital physicians, we linked electronic records from working-hour and on-call duty payroll data to occupational injury data obtained from the Finnish Workers' Compensation Center for the period 2005-2019. We used a case-crossover design with matched intervals for a 7-day 'case window' immediately prior to occupational injury and a 'control window' 7 days prior to the beginning of the case window, and analyzed their associations using conditional logistic regression models. Results We noted 556 occupational injuries, 281 at the workplace and 275 while commuting. Having three to four long (>12 h) work shifts on the preceding 7 days was associated with a higher probability of an occupational injury (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 4.09), and the OR for three to four on-call shifts was 3.54 (95%CI 2.11, 5.92) in comparison to having none of these work shift types. A higher number of several consecutive working days was associated with a higher probability of injury in a dose-response manner. Moreover, increasing weekly working hours was associated with an increased likelihood of injury (OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.01, 1.04), whereas the number of normal (24 h) work shifts, may increase the risk of occupational injury among hospital physicians.
  • Karhula, Kati; Woehrmann, Anne Marit; Brauner, Corinna; Härmä, Mikko; Kivimäki, Mika; Michel, Alexandra; Oksanen, Tuula (2020)
    Health care professionals often face irregular working hours and high work pace. We studied associations of the five working time dimensions duration (weekly working hours), timing (shift work and weekend work), on-call work, working time autonomy, and work tempo (deadline and performance pressure) with well-being among health care employees in Finland and Germany. We used data on working time dimensions and indicators of well-being (work-life conflict, poor perceived health, sleep difficulties, and fatigue) from a cohort of 5050 hospital employees (Working Hours in the Finnish Public Sector Study 2015, WHFPS) and 1450 employees in the health care sector in Germany responding to the German BAuA-Working Time Survey in 2015 (BAuA-WTS). Findings from logistic regression analyses showed that high work tempo was associated with increased work-life conflict (WHFPS: odds ratio [OR] = 3.64, 95%CI 3.04-4.36 and BAuA-WTS: OR = 2.29, 95%CI 1.60-3.27), sleep difficulties (OR = 1.75, 95%CI 1.43-2.15 and OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.03-1.71) and fatigue (OR = 2.13, 95%CI 1.77-2.57 and OR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.29-2.10) in both datasets. Weekend work was associated with increased work-life conflict (OR = 1.48, 95%CI 1.27-1.72 and OR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.12-2.32); and high working time autonomy with decreased work-life conflict (control over the timing of breaks: OR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.55-0.78 and OR = 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.81). The associations between other working time dimensions and well-being were less consistent. These results suggest that tight deadlines, performance pressure, weekend work and lack of working time autonomy are linked to impaired well-being among health care employees.