Browsing by Subject "signal transduction"

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  • Ekman, Niklas (University of Helsinki, 1999)
  • Turunen, Antti; Kuuliala, Antti; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kylänpää, Leena; Kuuliala, Krista (2021)
    Objectives Clinical practice lacks biomarkers to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). We studied if intracellular signaling of circulating leukocytes could predict persistent organ dysfunction (OD) and secondary infections in AP. Methods A venous blood sample was taken from 174 patients with AP 72 hours or less from onset of symptoms and 31 healthy controls. Phosphorylation levels (p) of appropriately stimulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT6, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), Akt, and nonstimulated STAT3 in monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was measured using phosphospecific flow cytometry. Results The patients showed higher pSTAT3 and lower pSTAT1, pSTAT6, pNF-kappa B, and pAkt than healthy controls. pSTAT3 in all leukocyte subtypes studied increased, and pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells decreased in an AP severity-wise manner. In patients without OD at sampling, high pSTAT3 in monocytes and T lymphocytes were associated with development of persistent OD. In patients with OD, low interleukin-4-stimulated pSTAT6 in monocytes and neutrophils and Escherichia coli-stimulated pNF-kappa B in neutrophils predicted OD persistence. High pSTAT3 in monocytes, CD8(+) T cells, and neutrophils; low pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells; and low pNF-kappa B in lymphocytes predicted secondary infections. Conclusions Leukocyte STAT3, STAT1, STAT6, and NF-kappa Beta phosphorylations are potential predictors of AP severity.
  • Gadina, Massimo; Le, Mimi T.; Schwartz, Daniella M.; Silvennoinen, Olli; Nakayamada, Shingo; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; O'Shea, John J. (2019)
    Cytokines are critical mediators of diverse immune and inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytokines and cytokine receptors with biologics has revolutionized the treatment of many of these diseases, but targeting intracellular signalling with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (jakinibs) now represents a major new therapeutic advance. We are still in the first decade since these drugs were approved and there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms of action of these drugs and the practical use of these agents. Herein we will review cytokines that do, and just as importantly, do not signal by JAKs, as well as explain how this relates to both efficacy and side effects in various diseases. We will review new, next-generation selective jakinibs, as well as the prospects and challenges ahead in targeting JAKs.
  • Senju, Yosuke; Kalimeri, Maria; Koskela, Essi V.; Somerharju, Pentti; Zhao, Hongxia; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Lappalainen, Pekka (2017)
    The actin cytoskeleton powers membrane deformation during many cellular processes, such as migration, morphogenesis, and endocytosis. Membrane phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P-2], regulate the activities of many actinbinding proteins (ABPs), including profilin, cofilin, Dia2, N-WASP, ezrin, and moesin, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Moreover, because of a lack of available methodology, the dynamics of membrane interactions have not been experimentally determined for any ABP. Here, we applied a combination of biochemical assays, photobleaching/activation approaches, and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to uncover the molecular principles by which ABPs interact with phosphoinositide-rich membranes. We show that, despite using different domains for lipid binding, these proteins associate with membranes through similar multivalent electrostatic interactions, without specific binding pockets or penetration into the lipid bilayer. Strikingly, our experiments reveal that these proteins display enormous differences in the dynamics of membrane interactions and in the ranges of phosphoinositide densities that they sense. Profilin and cofilin display transient, low-affinity interactions with phosphoinositide-rich membranes, whereas F-actin assembly factors Dia2 and N-WASP reside on phosphoinositide-richmembranes for longer periods to performtheir functions. Ezrin and moesin, which link the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, bindmembranes with very high affinity and slow dissociation dynamics. Unlike profilin, cofilin, Dia2, and N-WASP, they do not require high "stimulus-responsive" phosphoinositide density for membrane binding. Moreover, ezrin can limit the lateral diffusion of PI(4,5)P-2 along the lipid bilayer. Together, these findings demonstrate that membrane-interaction mechanisms of ABPs evolved to precisely fulfill their specific functions in cytoskeletal dynamics.
  • Jmaeff, Sean; Sidorova, Yulia; Nedev, Hinyu; Saarma, Mart; Saragovi, H. Uri (2020)
    Glial cell line?derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a growth factor that regulates the health and function of neurons and other cells. GDNF binds to GDNF family receptor ?1 (GFRa1), and the resulting complex activates the RET receptor tyrosine kinase and subsequent downstream signals. This feature restricts GDNF activity to systems in which GFRa1 and RET are both present, a scenario that may constrain GDNF breadth of action. Furthermore, this co-dependence precludes the use of GDNF as a tool to study a putative functional cross-talk between GFRa1 and RET. Here, using biochemical techniques, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining, and immunohistochemistry in murine cells, tissues, or retinal organotypic cultures, we report that a naphthoquinone/quinolinedione family of small molecules (Q compounds) acts as RET agonists. We found that, like GDNF, signaling through the parental compound Q121 is GFRa1-dependent. Structural modifications of Q121 generated analogs that activated RET irrespective of GFRa1 expression. We used these analogs to examine RET?GFRa1 interactions and show that GFRa1 can influence RET-mediated signaling and enhance or diminish AKT Ser/Thr kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in a biased manner. In a genetic mutant model of retinitis pigmentosa, a lead compound, Q525, afforded sustained RET activation and prevented photoreceptor neuron loss in the retina. This work uncovers key components of the dynamic relationships between RET and its GFRa co-receptor and provides RET agonist scaffolds for drug development.
  • Bromann, Paul Andrew; Korkaya, Hasan; Courtneidge, Sara A. (2004)
    Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are involved in a diverse array of physiological processes, as highlighted in this review. An overview of how SFKs interact with, and participate in signaling from, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is discussed. And also, how SFKs are activated by RTKs, and how SFKs, in turn, can activate RTKs, as well as how SFKs can promote signaling from growth factor receptors in a number of ways including participation in signaling pathways required for DNA synthesis, control of receptor turnover, actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and motility, and survival are discussed.
  • Turunen, Antti; Kuuliala, Antti; Penttilä, Anne; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Mustonen, Harri; Pettilä, Ville; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kylänpää, Leena; Kuuliala, Krista (2020)
    Activation of intracellular signaling pathways in circulating leukocytes represents an early step in systemic immune-inflammatory response occurring e.g. in acute pancreatitis (AP) and sepsis. Previously, we found aberrations in the phosphorylation of leukocyte signaling proteins in patients with sepsis or AP (measured
  • Al-Rashed, F.; Ahmad, Z.; Iskandar, M.A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Al-Mulla, F.; Ahmad, R. (2019)
    Background/Aims: TNF-α-mediated pro-inflammatory phenotypic change in monocytes is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the mechanism by which TNF-α-induces inflammatory phenotypic shift in monocytes is poorly understood. Since long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) is associated with inflammatory monocytes/macrophages, we investigated the role of ACSL1 in the TNF-α-driven inflammatory phenotypic shift in the monocytes. Methods: Monocytes (Human monocytic THP-1 cells) were stimulated with TNF-α. Inflammatory phenotypic markers (CD16, CD11b, CD11c and HLA-DR) expression was determined with real time RT-PCR and flow cytometry. IL-1β and MCP-1 were determined by ELISA. Signaling pathways were identified by using ACSL1 inhibitor, ACSL1 siRNA and NF-κB reporter monocytic cells. Phosphorylation of NF-κB was analyzed by western blotting and flow cytometry. Results: Our data show that TNF-α induced significant increase in the expression of CD16, CD11b, CD11c and HLA-DR. Inhibition of ACSL1 activity in the cells with triacsin C significantly suppressed the expression of these inflammatory markers. Using ACSL-1 siRNA, we further demonstrate that TNF-α-induced inflammatory markers expression in monocytic cells requires ACSL1. In addition, IL-1b and MCP-1 production by TNF-α activated monocytic cells was significantly blocked by the inhibition of ACSL-1 activity. Interestingly, elevated NF-κB activity resulting from TNF-α stimulation was attenuated in ACSL1 deficient cells. Conclusion: Our findings provide an evidence that TNF-α-associated inflammatory polarization in monocytes is an ACSL1 dependent process, which indicates its central role in TNF-α-driven metabolic inflammation. © 2019 The Author(s).