Browsing by Subject "siemenpuuhakkuu"

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  • Karjalainen, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of different seed tree densities on natural regeneration and height development of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Finnish Lapland. There was no soil preparation done in the stands. An additional aim was to find out the effects of understory vegetation on pine seedling establishment. The purpose of preparatory cutting is to prepare the stand for natural regeneration by enhancing the conditions for good seedling establishment and improve the seed production of the mature trees before the actual regeneration cutting. It also decreases the costs of regeneration in the low-productive and slow-growing forests in Finnish Lapland. The study was established in year 2004 on four different areas in Lapland. The replications were conducted for every area in the years 2005 and 2006.The period of measurement in every replication was 8 years. The examined seed tree densities were 50, 150, 250 stems per hectare and a non-thinned control that demonstrated the initial state of the stands. The data consisted of four hierarchical levels, which were area, replicate, treatment (seed tree densities) and experimental plot. The density model was a generalized mixed model and the height model a general linear model. The best result in seedling establishment was achieved in seed tree density of 50 and 150 stems per hectare, where the requirements for the density of the forest law (1200 seedlings ha-1) was reached in 4‒5 years after the preparation cutting. The amount of the seedlings at the end of the measurement period, did not on an average reach the recommended seedling densities (4000‒5000 seedlings ha-1). The seed tree density of 250 stems per hectare, did not reach either of these requirements for density. In the control plot, the average seedling density was 1500 seedlings per hectare at the end of the measurement period. The variables affecting seedling establishment were interactions between the see tree densities and time, thickness of the moss- and lichen cover and the coverage of lingonberry. Factors affecting the height development of pine seedlings were age of the seedling, interactions between seed-tree density and seedling age and the average density of the seedlings on the plot. Height increased clearly best when seed-tree density was 50 stems ha-1. There were no difference between densities 150 stems per hectare and control. The height development was slowest in the density of 250 stems per hectare.
  • Kyrö, Johannes (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The idea of preparatory cutting is to improve possibilities for natural regeneration. Seed tree cutting is done usually about ten years after preparatory cutting. Preparatory cuttings as a forestry practice method has been known already for a long, but it is not yet commonly used in Finnish forestry. Preparatory cuttings is a recommended method in Finnish forestry guidelines even it is not well studied. The aim of study is to find out effects of different factors for the establishment of pine seedlings in natural regeneration. The main aim is to find out effects of stem density to the number and the height of seedlings. In old forestry literature site preparation does not include to forestry practices when preparatory cutting is a main method. In this study site preparation is examined, because it is known to increase the amount of seedlings when seed tree method is used. Site preparation can be done also under quite dense seed tree cover without essentially damaging trees staying on stand (e.g. Norokorpi 1983). Effects of ground and field layer vegetation are also examined. Data was recorded on study sites of Natural resources institute of Finland. Study sites locate in Northern Finland and eastern part of middle Finland. Experimental plots were thinned to densities of 50, 150 and 250 stems per hectare in 2004 –2008 and each site had also non-thinned control plots. To study effects of site preparation each study site had also plots that were thinned to densities 50 and 150 stems per hectare and prepared. Data is measured during seven years. To statistically test the effects of stem densities and site preparation on the number and height of seedlings four linear mixed effect models were constructed. More seedlings were recorded on stands thinned to density 50 stems per hectare than on non-thinned stands. However, the amount of seedlings in all stem densities was inadequate for successful regeneration. Density of 50 stems per hectare was best for height growth of seedlings. Site preparation increased significantly the amount of seedlings, but it didn’t have statistically significant effect on the height of seedlings. According to the results of the present study preparatory cutting without site preparation does not increase the amount of seedlings to the level required. Statistical models showed that vegetation had often a negative impact to number of seedlings. Logging waste had also a negative impact to the number of seedlings. Spot of germination had statistically significant effect to height of seedlings, but not to number of seedlings. The border zone between the exposed mineral soil and humus was the most favourable spot for the height growth of seedlings.